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Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


] 
K e advantages of ydraulic systems over ot er met ods of power transmission are-
‡ Simpler design. In most cases, a few pre-engineered components will replace
complicated mec anical linkages.
‡ Flexibility. Hydraulic components can be located wit considerable flexibility. Pipes
and oses instead of mec anical elements virtually eliminate location problems.
‡ Smoot ness. Hydraulic systems are smoot and quiet in operation. Vibration is kept
to a minimum.
‡ Control. Control of a wide range of speed and forces is easily possible.
‡ Cost. Hig efficiency wit minimum friction loss keeps t e cost of a power
transmission at a minimum.
‡ Overload protection. Automatic valves guard t e system against a breakdown from
overloading.

‡K e main disadvantage of a ydraulic system is maintaining t e precision parts w en


t ey are exposed to bad climates and dirty atmosp eres. [Protection against rust,
corrosion, dirt, oil deterioration, and ot er adverse environmental conditions is very
important]

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


]  

 
 
In t is system (Figure 2-1), a reservoir and a system of valves as been added to
Pascal's ydraulic lever to stroke a small cylinder or pump continuously and raise a
large piston or an actuator a notc wit eac stroke.
Diagram A s ows an intake stroke.
Diagram B s ows t e pump stroking downward.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


]   

‡ Figure 2-2 s ows a power-driven pump operating a reversible rotary motor.


‡ A reversing valve directs fluid to eit er side of t e motor and back to t e reservoir.
‡ A relief valve protects t e system against excess pressure and can bypass pump output
to t e reservoir, if pressure rises too ig .

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 
‡ In t is system, a control-valve spool must be open in t e center to allow pump flow to
pass t roug t e valve and return to t e reservoir.
‡Ko operate several functions simultaneously, an open-center system must ave t e
correct connections, An open-center system is efficient on single functions but is limited
wit multiple functions.

› 


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 
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 ›› 
›.
‡ Figure 2-4 s ows an open-center system wit a series connection.
‡ Oil from a pump is routed to t e t ree control valves in series. K e return from t e first
valve is routed to t e inlet of t e second, and so on.
‡ In neutral, t e oil passes t roug t e valves in series and returns to t e reservoir, as
t e arrows indicate.
‡ W en a control valve is operated, t e incoming oil is diverted to t e cylinder t at t e
valve serves. Return liquid from t e cylinder is directed t roug t e return line and on
to t e next valve.

ÑK is system is satisfactory as long as only one valve is operating


Hydraulic System Ranaat aKiran
Ravi time.
 

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‡ Figure 2-5 s ows a variation on t e series connection.
‡ Oil from t e pump is routed t roug t e control valves in series, as well as in parallel.
‡ In neutral, a liquid passes t roug t e valves in series, as t e arrows indicate.
‡ However, w en any valve is operating, t e return is closed and t e oil is available to all
t e valves t roug t e parallel connection.

ÑK is ability to operate two or more valves simultaneously is an advantage


Hydraulicover
Systemt eRana
series connection.
Ravi Kiran
 
[ 

 
‡ Figure 2-6 s ows an open-center system wit a flow divider.
‡ A flow divider takes t e volume of oil from a pump and divides it between two functions.
‡ For example, a flow divider mig t be designed to open t e left side first in case bot
control valves were actuated simultaneously. Or, it mig t divide t e oil to bot sides,
equally or by percentage.
‡ Wit t is system, a pump must be large enoug to operate all t e functions
simultaneously. It must also supply all t e liquid at t e maximum pressure of t e ig est
function, meaning large amounts of p are wasted w en operating only one control valve.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran



 
 
‡ In t is system, a pump can rest w en t e oil is not required to operate a function.
‡ K is means t at a control valve is closed in t e center, stopping t e flow of t e oil from
t e pump.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran



 
 
