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Bone Histology Lecture Outline*
Chapter 6 Skeletal System: Bones and Bone Tissue
Skeletal System Functions
Support. Bone is hard and rigid; cartilage is flexible yet strong. Cartilage in nose, external ear, thoracic cage and trachea. Ligaments- bone to bone Protection. Skull around brain; ribs, sternum, vertebrae protect organs of thoracic cavity Movement. Produced by muscles on bones, via tendons. Ligaments allow some movement between bones but prevent excessive movement Storage. Ca and P. Stored then released as needed. Fat stored in marrow cavities Blood cell production. Bone marrow that gives rise to blood cells and platelets
Components of Skeletal System
Bone Cartilage: three types
± Hyaline ± Fibrocartilage ± Elastic
More delicate. No blood vessels in cartilage itself Articular cartilage.T. Chondrocytes within the tissue divide and add more matrix between the cells. New chondrocytes and new matrix at the periphery ± Interstitial. proteoglycans for resiliency Perichondrium. has fewer fibers. contains chondroblasts ± Outer. Collagen fibers for strength. Covers bones at joints.Hyaline Cartilage Consists of specialized cells that produce matrix ± Chondroblasts: form matrix ± Chondrocytes: surrounded by matrix. Double-layered C. Blood vessels and nerves penetrate. has no perichondrium Growth ± Appositional. Covers cartilage except at articulations ± Inner. 6-5 . sheath. are lacunae Matrix.
sternum. scapulae Irregular ± Ex. skull.Bone Shapes Long ± Ex. Carpals and tarsals Flat ± Ex. Ribs. Vertebrae. Upper and lower limbs Short ± Ex. facial 6-6 .
Long Bone Structure Diaphysis ± Shaft ± Compact bone Epiphysis ± End of the bone ± Cancellous bone Epiphyseal plate: growth plate ± Hyaline cartilage. Rest of skeleton is red. gradually changes to yellow in limb bones and skull (except for epiphyses of long bones). present until growth stops Epiphyseal line: bone stops growing in length Medullary cavity: In children medullary cavity is red marrow. ± Red marrow 6-7 ± Yellow marrow .
Similar to inner layer of periosteum. ± Sharpey¶s fibers: some periosteal fibers penetrate through the periosteum and into the bone. osteoclasts and osteochondral progenitor cells ± Fibers of tendon become continuous with fibers of periosteum.Long Bone Structure. Lines all internal spaces including spaces 6-8 in cancellous bone. Strengthen attachment of tendon to bone. Periosteum ± Outer is fibrous ± Inner is single layer of bone cells including osteoblasts. cont. Endosteum. .
epiphyses ± Sandwich of cancellous between compact bone Short and Irregular Bone ± Compact bone that surrounds cancellous bone center. 6-9 . similar to structure of epiphyses of long bones ± No diaphyses and not elongated Some flat and irregular bones of skull have sinuses lined by mucous membranes. Short.Flat. Irregular Bones Flat Bones ± No diaphyses.
Bone Histology Bone matrix. Like reinforced concrete. cement is hydroxyapetite ± Organic: collagen and proteoglycans ± Inorganic: hydroxyapetite. Rebar is collagen fibers. CaPO4 crystals Bone cells (see following slides for particulars) ± ± ± ± Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts Stem cells or osteochondral progenitor cells Woven bone: collagen fibers randomly oriented Lamellar bone: mature bone in sheets Cancellous bone: trabeculae Compact bone: dense 6-10 .
bone is too bendable If collagen removed. bone is too brittle 6-11 .Bone Matrix If mineral removed.
Osteoblasts communicate through gap junctions. Cells surround themselves by matrix. Released by exocytosis. Precursors of hydroxyapetite stored in vesicles.Bone Cells Osteoblasts ± Formation of bone through ossification or osteogenesis. then released by exocytosis. 6-12 . and golgi.R. ± Ossification: formation of bone by osteoblasts. Collagen produced by E.
