# Chapter 2

Fluid Statics

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INTRODUCTION

Fluid statics is the study of fluids in which there is no relative motion between fluid properties No shear stress exist Only normal stress exist - pressure - primary interest in fluid statics The situation will be considered: Pressure variation through a fluid Effect of pressure on submerged surfaces Manometer, Buoyancy

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Pressure at a Point Pressure. Pressure acts equally in all directions at a given point (Pascal·s Law) or pressure at a point in a fluid at rest or in motion is independent of direction as long as there are no shearing stress present px pn pz pn = px = pz = p 3 . p .normal force per unit area at a given point which it acts.

Pressure in a Fluid at Rest Acceleration. a = 0 z dp ! K dz dp !  Vgdz..Hydrostatic equation y x There was no pressure variation in horizontal direction (x-y) Pressure increased with depth p ! V gh ! K h The equation is used to convert pressure to a height of liquid 4 ..........

5 .. h! p1  p2 K Pressure at any depth below the free surface is given by equation: p ! Kh  p0 .Pressure in an Incompressible Fluid at Rest Liquids are incompressible under most condition and is called incompressible fluids Incompressible fluid has constant density Pressure varies linearly with depth Pressure difference between 2 points can be specified by the distance.. p0 ! patmosphere Figure 2.. h since.3: Notation for pressure variation in a fluid at rest with a free surface.

oxygen. dp gp ! dz RT Integrate. The relationship can be combined to give. R is the gas constant and T is absolute temperature.Pressure in a Compressible Fluid at Rest Compressible fluid = atmosphere (gases such as air. « g ( z 2  z1 ) » p2 ! p1 exp ¬  ¼ RT0 ½ ­ (Isothermal condition) 6 . nitrogen) Density change significantly with changes in pressure and temperature. cannot be considered independent of height Ideal Gas Law: p ! VRT Where p is absolute pressure. and we get.

Absolute pressure: measured relative to absolute zero pressure (a pressure that would only occur in a perfect vacuum) Gage pressure: measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure Abs: always +ve Gage: either +ve or ²ve Depends on: pressure above atmospheric pressure (+ve) : pressure below atmospheric pressure (-ve) -ve gage pressure also referred as suction or vacuum pressure. 7 .Measurement of Pressure Pressure at a point within a fluid mass: designated either an absolute pressure or a gage pressure.

(abs) at a temperature of 680F] so that patm§ h. patm ! Kh  pvapor Where is the specific weight of mercury.pvapor=0. 8 . The column of mercury will come to an equilibrium position where its weight plus the force due to the vapor pressure balances the force due to the atmospheric pressure.000023 1b/in2.5 The tube is initially filled with mercury and turn upside down with the open end in the container of mercury. in millimeters or inches of mercury. Thus. the contribution of the vapor pressure can be neglected since it is very small [for mercury. Figure 2. For the most practical purposes.5: Mercury barometer It is convenient to specify atmospheric pressure in term of height.Measurement of Pressure ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE The measurement of Patm is usually accomplished with a mercury barometer as shown in Figure 2. h.

U-tube manometer. Piezometer Tube Fundamental equation describing their use: Remember! Fluid at rest: pressure will increased as we move downward.6: Piezometer tube p ! Kh  p 0 pA ! K1h1 Pressure at point 1. Figure 2. Involve column of fluids at rest Three common types: piezometer tube. Apply the equation to piezometer tube gives. inclined-tube manometer. 9 . decreased when move upward. P1 = PA since the elevation is same.Manometer Standard techniques for measuring pressure involves the use of liquid columns in vertical or inclined tube.

7: Simple U-tube manometer p K 1h1  K 2 h2 ! 0 .12 becomes. PA § P2 and eq. PA + 1h 1. 2.. p ! K 2 h2 10 .U-tube Manometer Fluid in manometer: gage fluid To find PA ... we start at point A and work around to the open end by applying equation P = h + P0 Start at A... PA = P1. so the equation above become Figure 2. move downward to 2. pressure decreased. P2 = P3. So. gage fluid can be different from the liquid in the container in which the pressure is to be determined. If A contained of gas.eq 2.. pressure increased.. From P3 to upward.12 In U-tube manometer.

Equation obtained: p A  K 1h1  K 2 h2  K 3 h3 ! p B and the pressure difference is: p  p B ! K 2 h2 K 3 h3  K 1h1 Figure 2.The U-tube manometer is also widely used to measure difference in pressure between two containers or two points in a given system.8: Differential U-tube manometer 11 .

9: Inclined-tube manometer h2 12 . which can be expressed as 2sin 2 Figure 2. The pressure difference (PA-PB) can be expressed by:     p K 1h1  K 2 N si U  K 3h3 ! p B 2 or p  p B ! K 2 N si U K 3 h3  K 1h1 2 Noted that. the pressure difference between points (1) and (2) is due to the vertical distance between the points.Inclined-Tube Manometer Used to measure small pressure changes.

p  p B ! K 2 N si U 2 or p  pB N! 2 K 2 si U Where the contributions of the gas column h1 and h3 have been neglected.The inclined-tube manometer is often used to measure small differences in gas pressures. so that if pipes A and B contain a gas then. 13 .

Flotation and Stability Archimedes· Principle When a body is completely submerged in a fluid. FB FB ! K = specific weight of fluid  = volume of the body @ displaced liquid 14 K . the resultant force acting on the body is called the buoyant force.Buoyancy. or floating so that it is only partially submerged.

The buoyant force passes through the centroid of the displaced volume.Thus. 15 . and the point through which the buoyant force acts is called center of buoyancy. The result is referred as Archimedes· principle. the buoyant force has a magnitude equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the body and is directed vertically upward.

when displaced (even slightly) it moves to a new equilibrium position. it returns to its equilibrium position. 16 . when displaced. If unstable equilibrium position.Stability A body is said to be in a stable equilibrium position if.

Center of buoyancy .centroid of a floating body 17 .

the body is stable (b) shows the neutral stability center of gravity = centroid 18 . .a small angular rotation result in a moment that continue to increase .overturning (a) If the center of gravity is below the centroid a small angular rotation provide restoring moment.For submerged body: If the center of gravity of the body is above the centroid (center of buoyancy) .

16: Stability of a floating body-stable configuration 19 . 2.For floating body: As shown in Fig.16. W. Figure 2. which will cause the body to return to its original equilibrium position. to form couple. a floating body such as a barge that rides low in water can be stable even though the center of gravity lies above the center of buoyancy. As body rotates FB shifts to pass through the centroid of the newly formed displaced volume and combined with weight.

However. a small rotational displacement can cause the buoyant force and the weight to form an overtuning couple as illustrated. 20 . slender body shown in Fig. 2.17: Stability of a floating body-unstable configuraton.17. for the relatively tall. Figure 2.

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