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  ›› .
‡ Figure 2-8 s ows a closed-center system.
‡ In t is system, a pump of small but constant volume c arges an accumulator. W en an
accumulator is c arged to full pressure, an unloading valve diverts t e pump flow back to a
reservoir.
‡ A c eck valve traps t e pressured oil in t e circuit.
‡ W en a control valve is operated, an accumulator disc arges its oil and actuates a cylinder. As
pressure begins to drop, an unloading valve directs t e pump flow to an accumulator to rec arge
t e flow.
‡ K is system, using a small capacity pump, is effective w en operating oil is needed only for a
s ort time. However, w en t e functions need a lot of oil for longer periods, an accumulator
system cannot andle it unless t e accumulator is very large.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Wit a closed-center system, t e
quantity of oil to eac function can be
controlled by line or valve size or by
orificing compare to open-center
system easily.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


  

‡K e figures t at s ow oil-flow conditions or pat s are prepared wit
industrial standardized color codes.
‡Kable 2-1 lists t e colors for t e ydraulic lines and passages t at are in
many of t e figures:

 !"##!$

%&$$ ##!

Operating pressure '

Ex aust ] 

Intake or drain !%

Metered flow #(

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


RESERVOIRS

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


A reservoir stores a liquid t at is not being used in a ydraulic system. It also
allows gases to expel and foreign matter to settle out from a liquid.

 .
! A properly constructed reservoir s ould be able to dissipate eat from t e oil,
separate air from t e oil, and settle out contaminates t at are in it.
! Reservoirs range in construction from small steel stampings to large cast or
fabricated units.
! K e large tanks s ould be sandblasted after all t e welding is completed and t en
flus ed and steam cleaned. Doing so removes welding scale and scale left from ot-
rolling t e steel)
! K e inner surface t en s ould be sealed wit a paint compatible wit t e ydraulic
fluid. Non bleeding red engine enamel is suitable for petroleum oil and seals in any
residual dirt not removed by flus ing and steam cleaning.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


] )
Figure 2-11 s ows some of t e design features of a reservoir.
‡ It s ould be ig and narrow rat er t an s allow and broad.
‡ K e oil level s ould be as ig as possible above t e opening to a pump's suction
line.
‡ K is prevents t e vacuum at t e line opening from causing a vortex or w irlpool
effect, w ic would mean t at a system is probably taking in air.
‡ Aerated oil will not properly transmit power because air is compressible. Aerated
oil as a tendency to break down and lose its lubricating ability.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


*.
Reservoir sizes will vary. However, a reservoir must be large enoug so t at it
as a reserve of oil wit all t e cylinders in a system fully extended.
An oil reserve must be ig enoug to prevent a vortex at t e suction line's
opening. A reservoir must ave sufficient space to old all t e oil w en t e cylinders are
retracted, as well as allow space for expansion w en t e oil is ot.

Example: A common-size reservoir on a mobile mac ine is a 20- or 30-gallon


tank used wit a 100-GPM system.
A large-size tank is ig ly desirable for cooling. K e large surface areas
exposed to t e outside air transfer eat from t e oil. Also, a large tank elps settle out
t e contaminates and separates t e air by reducing recirculation.

   Most mobile equipment reservoirs are located above t e pumps. K is


creates a flooded-pump-inlet condition. K is condition reduces t e possibility of pump
cavitation-a condition w ere all t e available space is not filled and often metal parts will
erode. Flooding t e inlet also reduces t e vortex tendency at a suction pipe's opening.
A reservoir's location affects eat dissipation. Ideally, all tank walls s ould be
exposed to t e outside air. Heat moves from a ot substance to a cold substance; eat
transfer is greatest w en t ere is a large temperature difference. Reservoirs t at are
built into front-end loader arms are very effective in transferring eat.
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
  
  * 
! Most reservoirs are vented to t e atmosp ere. A vent opening allows air to leave or
enter t e space above t e oil as t e level of t e oil goes up or down.
! K is maintains a constant atmosp eric pressure above t e oil.

! A reservoir filter cap, wit a filter element, is often used as a vent.


! Some reservoirs are pressurized, using a simple pressure-control valve rat er t an a
vented one.
! A pressure-control valve automatically lets filtered air into a tank but prevents air
release unless t e pressure reac es a preset level.

