Disk Management Issues

Designed by www.techpings.com

Agenda
Overview Disk Components Disk Architecture Disk Access Errors Recovery Console Disk Management Tools Disk Performance Disk Protection Boot Settings for Disks
Designed by www.techpings.com

Objectives
Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to: Explain disk components and proper installation procedures Explain disk architecture and preparation using FDISK, FORMAT and SYS Explain CMOS settings effecting IDE/EIDE devices Optimize disk using Disk Cleanup, Compression, ScanDisk, and Defrag Manage and protect the disk using Backup and Quotas
Designed by www.techpings.com

Overview
What is disk management? The hard disk is the storage location for computer files The operating system, programs, and documents are all files that are commonly stored on the local hard disk Because the disk controller searches and stores sequentially, it is critical to optimize the disk on a regular basis and manage the space efficiently Understanding how the operating system interacts with the disk and how files are stored on the disk can ensure that files are protected and the operating system performance is optimized.
Designed by www.techpings.com

Overview
How do disk problems occur? Disk problems occur because of operating system activities and storage activities The Windows operating systems use the local disk when:
• • • •
Paging Downloading Printing Saving
Designed by www.techpings.com

Overview
If disk space is insufficient or fragmented when the operating system accesses it, operating system performance can be negatively affected or the system can crash Storage activities occur because the disk controller stores files sequentially As files grow over time, this process leads to fragmented files, cross-linked files, or lost clusters Many files are stored on the local hard disk that users may not be aware of Cleaning up these files and optimizing the disk regularly can keep problems from occurring
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
IDE vs. SCSI Bus Architecture Disks primarily come in two bus architectures IDE and SCSI ATA (AT Attachment) and IDE (Integrated Device Electronics) are the same Combines the disk controller with the physical disk Controller is not on the I/O card SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) architecture combines the disk controller and the adaptor (the SCSI card) Allows SCSI to control access to the bus by multiple devices (multiple disks)
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
IDE (ATA) vs. SATA SATA drives have a faster interface than normal ATA disks and can have higher duty cycles. SATA will be used where more performance than ATA disks is needed but cost is still an issue. Serial ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment or SATA) is a new standard for connecting hard drives into computer systems. As its name implies, SATA is based on serial signaling technology, unlike current IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) hard drives that use parallel signaling.

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
When bus is free it can receive commands or transfer data for another device Disk architecture choice depends on the computer device If the computer will have only one disk drive, then IDE is the best choice It is less expensive and no performance improvement will occur compared to SCSI
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
If the computer will support multiple devices, SCSI will offer several advantages:
• Connectivity – IDE can support up to two devices on each
bus, SCSI can support up to 126 devices

• Bandwidth – The SCSI bus controller manages bandwidth
so more devices can have access without performance degradation commands. IDE does not provide for queuing fluctuations and still maintain integrity

• Efficiency – SCSI provides queuing of up to 256 • Reliability – SCSI can sustain higher temperatures and

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
Disk Installation Hard disk installation requires the following:
• • • • •
Disk Data cable Power cable Disk adaptor card Driver

ATA/IDE architecture requires a 40 or 80 pin (40 grounding wires for each sending wire) ribbon cable with 3 IDC connectors
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
The red strip on the data cable is used to determine proper cable installation Strip should always face the power cable The middle IDC connector should be connected to the slave drive, if needed SCSI requires a parallel interface with termination of the ends of the bus to prevent ringing Several SCSI standards, specific requirements differ slightly for each standard
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
Most common internal connection cable is the Type A 50 pin ribbon cable used for SCSI-1, SCSI-2, and Fast SCSI-2 Type P 68 pin connectors are also used for SCSI-2 SCSI-3 adaptors use SCA-80 80 pin cables External SCSI connectors include 50 pin Centronics (SCSI-1), 50 pin HD(High Density) D-type (SCSI-2), 68 pin HD D-type (Wide SCSI-2 and SCSI-3), and 25 pin standard D-type (SCSI-2 with Macintoshes)
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Components
The SCSI adaptor normally uses a PCI bus on the motherboard or a PCI slot Each SCSI device on a SCSI chain must have a unique identifier The two ends of a SCSI chain must be terminated to stop reflection

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
Disk Components Hard drives are composed of one or more silicon disks
Cluster