Then can transfer nutrients from one cell to the next through gap junctions.Osteocytes Osteocytes. ± Lacunae: spaces occupied by osteocyte cell body ± Canaliculi: canals occupied by osteocyte cell processes ± Nutrients diffuse through tiny amount of liquid surrounding cell and filling lacunae and canaliculi. Stellate. Surrounded by matrix. but can make small amounts of matrix to maintain it. Mature bone cells. 6-13 .
acid forms. 6-14 .Osteoclasts and Stem Cells Osteoclasts. ± Derived from monocytes (which are formed from stem cells in red bone marrow) ± Multinucleated and probably arise from fusion of a number of cells Stem Cells. ± H ions pumped across membrane. eats away bone. Resorption of bone ± Ruffled border: where cell membrane borders bone and resorption is taking place. ± Release enzymes that digest the bone. Mesenchyme (Osteochondral Progenitor Cells) become chondroblasts or osteoblasts.
Woven and Lamellar Bone Woven bone. ± Formed During fetal development During fracture repair Remodeling ± Removing old bone and adding new ± Woven bone is remodeled into lamellar bone Lamellar bone ± Mature bone in sheets called lamellae. 6-15 . but in different directions in different layers for strength. Fibers are oriented in one direction in each layer. Collagen fibers randomly oriented.
± Oriented along stress lines 6-16 . ± Covered with endosteum.Cancellous (Spongy) Bone Trabeculae: interconnecting rods or plates of bone. Like scaffolding. ± Spaces filled with marrow.
Compact Bone Central or Haversian canals: parallel to long axis Lamellae: concentric. associated concentric lamellae and osteocytes Perforating or Volkmann¶s canal: perpendicular to long axis. contents. interstitial Osteon or Haversian system: central canal. circumferential. 6-17 . Both perforating and central canals contain blood vessels. Direct flow of nutrients from vessels through cell processes of osteoblasts and from one cell to the next.
Remnants of osteons replaced through remodeling 6-18 .Compact Bone Osteons (Haversian systems) ± Blood vessel-filled central canal (Haversian canal) ± Concentric lamellae of bone surround central canal ± Lacunae and canaliculi contain osteocytes and fluid Circumferential lamellae on the periphery of a bone Interstitial lamellae between osteons.
Circulation in Bone Perforating canals: blood vessels from periosteum penetrate bone Vessels of the central canal Nutrients and wastes travel to and from osteocytes via ± Interstitial fluid of lacunae and canaliculi ± From osteocyte to osteocyte by gap junctions 6-19 .
Bone Development: Two Types Intramembranous ossification ± Takes place in connective tissue membrane Endochondral ossification ± Takes place in cartilage Both methods of ossification ± Produce woven bone that is then remodeled ± After remodeling. formation cannot be distinguished as one or other 6-20 .
Intramembranous Ossification Takes place in connective tissue membrane formed from embryonic mesenchyme Forms many skull bones. unossified 6-21 . part of mandible. Centers of ossification: locations in membrane where ossification begins Fontanels: large membrane-covered spaces between developing skull bones. indistinguishable from endochondral bone. diaphyses of clavicles When remodeled.
Intramembranous Ossification 6-22 .
some does not begin until 18-20 years of age 6-23 .Endochondral Ossification Bones of the base of the skull. and most of remaining bones of skeletal system Cartilage formation begins at end of fourth week of development Some ossification beginning at about week eight. part of the mandible. epiphyses of the clavicles.
Endochondral Ossification 6-24 .
Endochondral Ossification 6-25 .
Endochondral Ossification 6-26 .
Growth in Bone Length Appositional growth only ± Interstitial growth cannot occur because matrix is solid ± Occurs on old bone and/or on cartilage surface Growth in length occurs at the epiphyseal plate Involves the formation of new cartilage by ± Interstitial cartilage growth ± Appositional growth on the surface of the cartilage Closure of epiphyseal plate: epiphyseal plate is ossified becoming the epiphyseal line. and persists through life 6-27 . Between 12 and 25 years of age Articular cartilage: does not ossify.
Zones of the Epiphyseal Plate 6-28 .
Growth in Bone Length 6-29 .
Growth at Articular Cartilage Increases size of bones with no epiphyses: e.g. short bones Chondrocytes near the surface of the articular cartilage similar to those in zone of resting cartilage 6-30 ..