! A pressurized reservoir takes place w en t e oil and air in a tank expand from eat.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 
! A pump suction and a tank's return lines s ould be attac ed by flanges or by welded
eavy-duty couplings. Standard couplings usually are not suitable because t ey
spread w en welded.
! If a suction line is connected at t e bottom, a coupling s ould extend well above t e
bottom, inside t e tank; residual dirt will not get in a suction line w en a tank or
strainer is cleaned.
! A return line s ould disc arge near a tank's bottom, always below t e oil level. A pipe
is usually cut at a 45-degree angle and t e flow aimed away from a suction line to
improve circulation and cooling.
! A baffle plate is used to separate a suction line from a return line.
! K is causes t e return oil to circulate around an outer wall for cooling before it gets
to t e pump again.
! A baffle plate s ould be about two-t irds t e eig t of a tank. K e lower corners are
cut diagonally to allow circulation.
! K ey must be larger in area t an a suction line's cross section.
  
! Maintenance procedures include draining and cleaning a reservoir.
! A plug fitting s ould be flus wit t e inside of a tank to allow for full drainage.
! A reservoir s ould ave a sig t gauge or dipstick for c ecking t e oil level to prevent
damage from lubrication loss.
! W en a reservoir is pressurized by compressed air, moisture can become a
maintenance problem. A tank s ould ave a water trap for moisture removal; it
s ould be placed w ere it can be inspected daily.

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STRAINERS & FILTERS

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


! Ko keep ydraulic components performing correctly, t e ydraulic liquid must be kept as clean as
possible. (Foreign matter and tiny metal particles). Strainers, filters, and magnetic plugs are used
to remove foreign particles from a ydraulic liquid and are effective as safeguards against
contamination.
SKRAINERS:
! A strainer is t e primary filtering system t at removes large particles of foreign matter from a
ydraulic liquid. (Screening action).
! A strainer usually consists of a metal frame wrapped wit a fine-mes wire screen or a screening
element made up of varying t icknesses of specially processed wire.
! Figure 2-12 s ows a strainer in t ree possible arrangements for use in a pump inlet line. If one
strainer causes excessive flow friction to a pump, two or more can be used in parallel. Strainers
and pipe fittings must always be below t e liquid level in t e tank.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


FILKERS.
! A filter removes small foreign particles from a ydraulic fluid and is most effective as a safeguard
against contaminants.
! Filters are located in a reservoir, a pressure line, a return line, or in any ot er location w ere
necessary. K ey are classified as full flow or proportional flow.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


     )

! K e general classes of filter materials are mec anical, absorbent inactive, and
absorbent active.
! Mec anical filters, contain closely woven metal screens or discs. K ey generally
remove only fairly coarse particles.
! Absorbent inactive filters, suc as cotton, wood pulp, yarn, clot , or resin, remove
muc smaller particles; some remove water and water-soluble contaminants. K e
elements often are treated to make t em sticky to attract t e contaminants found in
ydraulic oil.
! Absorbent active materials, suc as c arcoal and fuller's eart (a claylike material of
very fine particles used in t e purification of mineral or vegetable-base oils), are not
recommended for ydraulic systems.

   )
! K e t ree basic types of filter elements are surface, edge, and dept .
! A surface-type element is made of closely woven fabric or treated paper. Oil flows
t roug t e pores of t e filter material, and t e contaminants are stopped.
! An edge-type filter is made up of paper or metal discs; oil flows t roug t e spaces
between t e discs. K e fineness of t e filtration is determined by t e closeness of
t e discs.
! A dept -type element is made up of t ick layers of cotton, felt, or ot er fibers.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


ACCUMULATORS

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


   )

! Like an electrical storage battery, a ydraulic accumulator stores


potential power, in t is case liquid under pressure, for future
conversion into useful work.
! K is work can include operating cylinders and fluid motors,
maintaining t e required system pressure in case of pump or power
failure, and compensating for pressure loss due to leakage.
! Accumulators can be employed as fluid dispensers and fluid
barriers and can provide a s ock-absorbing (cus ioning) action.
! Example:Accumulators are used mainly on t e lift equipment to
provide positive clamping action on t e eavy loads w en a pump's
flow is diverted to lifting or ot er operations.
! An accumulator acts as a safety device to prevent a load from being
dropped in case of an engine or pump failure or fluid leak.
! On lifts and ot er equipment, accumulators absorb s ock, w ic
results from a load starting, stopping, or reversal.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
   