• Sector –the smallest area on
the disk where data is stored

• Cluster – two or more sectors
used by the file system to store data

Sector

Track

• Track – circular divisions on
the disk
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
Disk Preparation A disk must be prepared before information can be stored on it
• Low-level formatting occurs at the manufacturer
- Writes tracks and sectors to the surface of the disk - Sector size is generally 512 bytes - 0’s are written to every bit in each sector - 8 bits in each byte
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
2. Identifying the disk for the CMOS occurs after the disk has been installed in the computer
During boot process the disk is automatically detected or requires input in setup to recognize disk characteristics OS reads the clusters Clusters are two or more sectors On ATA/IDE disks the BIOS cannot recognize more than 504 MB To get around this limit, LBA/ECHS lies to the computer about the disk’s geometry LBA (Long Block Allocation) allows the CMOS to see the logical drive geometry instead of the physical geometry SCSI drives do not have physical limitations

-

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
3. Partitioning the disk
FDISK accomplishes this step for Windows 9x operating systems In Windows NT/2000 systems, Diskpart, is part of the installation process and Disk Administrator (Windows NT) or Disk Management (Windows 2000) provide access to this tool within Windows Partitioning walls off sections of a disk and assigns a drive letter to each partition Partitioning process writes two important components to the 0 sector of the disk, the partition table and the Master Boot Record (MBR)
Designed by www.techpings.com

-

Partition table, keeps track of the primary, extended and logical partitions and their size, and the file system each uses The MBR points to the location of the operating system files upon boot They can then be loaded in memory and the boot process can continue

-

-

-

-

Disk Architecture
4. Specify a file system by formatting the disk
Not a low-level format Formatting is specific to the file system used on the partition Two types of file systems when storing a Windows OS on a partition, FAT and NTFS When formatting a file, the File Allocation Table (FAT) or Master File Table (MFT) composed of metadata files (NTFS), is written to the 0 sector of the disk and a root directory structure is created The file or table written to the disk contains the file names and locations on the disk Formatting replaces the file/table, clearing the disk

-

-

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
FAT (File Allocation Table)
• Can be used with Windows 9x and Windows NT/2000/XP
operating systems

• FAT is a simple file system located at the top of the partition • Two FATs exist in case one becomes damaged • Provides little security for files • Attributes can be assigned to files and folders to make them
read only or hidden

• Attribute applies to everyone • Partitions are limited to 2GB in Windows 9x operating
systems and 4GB in Windows NT operating systems

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
NTFS (New Technologies File System)
• NTFS is a high-performance and self-healing file system
proprietary to Windows XP 2000 NT, which supports filelevel security, compression and auditing.

• It also supports large volumes and powerful storage solution
such as RAID.

• The most important new feature of NTFS is the ability to
encrypt files and folders to protect your sensitive data. This provides several advantages over the FAT system

• Built in recoverability tools, which ensure minimal lost
clusters and cross-linked files

• Provides individual user security settings for files and folders • NTFS can access partitions as large as 16 exabytes
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
Criteria NTFS5 Windows 2000 Windows XP NTFS Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows XP Limitations Max Volume Size Max Files on Volume 2TB Nearly Unlimited Limit Only by Volume Size Nearly Unlimited 2TB Nearly Unlimited Limit Only by Volume Size Nearly Unlimited 2TB Nearly Unlimited 2GB ~65000 FAT32 Windows 98 Windows ME Windows 2000 Windows XP FAT16 DOS All versions of Microsoft Windows Operating System

Max File Size Max Clusters Number Max File Name Length

4GB

2GB

268435456

65535 Standard - 8.3 Extended - up to 255

Up to 255

Up to 255

Up to 255

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
Criteria Operating System NTFS5 Windows 2000 Windows XP NTFS Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows XP File System Features Unicode Character Set MFT Mirror File First and Last Sectors Standard and Custom Yes Yes No Yes No No No No
Designed by www.techpings.com

FAT32 Windows 98 Windows ME Windows 2000 Windows XP System Character Set

FAT16 DOS All versions of Microsoft Windows

Unicode File Names System Records Mirror Boot Sector Location File Attributes Alternate Streams Compression Encryption Object Permissions Disk Quotas Sparse Files Reparse Points Volume Mount Points

Unicode Character Set MFT Mirror File First and Last Sectors Standard and Custom Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

System Character Set

Second Copy of FAT Second Copy of FAT First Sector Standard Set No No No No No No No No First Sector Standard Set No No No No No No No No

Disk Architecture
Criteria NTFS5 Windows 2000 Windows XP NTFS Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows XP Overall Performance Built-In Security Recoverability Yes Yes Low on small Volumes High on Large Max Max Yes Yes Low on small volumes High on Large Max Max No No High on small Volumes Low on large Average Minimal No No Highest on small Volumes Low on large Minimal on large volumes Average FAT32 Windows 98 Windows ME Windows 2000 Windows XP FAT16 DOS All versions of Microsoft Windows Operating System

