Neil Chakrabarty William May

To Be Tackled Review of Threading Algorithms  Hyper-Threading Concepts  Hyper-Threading Architecture  Advantages/Disadvantages  Applications  2 .

Threading Algorithms  Time-slicing A processor switches between threads in fixed time intervals.  Switch-on-event Task switching in case of long pauses Waiting for data coming from a relatively slow source. especially if one of the processes is in the wait state. High expenses. CPU resources are given to other processes 3 .

4 .Threading Algorithms (cont.)  Multiprocessing Distribute the load over many processors Adds extra cost  Simultaneous multi-threading Multiple threads execute on a single processor without switching. Basis of Intel¶s Hyper-Threading technology.

with parallel execution of another thread/application.  Unused resources can also be loaded.  Extremely useful in desktop and server applications where many threads are used.Hyper-Threading Concept At each point of time only a part of processor resources is used for execution of the program code.  5 . for example.

6 .

Logical processors share a single set of physical execution resources 7 .Hyper-Threading Architecture     First used in Intel Xeon MP processor Makes a single physical processor appear as multiple logical processors. Each logical processor has a copy of architecture state.

Hyper-Threading Architecture Operating systems and user programs can schedule processes or threads to logical processors as if they were in a multiprocessing system with physical processors.  From an architecture perspective we have to worry about the logical processors using shared resources.  Caches. 8 . branch predictors. execution units. and buses. control logic.

9 .Advantages    Extra architecture only adds about 5% to the total die area. Increased performance with multiple threads Better resource utilization. No performance loss if only one thread is active.

Disadvantages  To take advantage of hyper-threading performance. Threads are non-deterministic and involve extra design Threads have increased overhead  Shared resource conflicts 10 . serial execution can not be used.

Applications  Video Watermark Detection Two stages Video Decoding  Image-domain watermark detection   Video Processing 3 stages Reading Video information  Processing Video information  Writing Video information  11 .

Video Watermarking 12 .

Performance Results 13 .

Video Processing  Most time is spent in processing. 14 . Divide the video processing into threads 4 Threads in this example   Have to worry about waiting until all processing threads are done before writing back the data out.

Video Processing (cont.) 15 .

To Be Tackled Review of Threads  Hyper-Threading Concepts  Hyper-Threading Architecture  Advantages/Disadvantages  Applications  16 .

References     Intel Technology Journal.html 17 .com/cpu/20021227/ Introduction to Multithreading. Superthreading and Hyperthreading http://www. Volume 6 Issue 1. February 14.arstechnica.tomshardware. 2002 Intel Hyper-Threading Technology Review HyperThreading Threads Its Way into Application ding-1.digit-life.

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