Training & Development

Training The systematic development of the knowledge ,skills, and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. (Armstrong) The act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job ( Edwin B Flippo) Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance.

Objectives of training € € € € Improving employee Performance Updating Employee skills Avoiding Managerial Obsolescence Preparing for promotion and managerial Succession Retaining and motivating Employees Creating an Efficient and Effective Organization € € .

Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation. Improves the morale of the workforce. . 3. Helps people identify with organizational goals. Fasters authentically.Advantages of training 1. openness and trust. 5. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. 7. Helps create a better corporate image. 6. 2. 4.

Areas of Training € Company policies and procedures y Understanding company policies and procedures € Skill based Training y To match the skill requirements of job y Improve employee¶s job effectiveness y Enable to adapt to technological changes .

controlling and decision making Helps handling increased responsibilities in the career path. organizing. . leadership styles.interpersonal skills. Human relations Training Ares of self learning . perception. directing. group dynamics.  Managerial and supervisory training Functions such as Planning. motivation. grievance redressal  Problem solving training Equips an employee to deal successfully with problems like operational to decision making. disciplinary procedures.

Employee Training Methods € On-the-job training € Off-the-job Training .

On-the-job training (OJT) € Training a person learn a job by actually doing it Experienced worker supervisor trains the employee Trainee may acquire skills by observing the supervisor Success of the training depends on the supervisor € € € .

1. 2. 5. 3.Training Procedure I. II. Instructor preparation 1. . 2. III. 4. easy to difficult Adjust pace to individual differences Go through task and explain each step Have trainee tell instructor what to do II. 1. 2. Divide task in to logical parts to create lesson plan Select teaching techniques (eg: demonstration) Trainee preparation Place trainee at ease Relate training needs ( Eg: promotion Present the task Present the overview of task Proceed from known to unknown.OJT .

2. 1. Try out performance Have trainee explain each step prior to execution Be aware of learning plateaus to sustain motivation Provide feedback on progress 3. V. Follow-up Positively reinforce continuously at start Move to variable reinforcement schedule as trainee matures . 1. 2.IV.

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING Job Instruction Job rotation Apprenticeship & Coaching Committee Assignments .

Job Instruction € Many jobs consist of logical sequence of steps and are best taught step-by-step Listing each job¶s basic tasks. If satisfied trainee is left on his own ( if help in needed can call the € € € instructor) . explain /demonstrate step-by step procedure of doing the job 2. Ask the trainee to demonstrate by giving instructions 3. in order to provide step-by-step training for employees Doubts can be cleared immediately A trainer/ supervisor/ co-worker acts as the instructor 1. along with key points.

Apprenticeship & Coaching A structured process by which people become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on the job training Š Š usually done in crafts. if the training is relatively for a longer period. Š Š . trades and in technical areas. which provide for efficient training in trade skills. Here a major part of training is spent on the job productive work. It is the oldest and most commonly used method. Each apprentice is given a programme of assignments according to a pre-determined schedule.

Job rotation € Trainee is placed on various jobs across different functions in the organization (Movement of employees from job to job) Gains cross-functional knowledge equipped to take up different jobs € € .

Trainee develop y team-management skills y Interpersonal skills y Communication skills y Problem ± sovling skills y Leadership skills € .Committee Assignments € A group of employees are given an actual organizational problem and are asked to find a solution.

OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING Class Room Lectures Simulation Exercises Programmed Instructions Case method Experiential exercises Computer modeling Vestibule training Role Playing .

Class Room Lectures € Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. procedures and policies of the organization Effective if y Use audio-visual tools and suitable demonstrations y Interactive y Two-way communication y Taking feedback and improving € € . Help in conveying the rules.

Trainee gain experience in using the equipment because the same equipment is used during training Expensive Transferring learning to job is easy € € € .Simulation Exercises Vestibule training € This training method attempt to duplicate on-thejob situation in a company classroom.

Simulation Exercises Experiential exercises € € Trainer simulates situations like in actual work After exercise complete. Trainer discuss the behaviour of the employees during the exercise. with the group Trainer appraises the performance with theoretical background In this way the trainee learn quickly & understands his mistakes € € .

conducting a post appraisal interview etc. Helps in improving  Communication skills People management Relationship management skills .Simulation Exercises Role Playing A method of human interaction involving realistic behavior in imaginary situations   Assumes the role of different character in the organizational context involves employee-employer relationship ± Hiring. firing. discussing a grievance procedure.

Programmed instruction Trainee is given job relevant materials to study € A series of questions are given € After the trainee answers the question immediate fed back is given whether right or wrong € Answer is right ± next question € Wrong.refer material € .

and structure of the organization so that they can better adapt to new technologies. organic model. and the dizzying rate of change itself It is a planned and calculated attempt to move the organization as a unit to the climate of behavioral. and challenges. attitudes. open.Organizational Development A complex educational strategy intended to change the beliefs. markets. values. .

. 3. Decision making on the basis of competence rather than authority Creatively resolving conflict through confrontation designed to replace winlose situations with win-win types Reducing dysfunctional competition and maximizing collaboration 2.Specific goals of OD 1.

Increasing commitment and a sense of ownership of organization objectives throughout the work force Increasing the degree of interpersonal trust and support Creating a climate in which human growth. . 7. 6. and renewal are a natural part of the enterprise¶s daily operation Developing a communication system characterized by mutual openness and honesty in solving organizational problems 5.4. development.

OD interventions Team Development ƒ Sensitivity session conducted off-site for the member of the unit Š Survey Feedback ƒ Data collected through questionnaire ƒ Task force analyse and feedback is given Š Inter group Sessions ƒ Two groups ƒ Leaders of groups are asked to prepare lists how other group make life difficult and what they write about this group ƒ Meet face to face and compare list ƒ Third party favours only union facilitate and encourage group to work out action plans to remove difficulties Š .

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