Performance

Disk Space Economy Fault Tolerance

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
Disk is now ready to store information Partition must contain an operating system to boot The DOS operating system is easiest to install It consists of three files:
• IO.sys • MSDOS.sys • Command.com

These files must be transferred to a bootable disk to notify the MBR that this is an operating system
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
When a Windows OS is installed, the MBR is updated to reflect the location of the system files On a multi-boot disk (a disk containing more than one operating system), the MBR points to the location of the primary operating system files If the primary operating system is Windows NT or Windows 2000, the file boot.ini will contain a mapping to other operating systems available
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
Disk Storage Processing
• Files are written to the disk in sequential order • A file is written to the next open cluster on the disk • If a file is not as large as the cluster, the rest of the space is
not used

• When a file is deleted, the cluster occupied by that file is now
available

• Cluster will not be used until the disk is completely full or the
disk is defragmented
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
• In the following example, Files A, B, and C are written to the
disk clusters
File A File B File C

• The user adds information to File A
File A File B File C File A

• The user writes File D to the disk
File A File B File C File A File D

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
• The user deletes File A
File A File B File C File A File D

• The user writes more information to File B
File A File B File C File A File D File B

• The space occupied by File A is not used until Defragmenter
is run

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Architecture
• All files that are not contiguous, like File B, are put together and the
deleted file spaces are overwritten

• Notice that File B is not overwritten until a new file is saved
File B File B File B File C File D File B

• When a file is requested in memory, the file is retrieved through a
sequential search

• If the disk is fragmented or parts of a file are located on different

clusters on the disk, the process for retrieving the file will be slow and operating system performance will be adversely affected
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Access Errors
Disk access errors occur for several reasons:
• • • • •
The 0 sector has been physically damaged The MBR is missing or corrupted The FAT or NTFS table has been corrupted The operating system files cannot be found A file cannot be opened

Specific errors are displayed that identify the error Troubleshooting in a timely manner may save the disk or file
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Access Errors
0 Sector Damage Disk is no longer usable if 0 sector is physically damaged Commonly caused by ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) ESD can occur:
• When installing a field replaceable component
- Follow proper grounding procedures before touching the disk - Latent catastrophic failures are caused by ESD damage to the transistors on the disk or main board

• When a surge occurs at the power source.
- Always use a surge protector to guard the computer system from electrical spikes and surges
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Access Errors
MBR Damage When the MBR is damaged, it no longer points to the location of operating system files Errors that may signify damage to the MBR include: • Machine language on the screen • “Rom Basic missing. System halted” • System freezes after Rom Bios checks hardware If one of these errors occur, use FDISK /MBR to repair the MBR without changing the partition table Do not use this command if there are more than 4 partitions on the physical disk
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Access Errors
File System Unreachable
If FAT is not readable, the error Missing Operating System will display Can occur if the partition containing the FAT is not marked as the active partition This can be accomplished using FDISK Can also occur when the FAT is corrupted Use the SCANDISK utility to scan the disk This tool may be able to salvage the copy of the FAT and restore access to the disk Attempt to run the Emergency Repair Process from the Emergency Repair Disk
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Access Errors
Operating System Error
Non-System Disk Error occurs when boot disk contains no operating system files or files are corrupted Boot order for disks is set in CMOS Floppy drive is normally the first disk accessed If a non-bootable disk is in the drive, this error will be displayed Can also occur if the OS files have been damaged With Windows 9x operating systems, the basic operating system files (DOS) can be restored from a bootable floppy using the SYS command Attempt to run the Emergency Repair Process from the Emergency Repair Disk
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Access Errors
File Access Error
File access errors occur because the file parts have lost pointers to one another Can be caused by disk fragmentation and by viruses When a file access error occurs, scan the disk using the Scandisk or the error checking utility in Disk Management (Windows 2000) Attempt to run the Emergency Repair Process from the Emergency Repair Disk
Designed by www.techpings.com

Recovery Console
Recovery Console is a command line utility similar to MS-DOS command line. You can list and display folder content, copy, delete, replace files, format drives and perform many other administrative tasks. To run Recovery Console, boot from Windows bootable disks or CD and choose Repair option, when system suggests you to proceed with installation or repairing. Press C to run Recovery Console.
Designed by www.techpings.com

Recovery Console
You will be asked which system you want to log on to and then for Administrator's password. After you logged on you can display drive's contents, check the existence and safety of critical files and, copy them back if they have been accidentally deleted (see graphic).
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
Disk Cleanup
• Disk Cleanup should always
be performed before scanning the disk or defragmenting

