Sport Presentation

By Scott Cadmore

Skeleton System
y The skeleton provides a framework that supports your muscles and skins and protects internal organs. y It is made up of 206 bones y Skeletal system is made out of bones, cartilage and joints

Skeleton functions
y Support-The bones give your body shape and provides a supporting framework for the soft tissue of the body y Protection-The bones surround and protect vital tissues and organs in your body. The skull protects the brain, your thorax protects your heart and lungs , the vertebral column protects your spinal cord and your pelvis protects your abdominal and reproductive organs

Skeletal functions continued
y Attachment for skeletal muscle- Parts of your skeleton provides a surface for your skeletal muscles to attach to allowing you to move, tendons attach muscle to bone . Muscles pulling on bones cause movement at the joints. y Source of blood production- Blood vessels feed the centre of the bones and stored within are bone marrow, marrow in long bones is continually producing red and white blood cells. y Store of minerals- Bone is a reservoir for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus which are essential for bone growth and healthy bones.

Axial Skelelton
y Axial skeleton forms main core of the skeletal system y Axial skeleton has 80 bones in the head and the trunk of the body. y Has 3 parts, the human skull, thorax, vertebral column

Appendicular Skeleton
y The Appendicular Skeleton consists of 126 bones in the human body is broken down into six major regions y 1) Pectoral Girdles (4 bones) y 2) Arm and Forearm (6 bones) y 3) Hands (58 bones) y 4) Pelvis (2 bones) y 5) Thigh and leg (8 bones) y 6) Feet (56 bones)

Axial and Appendicular Skeletons
y Picture on right shows the axial skeleton in green and the appendicular skeleton in purple

The Vertebral column
y The vertebral column is made up of 5 sections y Cervical, Thoracic and Lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx

Type of bones
y There are five types of bones they are: y Long bone- are found in the limbs y Short bone-are small light and strong y Flat bones-are thin flattened and slightly curved y Irregualar bones- complex shape y Sesamoid bone- have a specialised function

Long bones
y A bone that is categorised as a lone bone has to be longer than it is wide. y The long bones have a shaft known as the diaphysis and two expanded ends known as the epiphysis y Long bones include the femur, tibia and fibia in the leg and in the arm the humorous, radius and ulna.

Pictures of Long bones

Short bones
y Short bones are small ,light, strong, cube shaped bones consisting of cancellous bone surrounded by a thin layer of compact bone. y Examples of short bones are carpals and tarsals of the wrist and ankles

Pictures of Short bones

Flat bones
y Flat bones are thin , flattened and slightly curved and have a large surface area. y Examples of a flat bone are scapula, sternum and cranium

Irregular bones
y Irregular bones have complex shapes y Examples include the bones of the spine

Sesamoid bone
y Seasamoid bone have a specialised function y Are found within a tendon such as the patella in the knee

Major Joints
y Joints allow movement to occur, this happens when two bones meet this is known as articulation. y There are 3 Major types of joints these are: y Fibrous y Cartilagenous y Synovial

Fibrous
y Fibrous joint also know as a fixed joint y A fibrous joint by only held together by a bands of tough fibrous tissues y The most common joint is in the skull.

Cartilaginous
y These joints occur where the connection between the articulating bones is made up of cartilage for example between vertebrae in the spine. y A Cartilaginous joint allow slight movement joint

Synovial Joint
y Synovial joints the most common type of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have synovial capsule surrounding the entire joint, a synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluids and cartilage known as hyaline cartilage which pads the ends of the articulating bones, y There are 6 types of synovial joints which are classified by the shape of the joint and the movement available.

Features of a Synovial joint
y All synovial joints have : y An outer sleeve or joint capsule to help hold bones in place and protect joint y A synovial membrane which produces a liquid call synovial fluid to lubricate the joint y A joint cavity which is a gap between the articulating bones y Articular cartilage on the ends of the bones to stop bones knocking or grinding y Ligaments to hold bones together and keep in place.

Hinge joint
y A hinge joint allows flexion and extension movement which is the decrease or increase of an angle. y Hinge joints are found within the elbow and the knee y A hinge joint is used in sport when pulling the leg back before striking a football

Pivot Joint
y A pivot joint allows rotation around a bone around another bone and allows rotation movement y Pivot joint is found in the neck in the axis and atlas y A pivot joint would be used to make a glancing header in football

Ball and Socket
y Movement around a ball and socket joint is Flexion, Extension, Adduction, Abduction y Ball and socket joint can be found in the hip and the shoulder y Ball and socket is used when throwing, hurdling and during a golf swing.