a. Spring-Loaded Accumulator. It uses t e energy stored in springs to create a
constant force on t e liquid contained in an adjacent ram assembly.
! Figure 2-15 s ows two spring-loaded accumulators.
! K e load c aracteristics of a spring are suc t at t e energy storage depends on
t e force required to compress a spring.
! K e free (uncompressed) lengt of a spring represents zero energy storage.As a
spring is compressed to t e maximum installed lengt , a minimum pressure value
of t e liquid in a ram assembly is establis ed.
! As liquid under pressure enters t e ram cylinder, causing a spring to compress,
t e pressure on t e liquid will rise because of t e increased loading required to
compress t e spring.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


b. Bag-Kype Accumulator. K is accumulator (Figure 2-16) consists of a seamless,
ig -pressure s ell, cylindrical in s ape, wit domed ends and a synt etic rubber
bag t at separates t e liquid and gas (usually nitrogen) wit in t e accumulator.
! K e bag is fully enclosed in t e upper end of a s ell. K e gas system contains a
ig -pressure gas valve. K e bottom end of t e s ell is sealed wit a special plug
assembly containing a liquid port and a safety feature t at makes it impossible to
disassemble t e accumulator wit pressure in t e system.
! K e bag is larger at t e top and tapers to a smaller diameter at t e bottom. As t e
pump forces liquid into t e accumulator s ell, t e liquid presses against t e bag,
reduces its volume, and increases t e pressure, w ic is t en available to do work.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


c. Piston-Kype Accumulator. K is accumulator consists of a cylinder assembly, a piston
assembly, and two end-cap assemblies. K e cylinder assembly ouses a piston
assembly and incorporates provisions for securing t e end-cap assemblies.
! An accumulator contains a free-floating piston wit liquid on one side of t e piston
and prec arged air or nitrogen on t e ot er side (Figure 2-17).
! An increase of liquid volume decreases t e gas volume and increases gas
pressure, w ic provides a work potential w en t e liquid is allowed to disc arge.

d. Maintenance. Before removing an accumulator for repairs, relieve t e internal


pressure: in a spring-loaded type, relieve t e spring tension; in a piston or bag type,
relieve t e gas or liquid pressure. Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
    
  )
Pressure gauges are used in liquid-powered systems to measure pressure
to maintain efficient and safe operating levels. Pressure is measured in psi.
Flow measurement may be expressed in units of rate of flow-GPM or cubic
feet per second (cfs). It may also be expressed in terms of total quantity-gallons or
cubic feet.
! a. Pressure Gauges. Figure 2-18 s ows a simple pressure gauge. Gauge
readings indicate t e fluid pressure set up by an opposition of forces wit in a
system. Atmosp eric pressure is negligible because its action at one place is
balanced by its equal action at anot er place in a system.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


b. Meters. Measuring flow depends on t e quantities, flow rates, and types of liquid
involved. All liquid meters (flowmeters) are made to measure specific liquids and
must be used only for t e purpose for w ic t ey were made. Eac meter is
tested and calibrated.
In a nutating-piston-disc flowmeter, liquid passes t roug a fixed-volume measuring
c amber, w ic is divided into upper and lower compartments by a piston disc
(Figure 2-19).
! During operation, one compartment is continually being filled w ile t e ot er is
being emptied. As a liquid passes t roug t ese compartments, its pressure
causes a piston disc to roll around in t e c amber.
! K e disc's movements operate a dial (or counter) t roug gearing elements to
indicate t at a column of fluid t at as passed t roug t e meter.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 )
! Hydraulic pumps convert mec anical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric
motor) into ydraulic (pressure) energy.
! K e pressure energy is used t en to operate an actuator.
! Pumps pus on a ydraulic fluid and create flow.

Pump Classifications:
! All pumps create flow. K ey operate on t e displacement principle.
! Pumps t at disc arge liquid in a continuous flow are nonpositive-displacement type.
! Pumps t at disc arge volumes of liquid separated by periods of no disc arge are
positive-displacement type.

