Training and Development

TrainingTraining´ In future, the success of enterprises ¶ll depend upon the revolutionary training and development system in human resource management.µ ´As we live and work in the world of knowledge and skill, every human activity need up-to-date knowledge and up-torequired skills to perform it.µ

What is training?
Training is basically a systematic procedure for transferring technical know-how to the knowemployees so as to increase their knowledge and skills for doing particular jobs. Training is the acquisition of technology, which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. It improves human performance on the job the employee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace.

Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job

Training, Development, and Education

Education is training people to do a different job.
It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upward, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks.

Distinction between Training and Education

The following table draws a distinction between training and education more clearly.

Training Education Application Theoretical orientation Job Experience Classroom learning Specific Tasks General concepts Narrow perspective Broad perspective

Distinction between Training and Development

Learning Who What Why When

Training Non-managers NonTechnical Specific job Short term

Development Managers Theoretical General Long term

FeaturesFeatures‡ Training enhances the skills and capabilities
of the individuals in an organization.

‡ The need for training can be emphasized in
various work situations, such as in harnessing skills for existing jobs, planning out one·s future job profile, elevating employees performance and so on.

‡ For training to be successful, the employees
have to be convinced of its utility and effectiveness.

‡ A successful training program improves the
performance of an employee which in turn enhances organizational performance.

‡ Training program should attempt to bring
about positive changes in the-knowledge the,skills and attitude of the workforce.

‡ It depends upon the top management·s

attitude and organizational culture to make the training programme a success and contribute to the overall development of the organization.

‡ The training and development function

in an organization has gained a lot of importance due to advancement in technology and changes in market force.

When does the need for training arise?
The installation of new equipment or techniques A change in working methods or products produced A realization that performance is inadequate Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality An increase in the number of accidents Promotion or transfer of individual employees. Ensures availability of necessary skills and there could be a pool of talent from which to promote from.

Training policy«««?
Every organization has well established and prescribed
training policy for the training of employees.



This policy depicts the top management s philosophy regarding training of employees. This training policy includes the rules and regulations,procedure,budget,standards and conditions regarding training. This policy depicts the intention of the company to train and develop its personnel. It provide guidelines for training programme.

Trained & Professional trainer

Training policy

Top mgt. s Support and commitment

Willing trainee

Components Of training

Different methods Of training And courses

Training Venue & procedure The duration Including Training of The feedback and materials training evaluation Posters, pictures
Charts,slides Graphs, equipments

Some important points regarding training«.?

In the organization employee training and development is essential part of planning activity so that learning and growth can take place in the organization. Employees should get opportunity of training. training. It should not be based on favoritism. There should be sufficient budget for training and development programme. programme.

Its importance should be recognized and never be underestimated as sheer waste of time. The learner should be motivated It should be an endless activity for all. It should be structured and be managed in such a way that learning takes place properly.

It should hold humanistic values. it means it should not be imposed, not criticized, no imposed, negative reinforcement be give it should be participative. participation of participative. employees should be encouraged in designing complete training programme because it is a team work and mutual work can only make it a success. It should be evaluated in terms of practicality, acquiring of skills, usefulness in job, in terms of cost ,time , in terms of effectiveness and changed behavior.

Purpose of training programmes«
1.Improving employee performanceperformanceAs it bridges the gap between the actual and expected performance of the employees. 2.Updating employee skills-to adopt any skillstechnological advances. 3.Avoiding managerial obsolescence

4.Retaining and motivating employees

5.Creating an efficient and effective organization

6.It helps organization to absorb changes taking place in the environment and reduce resistance to change.

7.Training increases the productivity and level of performance of employees. 8.It aims to improve the quality of task.

9.To train employees in a particular culture of the company.

Importance of trainingtrainingTrained workers can work more efficiently. efficiently. There will be fewer accidents. as training accidents. improves the knowledge of employees regarding the use of machines and equipments. Wastage is eliminated to a large extent as they use tools, machines in a proper way.

Training can contribute to higher production, production, fewer mistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower labor turnover. It makes the relationship between management and employee cordial.

It helps in introducing and adopting latest technology in order to absorb change.

Training helps an employee to move from one organization to another easily. he can be more mobile and pursue career goals easily. Training makes employees more loyal to an organization. they will be less inclined to leave the unit where there are growth opportunities. training enables employees to secure promotions easily. they can realize their career goals comfortably.