Fracture of the Epiphyseal Plate 6-31 .
Growth in Bone Width 6-32 .
teeth to fall out 6-33 . protein and other nutrients during growth and development can cause bones to be small ± Vitamin D Necessary for absorption of calcium from intestines Can be eaten or manufactured in the body Rickets: lack of vitamin D during childhood Osteomalacia: lack of vitamin D during adulthood leading to softening of bones ± Vitamin C Necessary for collagen synthesis by osteoblasts Scurvy: deficiency of vitamin C Lack of vitamin C also causes wounds not to heal.Factors Affecting Bone Growth Size and shape of a bone determined genetically but can be modified and influenced by nutrition and hormones Nutrition ± Lack of calcium.
Hormones ± Growth hormone from anterior pituitary.Factors Affecting Bone Growth. but also cause closure of the epiphyseal plates and the cessation of growth 6-34 . cont. Stimulates interstitial cartilage growth and appositional bone growth ± Thyroid hormone required for growth of all tissues ± Sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone Cause growth at puberty.
Formation of new osteons in compact bone ± Osteoclasts enter the osteon from blood in the central canal and internally remove lamellae. Bone constantly removed by osteoclasts and new bone formed by osteoblasts. bone repair.Bone Remodeling Converts woven bone into lamellar bone Involved in bone growth. adjustments in bone due to stress. Osteoblasts replace bone ± Osteoclasts remove bone from the exterior and the bone is rebuilt 6-35 . and Ca ion regulation Relative thickness of bone changes as bone grows. changes in bone shape.
New bone is formed. ± Internal.blood vessels grow into clot in hematoma. Clot formation. Callus formation. 2. fibroblasts produce collagen and granulation tissue. Hematoma formation. Osteoblasts invade. Macrophages clean up debris. Periosteal osteochondral progenitor cells p osteoblasts and chondroblasts.Bone Repair 1. Bone/cartilage collar stabilizes two pieces.collar around opposing ends. Chondroblasts from osteochondral progenitor cells of periosteum and endosteum produce cartilage within the collagen. 6-36 ± . osteoclasts break down dead tissue. External. Localized mass of blood released from blood vessels but confined within an organ or space. Callus: mass of tissue that forms at a fracture site and connects the broken ends of the bone.
Callus replaced by woven. cont. Callus ossification. Bone remodeling. Replacement of cancellous bone and damaged material by compact bone.Bone Repair. 3. cancellous bone 4. Sculpting of site by osteoclasts 6-37 .
calcium leaves bone when osteoclasts break down bone ± Two hormones control blood calcium levelsparathyroid hormone and calcitonin. ± Calcium enters bone when osteoblasts create new bone.Calcium Homeostasis Bone is major storage site for calcium The level of calcium in the blood depends upon movement of calcium into or out of bone. 6-38 .
Calcium Homeostasis 6-39 .
Men denser due to testosterone and greater weight. Rate of bone loss increases 10 fold after menopause. Highest around 30. Cancellous bone lost first. pain. Bone mass decreases. loss of height. stiffness ± Stooped posture ± Loss of teeth 6-40 .Effects of Aging on Skeletal System Bone matrix decreases. Increased bone fractures Bone loss causes deformity. African Americans and Hispanics have higher bone masses than Caucasians and Asians. More brittle due to lack of collagen. then compact. but also less hydroxyapetite.
Incomplete.Bone Fractures Open (compound). Complete.Skin not perforated.doesn¶t extend across the bone. Bone may be sticking out of wound.bone break with open wound. Common in skull fractures Comminuted fractures: complete with break into more than two pieces 6-41 . Closed (simple).does Greenstick: incomplete fracture that occurs on the convex side of the curve of a bone Hairline: incomplete where two sections of bone do not separate.
Bone Fractures. Impacted fractures: one fragment is driven into the cancellous portion of the other fragment. cont. Classified on basis of direction of fracture Linear Transverse Spiral Oblique Dentate: rough. toothed. broken ends Stellate radiating out from a central point. 6-42 .