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÷  
 
³To get things done´

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„ 
 To increase Specialization and
division of labour.
 To use large scale technology.

 To manage the external environment.

 To economize on transaction cost.

 To exert power and control.


u 
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 ÿonsciously coordinated
 Social entity

 Relatively identifiable

boundary
 ÿontinuing bond

 Goals
³An
An organization is a collectivity with a relatively
identifiable boundary, a normative order (rules),
ranks of authority (hierarchy), communication
systems, and membership coordinating systems
(procedure); this collectively exists on a relatively
continuous basis, in environments, and engages in
activities that are usually related to a set of goals;
the activities have outcomes for organizational
members, for the organization itself and the
society´.
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|rganizational Structure
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By organizational structure we
mean ´the distributions, along
various lines, of people along
various lines, of people among
social positions that influence
the role relations among these
peopleµ

à AU
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UREAUÿRAÿ
§AX WE ER ANu UREAUÿRAÿ
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Bureaucracy is an administrative
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scale administrative tasks by
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work of many individuals.
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Rational planning proposed that structure


was the logical outcome of organization's
objectives.
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The contingency movement gained its
momentum in the 19† s. However, Herbert
Simon argued that organization theory needed
to go beyond superficial and oversimplified
principles to study of the conditions under
which competing principles were applicable.
(the then principles were simplistic principles).
mt took approximately 2 years for
organization theorists to effectively respond to
Simons challenge.
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ÿontributions
 mnvestigated numerous environmentà
environmentàstructure
relationship.
 Õarious types of environments have been
identified.
 Researches have been conducted as to which
organization structure suits best with various
types of environments.
³every discussion is based on the major
contingency factor, environment, influencing the
preferred form of structure.´
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mn addition to environment and technology, this


theory includes those who advocate organization
size as an important factor influencing structure.
arge organizations have been shown to have
many common structural components ( also in
small organizations). The evidence suggests that
certain of these components follow an
established pattern as organizations expand in
size.
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They argued that most decision makers selected
satisfactory alternativesà
alternativesà alternatives that were
good enough. |nly with the exceptional cases
would they be concerned with the discovery and
selection of optimal alternatives. The revised
model would recognize the limits of decision
makers rationality and acknowledge the
presence of conflicting goals.
   
  

 
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