Renewable Energy V

Ocean Waves, Tide and Thermal Energy Conversion
Asim Zia Environmental Studies 133 Alternative Energy Strategies San Jose State University Spring 2007

Overview [chapter 14]
What are ocean energy resources? How tidal energy is extracted? What are its technological limitations and economic/sustainability prospects? How wave energy is extracted? What are its technological limitations and economic/sustainability prospects? How ocean-thermal energy is extracted? What oceanare its technological limitations and economic/sustainability prospects? More information at http://www.eere.energy.gov/consumer/renewab le_energy/ocean/index.cfm/mytopic=50007

Ocean Energy Resources

html .energyquest.gov/story/chapter14.Tidal Energy At least 16 feet distance needed between high and low tides http://www.ca.

Tidal Energy [Limited Sites] .

activating a generator. The water then flows through the turbines. Gates and turbines are installed along the dam.Tidal Energy [Technologies] Barrage or dam A barrage or dam is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines. . The turbines turn an electric generator to produce electricity. When the tides produce an adequate difference in the level of the water on opposite sides of the dam. the gates are opened.

Tidal Energy [Technologies] .

2 to 0.Tidal Energy [Technologies] Annual Average Electricity Generation in kWhr [E] is equal to Where: COP is coefficient of performance [typically 0.35] R is dam head in Meters and A is the area of water impoundment in KM2 .

Some of these currents run at 5 8 knots (5. Because seawater has a much higher density than air. ocean currents carry significantly more energy than air currents (wind). The turnstiles spin via tidal currents typical of coastal waters. They can reach across channels between small islands or across straits between the mainland and an island.6 9 miles per hour) and generate as much energy as winds of much higher velocity. .Tidal Energy [Technologies] Tidal fence Tidal fences look like giant turnstiles.

6 and 4. .Tidal Energy [Technologies] Tidal turbine Tidal turbines look like wind turbines. Ideal locations for tidal turbine farms are close to shore in water depths of 20 30 meters (65.2-feet) diameter tidal turbine can (49.5 mph). as in some wind farms. They are arrayed underwater in rows.5 98. a 1515meter (49. The turbines function best where coastal currents run at between 3.2generate as much energy as a 60-meter (19760(197feet) diameter wind turbine.9 knots (4 and 5. In currents of that speed.5 feet).

.Tidal Energy [Environmental Impacts] Tidal power plants that dam estuaries can impede sea life migration. Newly developed tidal turbines may prove ultimately to be the least environmentally damaging of the tidal power technologies because they don't block migratory paths. and silt buildbuildups behind such facilities can impact local ecosystems. Tidal fences may also disturb sea life migration.

tidalelectric.Tidal Energy http://www.pdf .com/OFGEM%20Exec%20Summary.

tidalelectric.com/OFGEM%20Exec%20Summary.Tidal Energy http://www.pdf .

Tidal Energy .

they cause the water column to rise and fall.Wave Energy [Technologies] Oscillating water column The oscillating water column consists of a partially submerged concrete or steel structure that has an opening to the sea below the waterline. As the wave retreats. It encloses a column of air above a column of water. As waves enter the air column. This alternately compresses and depressurizes the air column. . the air is drawn back through the turbine as a result of the reduced air pressure on the ocean side of the turbine.

Wave Energy [water column] Higher wave height and faster waves create more electricity http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter14.html .

Wave Energy [water column] .

Wave Energy [water column] .

g. time for successive crests to pass a fixed observer (e.96h2T Where P is power in kw/m h is wave height in m T is wave period. 4 seconds) .Wave Energy [water column] P=1.

Wave Energy Resources .

consists of a tapered channel. . The narrowing of the channel causes the waves to increase in height as they move toward the cliff face. or tapered channel system.Wave Energy [Technologies] Tapchan The tapchan. which feeds into a reservoir constructed on cliffs above sea level. The waves spill over the walls of the channel into the reservoir and the stored water is then fed through a turbine.

Wave Energy [Technologies] .

The motion powers a hydraulic pump and a generator. . which is open to the sea at one end.Wave Energy [Technologies] Pendulor device The pendulor wave-power device consists of a waverectangular box. A flap is hinged over the opening and the action of the waves causes the flap to swing back and forth.

Wave Energy [Technologies] .

Wave Energy [Technologies] .

Wave Energy [Technologies] .

Wave Energy [Technologies] .

They also can avoid areas where wave energy systems can significantly alter flow patterns of sediment on the ocean floor. More info on wave energy is at http://www.asp .org/wechttp://www.worldenergy.worldenergy.Wave Energy [Environmental Impacts] Careful site selection is the key to keeping the environmental impacts of wave power systems to a minimum.org/wecgeis/publications/reports/ser/wave/wave. Wave energy system planners can choose sites that preserve scenic shorefronts.

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion [OTEC] A difference of at least 38 degrees Fahrenheit (about 20 C) is needed between the warmer surface water and the colder deep ocean water to generate OTEC electricity. .

worldenergy.Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion [OTEC] http://www.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/ocean/ocean.asp .

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion [OTEC]: Global Resource Availability .

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion [OTEC]: Global Resource Availability .

OTEC Technology .

OTEC Technology .

OTEC Power Plant features .

OTEC Power Plant Experiment http://www.asp .worldenergy.org/wec-geis/publications/reports/ser/ocean/ocean.

aesthetics? .Typical Problems with Ocean Energy or ARE THESE REALLY PROBLEMS? Capital Intensive? Storm Resiliency? Scarcity of shoreline sites (competition with residential. sediment transportation)? Navigation hazards. recreational and industrial uses)? Environmental impacts are only local (estuaries damaged. migratory fish and waterfowls might suffer.

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