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a) Nonpositive-Displacement Pumps. Wit t is pump, t e volume of liquid delivered for
eac cycle depends on t e resistance offered to flow.
! A pump produces a force on t e liquid t at is constant for eac particular speed of
t e pump. Resistance in a disc arge line produces a force in t e opposite direction.
! W en t ese forces are equal, a liquid is in a state of equilibrium and does not flow.
! If t e outlet of a nonpositive-displacement pump is completely closed, t e disc arge
pressure will rise to t e maximum for a pump operating at a maximum speed.
! A pump will c urn a liquid and produce eat. Figure 3-1 s ows a nonpositive-
displacement pump. A water w eel picks up t e fluid and moves it.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


b. Positive-Displacement Pumps. Wit t is pump, a definite volume of liquid is
delivered for eac cycle of pump operation, regardless of resistance, as
long as t e capacity of t e power unit driving a pump is not exceeded.
! If an outlet is completely closed, eit er t e unit driving a pump will stall or
somet ing will break.
! K erefore, a positive-displacement-type pump requires a pressure
regulator or pressure-relief valve in t e system.
! Figure 3-2 s ows a reciprocating-type, positive-displacement pump.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Figure 3-3 s ows anot er positive-displacement pump.
! K is pump not only creates flow, but it also backs it up. A sealed case around t e
gear traps t e fluid and olds it w ile it moves.
! As t e fluid flows out of t e ot er side, it is sealed against backup. K is sealing is t e
positive part of displacement.
! Wit out it, t e fluid could never overcome t e resistance of t e ot er parts in a
system.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


c. C aracteristics. K e t ree contrasting c aracteristics in t e operation of
positive- and non positive-displacement pumps are as follows:
! Non positive-displacement pumps provide a smoot , continuous flow;
positive displacement pumps ave a pulse wit eac stroke or eac
time a pumping c amber opens to an outlet port.
! Pressure can reduce a non positive pump's delivery. Hig outlet pressure
can stop any output; t e liquid simply recirculates inside t e pump.
In a positive-displacement pump, pressure affects t e output only to
t e extent t at it increases internal leakage.
! Non positive-displacement pumps, wit t e inlets and outlets connected
ydraulically, cannot create a vacuum sufficient for self-priming; t ey must
be started wit t e inlet line full of liquid and free of air.
Positive displacement pumps often are self-priming w en started
properly.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


   
Pumps are usually rated according to t eir volumetric output and pressure.
! Volumetric output (delivery rate or capacity) is t e amount of liquid t at a
pump can deliver at its outlet port per unit of time at a given drive speed,
usually expressed in GPM or cubic inc es per minute.
! C anges in pump drive affect volumetric output,
! Pumps are sometimes rated according to displacement, t at is t e amount
of liquid t at t ey can deliver per cycle or cubic inc es per revolution.

! Pressure is t e force per unit area of a liquid, usually expressed in psi.


(Most of t e pressure in t e ydraulic systems is created by resistance to
flow.)
! K e pressure developed in a system as an effect on t e volumetric output
of t e pump supplying flow to a system. As pressure increases, volumetric
output decreases.
! K is drop in output is caused by an increase in internal leakage (slippage)
from a pump's outlet side to its inlet side.
! Slippage is a measure of a pump's efficiency and usually is expressed in
percent.
! Some slippage is designed into pumps for lubrication purposes.
! If pressure increases, more flow will occur t roug a leakage pat and less
from an outlet port. Any increase in slippage is a loss of efficiency.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


  )
a. External. Figure 3-6 s ows t e operating principle of an external gear pump.
! It consists of a driving gear and a driven gear enclosed in a closely fitted ousing.
K e gears rotate in opposite directions and mes at a point in t e ousing between
t e inlet and outlet ports.
! As t e teet of t e two gears separate, a partial vacuum forms and draws liquid
t roug an inlet port into c amber A. Liquid in c amber A is trapped between t e
teet of t e two gears and t e ousing so t at it is carried t roug two separate
pat s around to c amber B. As t e teet again mes , t ey produce a force t at
drives a liquid t roug an outlet port.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
b. Internal. Figure 3-7 s ows an internal gear pump. K e teet of one gear project
outward, w ile t e teet of t e ot er gear project inward toward t e center of t e
pump.
! K e two gears mes on one side of a pump c amber, between an inlet and t e
disc arge. On t e opposite side of t e c amber, a crescent-s aped form stands in
t e space between t e two gears to provide a close tolerance.
! K e rotation of t e internal gear by a s aft causes t e external gear to rotate.
! Since t e two are in mes . Everyt ing in t e c amber rotates except t e crescent,
causing a liquid to be trapped in t e gear spaces as t ey pass t e crescent.
! Liquid is carried from an inlet to t e disc arge, w ere it is forced out of a pump by
t e gears mes ing. As liquid is carried away from an inlet side of a pump, t e
pressure is diminis ed, and liquid is forced in from t e supply source.
! K e size of t e crescent t at separates t e internal and external gears determines
t e volume delivery of t is pump. A small crescent allows more volume of a liquid per
revolution t an a larger crescent.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


