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Leadership

 Team 1 Presentation

 By
 Haimanti

 Joy

 Mithun

 Parthiban

 Prabu

 Sudharsan
What is Leadership?
 It is the process whereby one
individual influences other group
members toward the attainment of
defined group or
 organizational goals

Leadership
Formal Leadership occurs when an
organization officially bestows on a
leader the authority to guide and
direct others in the organization.

Informal Leadership occurs when a


person is unofficially accorded
power by others in the organization
and uses influence to guide and
direct their behavior.
Managers vs. Leaders
The primary function of a leader
is to create mission of the
organization and the strategy
for attaining it.
The job of manager is to
implement that vision
There are several overlapping
roles played by leaders and
managers
In actual practice ,it is difficult to
differentiate between them
M anagem ent L e a d e rsh ip
process p ro ce ss
Leaders and Managers
Personality Manager Leader
Dimension
Attitudes toward Impersonal, passive, Personal, active, goals arise
goals functional; goals arise out from desire, imagination
of necessity, reality
Conceptions of Combines people, ideas, Looks for fresh approaches to
work things; seeks moderate risk old problems; seeks high risk
Relationships Prefers to work with Comfortable in solitary work;
with others others; avoids close encourages close
relationships and conflicts relationships, not averse to
Sense of self Accepts life as it is; Questions
conflict life; struggles for
unquestioning sense of order

SOURCE: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. From A. Zaleznik, “Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?” Harvard Business Review 55 (1977):
67-77. Copyright © 1977 by the Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation; all rights reserved.
Leader Characteristics
Role Differentiation
Traditional Theories Of
Leadership
Trait
Approach to leadership
Behavioral Theories
◦ Lewin studies
◦ Ohio state studies
◦ Michigan studies
◦ Leadership Grid
Contingency theory
◦ Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
◦ Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
◦ Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Decision
Model
◦ Situational Leadership Model
Trait Approach to
Leadership
Physical Attributes
Personality Characteristics
Abilities
Behavioral Theories:
Lewin Studies
Autocratic Style - the leader
uses strong, directive, controlling
actions to enforce the rules,
regulations, activities, &
relationships; followers have little
discretionary influence
Democratic Style - the leader
takes collaborative, reciprocal,
interactive actions with followers;
followers have high degree of
discretionary influence
Laissez-Faire Style - the leader
fails to accept the responsibilities
Behavioral Theories:
Ohio State Studies
Initiating Structure – Leader
behavior aimed at defining and
organizing work relationships
and roles; establishing clear
patterns of organization,
communication, and ways of
getting things done.
Consideration – Leader
behavior aimed at nurturing
friendly, warm working
relationships, as well as
encouraging mutual trust and
Behavioral Theories:
Michigan Studies
Production-Oriented Leader
◦ Constant leader influence
◦ Direct or close supervision
◦ Many written or unwritten rules and
regulations
◦ Focus on getting work done
Employee-Oriented Leader
◦ Relationship-focused environment
◦ Less direct/close supervision
◦ Fewer written or unwritten rules and
regulations
◦ Focus on employee concern and
needs
Leadership Grid
Leadership Grid – an approach to
understanding a leader’s or
manager’s concern for results
(production) and concern for
people
“Organization Man” (5,5) – A
middle-of-the-road leader
Authority Compliance Manager
(9,1) – a leader who emphasizes
efficient production
Country Club Manager (9,1) – a
leader who creates a happy,
comfortable work environment
Leadership Grid
Team Manager (9,9) – a leader
who builds a highly productive
team of committed people
Impoverished Manager (1,1) –
A leader who exerts just enough
effort to get by
Paternalistic “father knows
best” Manager
(9+9) – a leader who promises
reward and
threatens punishment
Opportunistic “what’s in it for
me” Manager (Opp) – a leader
whose style aims to maximize
Opportunistic
Leadership Grid management

1,9 9,9
HighCountry club Team
management management
9
Concern 8 Paternalism
7 /
for 6 Maternalism
People 5 9+9
5,5
management
4 Organization man
3 management
2
1 Authority -
Impoverished obedience
management management
1,1 9,1