• When disk space is limited,
Disk Cleanup points to the location of common files that can be deleted or compressed

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
• Many files are saved to the disk without the user’s specific
request or approval

• Temporary Internet files are downloaded every time you
access a web site

• Temporary files are created during the printing process,
while working on certain types of documents, and during unexpected shutdowns while working on documents

• Downloaded programs are support components that are
automatically downloaded to support a web site the user opens

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
• When a file is deleted, it is sent to the
Recycle Bin, which is just another location on the hard drive

• Disk Cleanup provides the user with
a single tool to delete or compress all files on the disk

• The More Options tab provides
access to remove Windows components not being used and/or to remove installed programs no longer in use
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
Computer Management
• Partitions can be created,
formatted and deleted from this screen

• Shows which file system the
disk has been formatted with

• A FAT partition cannot see
an NTFS partition on the same computer

• An NTFS partition can see
both FAT and NTFS partitions
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
Disk Properties
• The following screen can also be
reached following these steps:
- Double-click My Computer on the Desktop - Right -click a partition and click Properties

• Click the Quota tab to set disk
quotas for users

• This can keep users from saving
too much to the limited space on a disk
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
Error Checking
• Scans the disk for errors and compares the contents with the
listing in the file table

• Looking for file system errors and errors on the disk • If bad cluster is found, cluster is marked and the disk • Fragments on the disk cause file system errors • Cross-linked files occur when pointers in two files point to
the same location controller will no longer attempt to save information to it

• Lost clusters occur when clusters are not correctly marked
as containing information or as being available for information
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Management Tools
Defragment
• Tool used to move files into
contiguous order on the disk

• Fragmented files are put
into contiguous order

• Space taken by deleted
files is written over

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Performance
Performance Monitor
• Tool used to monitor
resources over time

• Monitoring physical disk

components and paging file components provides information to direct troubleshooting efforts

• Resources to monitor can be
added

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Performance
Paging File Settings
• Paging File is space on the physical disk set aside to act like
memory

• While the operating system is managing the computer resources, it
swaps 64K pages to the location of the paging file on the disk

• The Least Recently Used (LRU) files are swapped • A page resides briefly on the page file • It is then brought back to physical memory and another page is
swapped

• The page file should be at least 1.5 times actual memory and
should be a static file
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Performance

• The paging file can be updated

• The computer will have to be
rebooted after changing the paging file size

Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Protection
Disk Backup Disks fail! There is no substitute for a backup
• A full backup copies everything in the designated folders • An incremental backup makes a copy of only the files that
have changed since the last backup of the designated folders

• A differential backup is a copy of the files that have
changed since the last backup but does not turn the archive attribute to OFF
- The next differential backup will copy some of the same files it copied during the original backup
Designed by www.techpings.com

Disk Protection
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
• Disks can be destroyed by ESD • A UPS protects a disk from surges and brownouts • Both of these issues can cause problems for a disk • When working with a disk, wear an electrostatic strap and
place the disk on a rubber mat

Designed by www.techpings.com

Boot Settings for Disks
Physical disk boot settings are controlled in CMOS and in the boot.ini file CMOS
• Access the CMOS settings during the bootstrap phase of the
boot process

• This is where CMOS settings are modified • Boot drive order can be changed here • The options are the CD-ROM, disk, or floppy drive • A bootable drive is one that contains an operating system
Designed by www.techpings.com

Boot Settings for Disks
Boot.ini
• If more than one operating system is on a computer, the
boot.ini file can be modified to boot to a different partition if the boot partition becomes corrupted

• File is always located in the first partition on the first disk • Notepad is a text editor, and can be used to make changes • Adds no format characters that the operating system cannot
read

Designed by www.techpings.com

Boot Settings for Disks
Timeout setting controls the time the operating system selection page appears during the boot process Default line points to the disk and partition that contains the operating system the computer boots to OS section lists all the operating systems that are loaded on the computer ATTRIB command will remove attributes of hidden files
Designed by www.techpings.com

Boot Settings for Disks
If the boot operating system crashes, boot to a bootable floppy disk or CD Edit the boot.ini file Under the operating system heading choose an operating system other than the boot system

Designed by www.techpings.com

Objectives Revisited
Explain disk components and proper installation procedures Explain disk architecture and preparation using FDISK, FORMAT and SYS Explain CMOS settings effecting IDE/EIDE devices Optimize disk using Disk Cleanup, Compression, ScanDisk, and Defrag Manage and protect the disk using Backup, and Quotas

Designed by www.techpings.com

Review

Review / Questions

Designed by www.techpings.com