Economical supervision-as there is supervisionless requirement for supervision for trained employees. Uniform procedures-with the help proceduresof training the best available methods can be standardized and made available to all employees

Disadvantages of training
1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and testing, expensive to operate? 2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time; 3. Equips staff to leave for a better job -4. Narrow experience

Areas of trainingtraining1. Company policy and procedures 2. Skill based training 3. Human relations training-interpersonal skills, trainingleadership styles, disciplinary procedure etc. 4. Problem solving training from simple operational problems to major decision making problems. 5. Supervisory training-to enable the person to perform trainingmanagerial and supervisory functions such as planning,organising,directing and controlling as employees move ahead in their career paths to assume positions of increased responsibility.

Areas of Training
The Areas of Training in which training is offered may be classified into the following categories: Knowledge Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. The aim is to make the new employee fully aware of what goes inside and outside the company. Technical Skills The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating a machine and handling computer) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully.

Areas of Training Conti.
Social Skills The employee is made to learn about himself and other, develop a right mental attitude, towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. Techniques This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on-theon-thejob situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at clouding employee attitudes: When administered properly, a training programme. It will go a long way in obtaining employee loyalty, support and commitment to company activities.

Training loses its meaning if the learning is not applicable at work ..



1. Voluntary consent of participants-they participantsshould not be forced to join these activities. 2. Discrimination-age, gender , race or Discriminationrelated factors should not be used as barriers to determine who receives training.

Issues in Employee Training
1. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce
brings a wide variety of languages and customs. 2. Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 3. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. 4. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity

Issues in Employee Training Conti.
5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. Also, today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.

5.Employee Development
This future-oriented set futureof activities is predominantly an educational process. All employees, regardless of level, can benefit from the methods previously used to develop managerial personnel.

5.Employee Development
Employee development methods
Job rotation involves moving employees to various positions in the organization to expand their skills, knowledge and abilities. Assistant-to positions allow Assistantemployees with potential to work under and be coached by successful managers.

6. Employee Development Methods
Employee development methods
Simulations include case studies, decision games and role plays and are intended to improve decision-making. decisionOutdoor training typically involves challenges which teach trainees the importance of teamwork.

Steps in the Training Process
1. Organizational objectives 2. Assessment of Training needs 3. Establishment of Training goals 4. Devising training programme 5. Implementation of training programme 6. Evaluation of results

Organizational Objectives & Strategies
The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources.

Needs Assessment
Needs assessment diagnosis present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development. Before committing such huge resources, organizations that implement training programs without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. Needs assessment occurs at two levels- group and levelsindividual.

3. Employee Training
Determining Training Needs

Deriving instructional objectives
These provide the input for designing the training program as well as for the measures of success that would help assessment of it Eg After training the employee will be able to calculate mark on all merchandise

Designing the training program
who participates in the training Who are the trainers ? What techniques of training What level of learning Where the training will be conducted

4. Methods of Employee Training
On-theOn-the-job training methods
Job Rotation Understudy Assignments Learning by experience Least expensive Free from artificial situation Not systematically organized Employee may lack expertise

Methods of training
Lectures: verbal presentation, can be used for large number of people , but low popularity , one way communication , no feedback , boring Audio Visuals : television, slides, overheads and films On the job training: conducted at work site

Programmed instructions
Training without intervention of trainer Books and aids provided After reading the employees answers questions based on it Computer Aided Instruction Simulators: case study, role playing , vestibule training

Sensitivity training
Small no. of trainees 12 Meet passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others behaviors Held away from workplaces, discussions are held on why participants behave the way they do, how they perceive each other , feelings and emotions Provides increased awareness about own behavior and how they are perceived by other, greater openness, increased tolerance , listening skills and conflict resolution skills

Learning principles
Employee motivation Recognition of individual differences Practice opportunity Knowledge of results Goals Schedule of learning

Conduct of training
At job itself On site but not job Off the site IMPLEMENTATION Busy schedule Communication Availability of trainers

Training evaluation
Training validity: did they learn Transfer validity: was it transferred on job Inter organisational validity

Types of training
Orientation training or induction training-to put trainingthe new recruits at ease and to make him introduced with key personnel and informed about company policies, procedures and benefits.