1 Low2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 High
Concern for production
SOURCE: The Leadership Grid® figure, Paternalism Figure and Opportunism from Leadership Dilemmas - Grid Solutions, by Robert R. Blake and Anne
Adams McCanse. (Formerly the Manageerial Grid by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton). Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, (Grid Figure: p. 29,
Paternalism Figure: p. 30, Opportunism Figure: p. 31). Copyright© 1991 by Blake and Mouton, and Scientific Methods, Inc. Reproduced by permission
of the owners.
Fiedler’s Contingency
Theory -
Leaders are either task oriented or
relationship oriented
Leader’s behavior according to

situation.
 Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) -
the person a leader has least
preferred to work with over his or her
career
 Task Structure - degree of clarity, or
ambiguity, in the group’s work
activities
 Position Power - authority
associated with the leader’s formal
position in the organization
 Leader-Member Relations – quality
of interpersonal relationships among
a leader and group members
Fiedler’s Contingency
Theory
High LPC
relations
1.00
oriented .80
.60
Correlations .40
between leader .20
LPC & group 0
-.20
performance -.40
-.60
-.80
Low LPC
task oriented
Favorable
I II III IV V VI Unfavorable
VII VIII
for
leader for leader
I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Leader-member G G G G MPoor MPoor MPoor MPoor
relations
Task structure S S U U S S U U

Leader position Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak
power
SOURCE: F. E . Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness (New York : McGraw -Hill , 1964 .) Reprinted with permission of the author .
Path-Goal Theory of
Leadership
Leader behavior Follower path Follower
styles
perceptions goals
•Directive Effort- •Satisfaction
•Supportive Performance-
•Participative •Rewards
Reward linkages •Benefits
•Achievement oriented

Follower
Characteristi
Workplace
cs characteristics
•Ability level
•Task structure
•Authoritariani
sm •Work group
•Authority system
•Locus of
control
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative
Decision Model
Five types of decision making :

ØDecide
ØConsult individually
ØConsult group
ØFacilitate
ØDelegate

Ø

Situational Leadership
Model
Hersey and Blanchard model
Leader’s behavior should be
adjusted to the maturity level of
the followers.
Two dimensions of leadership
behavior
◦ Task oriented
◦ Relationship oriented
Four levels of follower maturity
Four levels of follower readiness
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational
Theory Style of Leader

(High)
High
relationship High Task
And And
low task High
relationship

selli
atin

ng
ticip
Par
Relationship
behavior

g atin

Low High Task te


l
g

lin
le

Relationship and low g


De

and relationship
Low task

(Low) Task behavior (High)

Immature
High Moderate
Low
Mature

M4 M3 M2 M1
Maturity of
follower( s)
Modern Theories of
Leadership
Charismatic Leadership
Transactional Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Authentic Leadership
Charismatic Leaders
 Leaders who exert especially
powerful effects on followers by
virtue of the attributions followers
make about them
Qualities of Charismatic Leaders

◦ Self – Confidence
◦ A Vision
◦ Extraordinary Behavior
◦ Recognized as Change Agents
◦ Environmental Sensitivity

Reactions to Charismatic
Leaders
Levels of Performance beyond
those that normally would be
expected
High levels of devotion, loyalty,
and reverence toward the
leader
Enthusiasm for and excitement
about the leader and the
leader’s ideas
Are charismatic leaders
always needed?
Charismatic leaders approach
others with such overwhelming
levels of arrogance and self-
confidence that they ignore
others may be more of a
liability than an asset

The Liabilities of being a
charismatic Leader
People’s reaction to them tend to
be highly polarized
People either love them or hate
them
Transactional Leadership

As a
transactional leader,
I use formal rewards
& punishments.
Transactional Leadership
Contingent Reward
Management by Exception-
Active
Management by Exception-
Passive
Laissez-Faire


Transformational
Leadership

As a
transformational leader,
I inspire and excite
followers to high levels
of performance.
Transformational
Leadership
Based on leaders’ shifting the
values, beliefs and needs of
their followers
Described in terms of several
characteristics.
Charismatic is being the one
since they provide strong vision
and sense of mission for the
company.

Transformational Leaders-
Other Characteristics
§ Intellectual Stimulation
§ Promotes intelligence ,rationality
and careful problem solving
§ Individual Consideration
§ Gives personal attention, treats each
employee individually
§ Inspirational Motivation
§ Communicates high expectations;
uses symbols to focus efforts,
expresses important purpose in
simple ways 32
Research on transformational
Leadership
Bass and Avolio’s MLQ
(Multifactor Leadership
Questionnaire)
From the research ,
Transformational leaders share
the following characters
◦ They identify themselves as
change agents
◦ They are courageous
◦ They believe in people
◦ They are value driven
Authentic Leadership
Authentic Leadership includes
transformational, charismatic, or
transactional leadership as the
situation demands
Authentic Leaders have a conscious
and well-developed sense of values
They act in ways that are consistent
with their value systems, so authentic
leaders have a highly evolved sense
of moral right and wrong.
Authentic Leaders arouse and motivate
followers to high levels of
performance by building a workforce
characterized by high levels of hope,

THANK
YOU