! c. Lobe. Figure 3-8 s ows a lobe pump. It differs from ot er gear pumps because it
uses lobed elements instead of gears. K e element drive also differs in a lobe pump.
In a gear pump, one gear drives t e ot er. In a lobe pump, bot elements are driven
t roug suitable external gearing.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


  )
! In a vane-type pump, a slotted rotor splined to a drive s aft rotates between closely
fitted side plates t at are inside of an elliptical- or circular-s aped ring.
! Polis ed, ardened vanes slide in and out of t e rotor slots and follow t e ring
contour by centrifugal force.
! Pumping c ambers are formed between succeeding vanes, carrying oil from t e inlet
to t e outlet. A partial vacuum is created at t e inlet as t e space between vanes
increases. K e oil is squeezed out at t e outlet as t e pumping c amber's size
decreases.
! K e normal wear points in a vane pump are t e vane tips and a ring's surface, t e
vanes and ring are specially ardened and ground. A vane pump is t e only design
t at as automatic wear compensation built in. As wear occurs, t e vanes simply
slide fart er out of t e rotor slots and continue to follow a ring's contour. K us
efficiency remains ig t roug out t e life of t e pump.
hnbalanced Vane Pumps:hnbalanced
design, (Figure 3-9), a cam ring's s ape is a
true circle t at is on a different centerline
from a rotor's.
‡ Pump displacement depends on ow far a
rotor and ring are eccentric.
‡ K e advantage of a true-circle ring is t at
control can be applied to vary t e
eccentricity and t us vary t e displacement.
‡ A disadvantage is t at an unbalanced
pressure at t e outlet is effective against a
small area of t e rotor's edge, imposing side
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
loads on t e s aft.
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
Balanced Vane Pumps. In t e balanced design (Figure 3-10), a pump as a
stationary, elliptical cam ring and two sets of internal ports.
‡ A pumping c amber is formed between any two vanes twice in eac
revolution.
‡ K e two inlets and outlets are 180 degrees apart.
‡ Back pressures against t e edges of a rotor cancel eac ot er.
‡ Recent design improvements t at allow ig operating speeds and
pressures ave made t is pump t e most universal in t e mobile-
equipment field.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Vane-type double pumps: (Figure 3-11) consist of two separate pumping
devices.
! Eac is contained in its own respective ousing, mounted in tandem, and
driven by a common s aft. Eac pump also as its own inlet and outlet
ports, w ic may be combined by using manifolds or piping.
! Design variations are available in w ic bot cartridges are contained
wit in one body. An additional pump is sometimes attac ed to t e ead end
to supply auxiliary flow requirements.
! Double pumps may be used to provide fluid flow for two separate circuits or
combined for flow requirements for a single circuit.
! Separate circuits require separate pressure controls to limit maximum
pressure in eac circuit.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


