y Steel for pipelines

are very efficient for the mass transportation of oil and gas and can extend over vast distances. y Requirements on the performances: high-strength and toughness, heavy-wall pipe to prevent buckling during pipeline installation in deep water, resistance to corrosion (which has been met with specific alloy additions and special control over non-metallic inclusions), improved levels of toughness at low operating temperatures (just like in In arctic regions)
y Pipelines

y Most linepipe specifications in the world are based on

those issued by the American Petroleum Institute (API) which cover high test linepipe (5LX series). y API American Petroleum Institute for kind of pipes y 5L Low Carbon y X Series based on mechanical properties
y Example: Series HIGH TENSILE CARBON STEEL PIPE

API 5L X-42, API 5L X-46, API 5L X-52, API 5L X 56, API X-60, API 5L X-65, API 5L X-70, API 5L X80
y X80 (80 ksi = 551 N/mm2).

y API 5L X80 that produced by ArcelorMittal

Steel (Annual production capacity 30,000 tonnes) y Price: US$600~1000 / Metric Ton y Specifications:
y Strength grades up

Diameters from 16"-42" (406.4mm-1067mm) Thicknesses up to 50mm
y Applications are oil & gas pipelines, conductor

and carrier pipe for the energy industries, tubular piling for jetties and berthing dolphins.

Elements
Fe C Si Mn P S Cu Al Cr Ni

PIPE STEEL API 5L-X80
97.434% 0.070% 0.250% 1.600% 0.012% 0.004% 0.200% 0.030% 0.200% 0.200% 389736 280 1000 6400 48 16 800 120 800 800

BF BOF LF
RH/VD

CCM

Process
y Animation

The materials discharged from the BF are hot metal at 1,803 K (1,530 °C), about 300 kg molten slag per tonne hot metal, and dust-bearing exhaust gas discharged from the furnace top.
Hot metal is poured into a torpedo car (pictured), where it is subjected to hot metal pre-treatment, and then transferred to the steelmaking plant. Molten slag is crushed after cooling and is recycled as a material for roadbed and cement.

Top gas, after dust removal, is used as a fuel for hot stove (cowper) to preheat hit blast or for the reheating furnaces.

y

Input

y

Output

The ratio of daily consumption of a large blast furnace (10,000 tonnes/day hot metal) y 16,000 20,000 tonnes iron ore y 4,000 6,000 tonnes coke (and pulverized coal) y 2,000 4,000 tonnes flux y 11,000 kNm3 compressed air Generating: y 4,000 5,000 tonnes slag + flue dust y 15,000 kNm3 top gas

BF BOF LF
RH/VD

CCM

y Chemical Reactions occur in this process:

0.5{O2}=[O] [Si]+2[O]= (SiO2) [Mn]+[O]=(MnO) 2[P]+5[O]=(P2O5) [C]+[O]=(CO)

Demanganization

Desiliconization

Dephosporization

Decarburization

BF BOF LF
RH/VD

CCM

The main purpose of ladle furnace treatment is to ensure that the molten steel has the required temperature when the ladle is taken over at downstream secondary metallurgy units or at a continuous caste

Reheating

De-S

Homogenize

Transfers heat

homogenize bath composition; y homogenize bath temperature; y facilitate slag-metal interactions essential for processes such as desulfurization; y accelerate the removal of inclusions in the steel
y

BF BOF LF
RH/VD

CCM

De-C

De-H2

De-N2

Alloying

Degassing

‡The recirculation (RH) degasser is used for the removal of carbon and other impurity elements. ‡The pressure in the vessel is reduced to about 1-3 torr (1 torr = 1 mmHg). ‡Argon is injected through tuyeres in one of the snorkels, forcing the steel up into the unit and out again through the other snorkel. ‡In some units, oxygen is injected through a lance in order to assist decarburization.

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‡The solubility of nitrogen in liquid steel is increased significantly at the low sulfur levels achieved by effective desulfurization. ‡Nitrogen removal is increased by higher argon flow rates and lower sulfur content of the steel. Thus nitrogen removal from liquid steel during vacuum degassing is possible.

y The tank degasser is used to

remove gaseous elements and sulfur from the steel. y The removal of sulfur is achieved through slagmetal reactions, which are promoted by strong argon 'flushing' (bubbling) within the vacuum envelope.
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Wirefeeding is also useful for additions that: ‡are less dense than molten steel and might otherwise float to the surface; ‡have limited solubility; ‡have a high vapor pressure; ‡have a high affinity for oxygen; ‡are very expensive and/or added in very small quantities; ‡are toxic; Aluminum is often added by wirefeeding to improve recovery rate, control of Al content and improve steel cleanness.
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y We use Al pure

Al

- -

100% 105.52

0.030% 105

BF BOF LF

RH/VD
CCM

y Continuous casting, also called strand casting, is the

process whereby molten metal is solidified into a "semifinished" billet, bloom, or slab for subsequent rolling in the finishing mills. y "continuous casting" achieve improved yield, quality, productivity and cost efficiency. y It allows lower-cost production of metal sections with better quality, due to the inherently lower costs of continuous, standardized production of a product, as well as providing increased control over the process through automation.

Explanation of animation Molten metal (known as hot metal in industry) is tapped into the ladle from furnaces. After undergoing any ladle treatments, such as alloying and degassing, and arriving at the correct temperature, the ladle is transported to the top of the casting machine. y From the ladle, the hot metal is transferred via a refractory shroud (pipe) to a holding bath called a tundish. y The tundish allows a reservoir of metal to feed the casting machine while ladles are switched, thus acting as a buffer of hot metal, as well as smoothing out flow, regulating metal feed to the molds and cleaning the metal
y y

Casting machines are designated to be billet, bloom or slab casters. Slab casters tend to cast sections with an aspect ratio that is much wider than it is thick: y CONVENTIONAL Slabs lie in the range 100 1600 mm wide by 180 250 mm thick and up to 12 m long with conventional casting speeds of up to 1.4 m/minute y Wider slabs are available up to 3250×150 mm, for example at Nanjing Iron & Steel in China. Thin slabs: 1680×50 mm
y

y

minutes. With 4 m2/minute
y

For casting in pipe steel API 5L X80, CCM used has specification 0.23 m thick and 1.2 m wide. So, time for casting 350 tonnes steel is 22 The time to cast 350 tonnes steel can be calculated by equation below:

: Time for casting m: Mass of steel : Density of steel w : Wide of product t : Thickness of product v : Casting rate n: number of straind

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