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Chapter 1

What Is Organizational
Behaviour?

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Chapter 1 Outline

• Defining Organizational Behaviour


• Today’s Challenges in the Canadian
Workplace
• OB: Making Sense of Behaviour in
Organizations

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
What Is Organizational
Behaviour?

1. What is organizational behaviour?


2. What challenges do managers and employees
face in today’s workplace?
3. Isn’t organizational behaviour common
sense? Or just like psychology?

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Organizational Behaviour

• A field of study that investigates the impact


that individuals, groups, and structure on
behaviour within organizations; the aim is to
apply such knowledge toward improving
organizational effectiveness.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Why Do We Study OB?

• To learn about yourself and others


• To understand how the many organizations you
encounter work
• To become familiar with team work
• To help you think about the people issues faced by
managers and entrepreneurs

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
What Is an Organization?

• A consciously coordinated social unit:


– composed of a group of people
– functioning on a relatively continuous basis
– to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Exhibit 1-1
Basic OB Model

Organization systems level

Group level

Individual level

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Today’s Challenges in the
Canadian Workplace
• Challenges at the Individual Level
– Individual Differences
– Job Satisfaction
– Motivation
– Empowerment
– Behaving Ethically

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Today’s Challenges in the
Canadian Workplace
• Challenges at the Group Level
– Working With Others
– Workforce Diversity

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Today’s Challenges in the
Canadian Workplace
• Challenges at the Organizational Level
– Productivity
– Developing Effective Employees
– Putting People First
– Global Competition
– Managing and Working in a Multicultural
World

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Today’s Challenges in the
Canadian Workplace
• Challenges at the Organizational Level
– Productivity
• A performance measure including effectiveness
and efficiency.
– Effectiveness
• The achievement of goals.
– Efficiency
• The ratio of effective work output to the input
required to produce the work.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Developing Effective Employees

• Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)


– Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an
employee’s formal job requirements, but
that nevertheless promotes the effective
functioning of the organization.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Putting People First

• Putting people first generates a committed


workforce, and positively affects the
bottom line.
• People will work harder when they feel they
have “more control and say in their work.”

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
How to Put People First

• Provide employment security.


• Hire well.
• Create self-managed teams.
• Pay well.
• Provide extensive training.
• Reduce status differences.
• Share information about organizational
performance.
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Global Competition

• In recent years, Canadian businesses have


faced tough competition from the United
States, Europe, Japan, and even China, as
well as from other companies within our
borders.
• To survive, they have had to reduce costs,
increase productivity, and improve quality.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Managing and Working in a
Multicultural World
• Managers and employees must become capable
of working with people from different
cultures:
– Multinational corporations are developing
operations worldwide.
– Companies are developing joint ventures with
foreign partners.
– Workers are pursuing job opportunities across
national borders.
• Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
The Building Blocks of OB

• Psychology
• Sociology
• Social Psychology
• Anthropology
• Political Science

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Exhibit 1-2
Toward an OB Discipline
Behavioural Contribution Unit of Output
science analysis
Learning
Motivation
Perception
Training
Leadership effectiveness
Job satisfaction
Psychology Individual decision making
Performance appraisal
Attitude measurement
Employee selection
Work design
Work stress
Individual

Group dynamics
Work teams
Communication
Power
Conflict
Intergroup behaviour
Sociology
Formal organization theory Study of
Organizational technology Group Organizational
Organizational change Behaviour
Organizational culture

Behavioural change
Attitude change
Social psychology Communication
Group processes
Group decision making
Organization
Comparative values system
Comparative attitudes
Cross-cultural analysis
Anthropology
Organizational culture
Organizational environment

Conflict
Political science Intraorganizational politics
Power
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
The Rigour of OB

• OB Looks at Consistencies
– What is common about behaviour, and helps
predictability?
• OB Looks Beyond Common Sense
– Systematic study, based on scientific evidence
• OB Has Few Absolutes
• OB Takes a Contingency Approach
– Considers behaviour in context

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Exhibit 1-3
Research Methods in OB
Field Studies

in real life organizations

Meta-Analysis Laboratory Studies


using statistics to in simulated and
pool results of controlled settings
different studies
Sources of
research insight
in OB

Survey Studies Case Studies


using looking in depth
and interviews in
questionnaires at single situations
sample populations

Source: J. R. Schermerhorn, J.G. Hunt, and R. N. Osborn, Organizational Behaviour, 9th Edition, 2005, p. 4. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Reprinted with the permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
OB Looks at Consistencies

• What is common about behaviour, and helps


predictability?
– Certainly there are differences among
individuals.
– Placed in similar situations, all people don’t
act exactly alike.
• However, there are certain fundamental
consistencies underlying the behaviour of
all individuals.
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
OB Looks Beyond Common
Sense
• Systematic study
– Looking at relationships, attempting to
attribute causes and effects and drawing
conclusions based on scientific evidence
• Behaviour is generally predictable.
• There are differences between individuals.
• There are fundamental consistencies.
• There are rules (written and unwritten) in almost
every setting.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
OB Has Few Absolutes

• There are few simple and universal principles


that explain organizational behaviour.
• Human beings are very complex.
• Humans are not alike, which limits the ability
to make simple, accurate, and sweeping
generalizations.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
OB Takes a Contingency
Approach
• Considers behaviour within the context in
which it occurs.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Summary and Implications

1. What is organizational behaviour?


– OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that
individuals, groups, and structure have on
behaviour within an organization.
2. What challenges do managers and employees face in
today’s workplace?
– Each level of analysis—the individual, the group, and
the organization—presents challenges

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Summary and Implications

3. Isn’t organizational behaviour common sense?


Or just like psychology?
– OB is built on contributions from a number of
behavioural disciplines, including
psychology, sociology, social psychology,
anthropology, and political science. It
goes beyond “common sense.”