Refresher training

Job-instruction training-including four steps:

1. Orient trainees to job situation by providing them with
an overview of the job. 2. Demonstrate the entire job 3. Ask trainees to do the job 4. Evaluate employee performance periodically and offer supplementary training if necessary

Apprenticeship training-commonly found in trainingindustries such as carpentry and plumbing, apprentices are trainees here who spend a prescribed period of time working with an experienced, master worker.

Training for promotion

Philosophy of training
Training efforts must invariably follow certain learning oriented guidelinesguidelines1. Modeling-the selected model should provide the right Modelingkind of behavior to be copied by others. if we want to change people, it would be a good idea to have videotapes of people showing the desired behavior. 2.Motivation2.Motivation-when the employee is motivated, he pays attention to what is being said, done and presented.

3.Reinforcement positive reinforcement consists of rewarding desired behaviours.people avoid certain behaviors that invite criticism and punishment. learn best if feedback is given as soon as possible after training as every employee wants to know what is expected from him and how well he is doing. 5.Spaced practice-learning takes place easily if the practicepractice sessions are spread over a period of time.

6.Whole learning-the employees learn better if the learningjob information is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the various actions fit together into the big picture.

7.Applicability of training-training should be as real trainingas possible so that trainees can successfully transfer the new knowledge to their jobs.

8.enviornment8.enviornment-it is natural that workers who are exposed to training in comfortable environments with adequate ,well spaced rest periods are more likely to learn than employees whose training conditions are less than ideal.

Retraining is the process of learning a new skill or trade, often in response to a change in the economic environment. Generally it reflects changes in profession choice rather than an "upward" movement in the same

Importance of training objective
The resources are always limited and training objectives actually lead the design of training program. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a no. of stakeholders perspectivesperspectives1. 2. 3. 4. Trainer Trainee Designer Evaluator

Benefits for Trainees areareHelps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise Helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make training successful.

Benefits for trainertrainerHelps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Now trainer can establish relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.

Benefits for designer
Being aware of objective, he can design the training package accordingly. Now he can look for training methods, training equipments and training content accordingly to achieve that objective. Without any guidance, he can t design. ExampleExample-Training objective is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Now the designer ll include-ways to improve includeinterpersonal skills, verbal and non-verbal nonlanguage etc.

Benefit for evaluator
The objective provides him a standard for evaluation of progress of trainee.

Models of trainingtrainingTraining is a transforming process that requires some input and it turn it produce output in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes. The three models of training areare1. The system model 2. Instructional system development model 3. Transitional model

The system model of trainingtrainingIt consists of five phases which should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. the training should achieve the purpose of helping the employees to perform their work to required standards. The steps areareEVALUATE EXECUTE



1. ANALYSE-Analyze and identify the training needsANALYSEneeds2. 3.
what do they need to learn. DESIGNDESIGN-It requires developing the objective of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. DEVELOPDEVELOP-Listing the activities in the training program that ll assist the participants to learn, examining training material, selecting delivery method, validating information to be imparted to. EXECUTE-It s the hardest part of the system because EXECUTEone wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. EVALUATE-Evaluating each phase to make sure it has EVALUATEachieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance.

4. 5.

Instructional system development model
This model was made to answer the training problems. In it training objectives are designed on the basis of job responsibilities and job description. And on the basis of designed objective ,performance is measured. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. This model comprises of five stagesstages-






1. ANALYSIS-This phase consist of training need ANALYSIS2.
assesment,job analysis and target audience analysis. Planning-This phase consist of setting goal of the Planninglearning,outcome,types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program. DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT-This phase translates design decisions into training material. it consists of developing course material, including handouts,workbooks,visual aids etc. EXECUTIONEXECUTION-it focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers,equipments,benches,podiums,food facilities, cooling lighting ,parking and other training accessories. EVALUATIONEVALUATION-evaluating whole process.




Transitional model of training
Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. the other loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner lop is executed.








1. VISION-It focuses on the milestones that the VISIONorganization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tell that where the organization sees itself few years down the line.

2. MISSION-explain the reason of organizational MISSIONexistance.the reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire and inform the employees regarding the organization.

3. VALUES-vision is the translation of vision and mission VALUESinto communicable ideals. it reflects the deeply hold values of the organization. foe example-social exampleresponsibility, excellent customer service

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