Condyloid joint
‡ Similar to ball and socket joint ‡ Where one bone sits in a hollow formed by another ‡ Movement is backwards and forwards and side to side ‡ This is found in the wrist ‡ A sporting example is when cricketer puts leg spin on a ball

Saddle
y Similar to Condyloid but surfaces are concave convex y Movement occurs backwards forwards and side to side y This is found in the thumb y A sporting example is in gymnastics

Gliding
y Gliding joint allows movement over a flat surface in all directions but is restricted by ligaments y Found in carpals and tarsals y A sporting example is in football striking a ball

Movement of the skeleton
y Movement of the skeleton is allowed due to joints and muscles y There are different types of movement which are :y Adduction, Abduction, Flexion, Extension ,Rotation, Circumduction, Hyper Extension ,Plantar flexion, Dorsiflexion , Pronation, Supination

Adduction and Abduction
y Adduction is the movement of taking a limb towards the midline of the body y A sporting example for adduction is when lowering a weight y Abduction is movement of taking a limb away from the midline of the body y A sporting example for Abduction is performing a kick in martial arts

Flexion and Extension
y Flexion is the decrease of an angle at a joint y Flexion is used to pitch a baseball y Extension is the increase of an angle at a joint y Extension is used to execute kicking a football

Rotation and Circumduction
y Rotation is the circular movement along a long axis y Rotation is used to header a football y Circumduction is the movement to make a circular shape at the end of a limb y Circumduction is used in sport when fencing.

Plantar and Dorsi flexion
y Plantar Flexion is the movement that points the toes downwards by straightening the ankle y A sporting example is jumping to shoot in basketball y Dorsi flexion is the upwards movement of the toes

Pronation and Suspination
y Pronation is an inward rotation of the forearm so the palm of the hand is facing backwards y Pronation occurs at the wrist joint when playing a forehand shot in table tennis. y Suspination is the outward movement so palm is facing forwards and radius and ulna are parrallell y Suspination is used when playing a backhand shot in table tennis

Hyper extension
y Hyper extension is the movement beyond the normal anatomical position y Hyper extension occurs at the spine of a cricketer when they arch their back when approaching the crease to bowl

Biceps and Triceps
Biceps

Triceps

Muscle Bicep Tricep

Exercise activity Arm curl or chin up Press ups

Deltoids and Pectorials
Pectorials

Deltoids
Deltoids

Muscle Deltoids Pectorals

Exercise Activity Overhead lifting All pressing movements

Rectus Vastus medialis Femoris Vastus intermedius ( sits under Rectus Femoris)

Vastus laterils

Vastus medialis

Muscle

Exerise Activity

Quadriceps: Recrus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medials Vastus intermedius

Front Squat

Hamstrings
Bicep Femoris

Semitendinsus

Semimembranosus

Muscle

Exercise Activity

Hamstring: Semimem branosus Semitendinosus Bicep femmoris

Extending leg and flexing knee, running

Rectus Abdominis

Muscle Rectus Abdominis

Exercise Activitys Sit-ups

Gastrocnemius and Soleus
Gastrocnemius Gastrocnemius

soleus

soleus

Muscle Gasatrocnemius Soleus

Exercise Activity Running,jumping and standing on tiptoes Running and jumpong

Tibialis anterior

Muscle Tibialis anterior

Exercise Activity Running and jumping exercise

Back muscles
Erector spinae Teres Major

Latissimus dorsi

Muscle Erector Spinae Teres major Latissimus dorsi

Exercise Activity Back extension Rowing and pulling movements Rowing movements

Trapezius

Muscle Trapezius

Exercise Activity Overhead Lifting

Obliques and Glueteus maximus

Muscle Oblique Gluteus Maximus

Exercise Activity Oblique curls Knee-bending movements, Cycling

References
y Used resources: y www.wikipedia.org y www.google.com y http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/joints.php y http://www.golfdigest.com y http://e-radiography.net/ibase8/index.htm y Sport level 3 book 1 by Adams , Barker, Gledhill, Lydon, Mulligan, Phillippo and Sutton

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