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
OB at Work

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
For Review
1. Define organizational behaviour.
2. What is an organization? Is the family unit an organization? Explain.
3. “Behaviour is generally predictable, so there is no need to formally
study OB.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?
4. What are some of the challenges and opportunities that managers face
in today’s workplace?
5. What are the three levels of analysis in our OB model? Are they
related? If so, how?
6. Why is job satisfaction an important consideration for OB?
7. What are effectiveness and efficiency, and how are they related to OB?
8. What does it mean to say OB takes a contingency approach in its
analysis of behaviour?

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
For Critical Thinking

1. “OB is for everyone.” Build an argument to support this


statement.
2. Why do you think the subject of OB might be criticized as being
“only common sense,” when we would rarely hear such a
criticism of a course in physics or statistics? Do you think
this criticism of OB is fair?
3. On a scale of 1 to 10 measuring the sophistication of a scientific
discipline in predicting phenomena, mathematical physics
would probably be a 10. Where do you think OB would fall
on the scale? Why?
4. Can empowerment lead to greater job satisfaction?

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Learning About Yourself Exercise
•1. Taking initiative •13. Understanding yourself and
•2. Goal setting others
•14. Interpersonal communication
•3. Delegating effectively
•15. Developing subordinates
•4. Personal productivity and
motivation •16. Team building
•5. Motivating others •17. Participative decision making

•6. Time and stress management •18. Conflict management

•7. Planning •19. Living with change

•8. Organizing •20. Creative thinking

•9. Controlling •21. Managing change

•10. Receiving and organizing •


22. Building and maintaining a power
information base
•11. Evaluating routine •23. Negotiating agreement and

information commitment
•12. Responding to routine •24. Negotiating and selling ideas

information
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Learning About Yourself

• Scoring Key

• Director: 1, 2, 3 Mentor: 13, 14, 15
• Producer: 4, 5, 6 Facilitator: 16, 17, 18
• Coordinator: 7, 8, 9 Innovator: 19, 20, 21
• Monitor: 10, 11, 12 Broker: 22, 23, 24
Source: Created based on material from R. E. Quinn, S. R. Faerman, M. P. Thompson, and M. R. McGrath, Becoming A Master Manager: A Competency
Framework (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1990), Chapter 1.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Breakout Group Exercises
• Form small groups to discuss the following topics:
1. Consider a group situation in which you have worked. To what extent did
the group rely on the technical skills of the group members vs. their
interpersonal skills? Which skills seemed most important in helping
the group function well?

•2. Identify some examples of “worst jobs.” What conditions of these


jobs made them unpleasant? To what extent were these conditions
related to behaviours of individuals?

•3. Develop a list of “organizational puzzles,” that is, behaviour you’ve


observed in organizations that seemed to make little sense. As the term
progresses, see if you can begin to explain these puzzles, using your
knowledge of OB.
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Working With Others Exercise

•This exercise asks you to consider the skills outlined in the


“Competing Values Framework” to develop an understanding of
managerial expertise. Steps 1–4 can be completed in 15–20
minutes.
•1. Using the skills listed in “Learning About Yourself,” identify the 4

skills that you think all managers should have.


•2. Identify the 4 skills that you think are least important for managers

to have.
•3. In groups of 5–7, reach a consensus on the most-needed and least-

needed skills identified in Steps 1 and 2.


•4. Using Exhibit 1-6, determine whether your “ideal” managers would

have trouble managing in some dimensions of organizational


demands.
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Exhibit 1-4
Competing Values Framework
Flexibility
Internal Focus

External Focus
Source: Adapted from K. Cameron and R.
E. Quinn, Diagnosing and Changing
Organizational Culture: Based on the
Competing Values Framework (Reading,
MA: Addison Wesley Longman, 1999).

Control
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Competing Values Framework

• Internal-External Dimension
– Inwardly, toward employee needs and concerns and/or production
processes and internal systems
• or
– Outwardly, toward such factors as the marketplace, government
regulations, and the changing social, environmental, and
technological conditions of the future
• Flexibility-Control Dimension
– Flexible and dynamic, allowing more teamwork and participation;
seeking new opportunities for products and services
• or
– Controlling or stable, maintaining the status quo and exhibiting less
change

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Exhibit 1-5 Skills for Mastery in
the New Workplace Flexibility
1. Understanding
yourself and others
2. Interpersonal 1. Living with change
communication 2. Creative thinking
3. Developing 3. Managing change
subordinates

1. Team building 1. Building and maintaining


2. Participative Mentor Innovator a power base
decision making 2. Negotiating agreement
3. Conflict and commitment
management 3. Negotiating and
Facilitator Broker selling ideas
Internal External
1. Receiving and
Monitor Producer 1. Personal productivity
organizing information and motivation
2. Evaluating 2. Motivating others
routine information 3. Time and stress
3. Responding to Coordinator Director management
routine information

1. Planning 1. Taking initiative


2. Organizing 2. Goal setting
3. Controlling 3. Delegating effectively

Control
Source: R.E. Quinn. Beyond Rational Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1988, p. 48.

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Supplemental Material

Slides for activities I do in my own


classroom

Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C
Exercise

• In groups of 6
– Introduce yourselves.
– Pick an interviewer.
– Decide on questions or topics you want interviewer to
ask me.
• The interview
– Introduce interviewer to me and the class.
– Ask one question from your list (we will go around
the groups with one question at a time).
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-‹#›
Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Organizational Behaviour, Fourth Canadian Edition 1-Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education C