+  )
! Kwo-stage pumps consist of two separate pump assemblies contained in one
ousing.
! K e pump assemblies are connected so t at flow from t e outlet of one is directed
internally to t e inlet of t e ot er. Single inlet and outlet ports are used for system
connections.
! In construction, t e pumps consist of separate pumping cartridges driven by a
common drive s aft contained in one ousing. A dividing valve is used to equalize
t e pressure load on eac stage and correct for minor flow differences from eit er
cartridge.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 )
! Piston pumps are eit er radial or axial.
a. Radial. In a radial piston pump (Figure 3-14), t e pistons are arranged like w eel spokes
in a s ort cylindrical block.
! A drive s aft, w ic is inside a circular ousing, rotates a cylinder block. K e block turns
on a stationary pintle t at contains t e inlet and outlet ports.
! As a cylinder block turns, centrifugal force slings t e pistons, w ic follow a circular
ousing.
! A ousing's centerline is offset from a cylinder block's centerline. K e amount of
eccentricity between t e two determines a piston stroke and, t erefore, a pump's
displacement.
! Controls can be applied to c ange a ousing's location and t ereby vary a pump's
delivery from zero to maximum.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
! Figure 3-15 s ows a nine-piston, radial piston pump. W en a pump as an
uneven number of pistons, no more t an one piston is completely blocked
by a pintle at one time, w ic reduces flow pulsations. Wit an even
number of pistons spaced around a cylinder block, two pistons could be
blocked by a pintle at t e same time.
! If t is appens, t ree pistons would disc arge at one time and four at
anot er time, and pulsations would occur in t e flow. A pintle, a cylinder
block, t e pistons, a rotor, and a drive s aft constitute t e main working
parts of a pump.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
  
  )

‡ K e barrel wit t e eig t radial mounted pistons rotates over a fixed s aft
w ic as t e function of a sleeve valve. At t e rig t moment a piston is pus ed
outwards and t e roller w ic is connected to t e piston, as to 'follow' t e
curved and fixed mounted ring.
‡ By c anging t e direction of oil supply to t e motor t e direction of rotation
can be c anged. Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
 
    +   )

‡ K e barrel wit t e eig t radial mounted pistons is fixed; t e ousing and t e


central sleeve valve rotate. K e central sleeve valve takes care for t e
distribution of t e oil.
‡ By c anging t e direction of oil supply to t e motor t e Hydraulic
direction of rotation can
System Rana Ravi Kiran
be c anged.
  ,  )
! K e axial piston pump wit rotating swas plate.
! In ydraulic systems wit a workingpressure above aprox. 250 bar t e most
used pumptype is t e pistonpump.
! K e pistons move parallel to t e axis of t e drive s aft. K e swas plate is
driven by t e s aft and t e angle of t e swas plate determines t e stroke
of t e piston.
! K e valves are necessary to direct t e flow in t e rig t direction. K is type
of pump can be driven in bot directions but cannot be used as a
ydromotor.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


  ,  +   ]  )
‡ K is axial piston pump consists of a non rotating swas plate (green) and
a rotating barrel (lig t blue).
‡ K e advantage of t is construction is t at t e pump can operate wit out
valves because t e rotating barrel as a determined suck and pressure
zone.
‡ K e animation s ows t e be aviour of only one piston; normally t is
pump as 5, 7, 9 or 11 pistons.
‡ K e pump in t e animation can also be applied as a ydraulic motor.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


  ,  +   ] 
 )
! K e animation s ows ow t e displacement of an axial piston pump can be
adjusted. In t is example we use an axial piston pump wit a rotating
cylinder barrel and a static' swas plate.
! K e cylinder barrel is driven by t e drive s aft w ic is guided t roug a
ole in t e swas plate. K e position (angle) of t e swas plate determines
t e stroke of t e pistons and t erefore t e amount of displacement
(cm3/omw) of t e pump.
! By adjusting t e position of t e swas plate t e amount of displacement can
be c anged. K e more t e swas plate turns to t e vertical position, t e
more t e amount of displacement decreases.
! In t e vertical position t e displacement is zero. In t at case t e pump may
be driven but will not deliver any oil. Normally t e swas plate is adjusted by
a ydraulic cylinder built inside t e pump ousing.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


] , ,  )
‡ Pumping action is t e same as an in-line pump.
‡K e angle of offset determines a pump's displacement, just as t e swas
plate's angle determines an in-line pump's displacement.
‡In fixed-delivery pumps, t e angle is constant. In variable models, a yoke
mounted on pintles swings a cylinder block to vary displacement.
‡Flow direction can be reversed wit appropriate controls.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


  )

! K e following grap s address some of t e problems t at could occur w en


a pump is operating:
! a. Overloading. One risk of overloading is t e danger of excess torque on a
drive s aft.(You may need a larger pump)
! b. Excess Speed. Running a pump at too ig a speed causes loss of
lubrication, w ic can cause early failure.
X Excess speed also runs a risk of damage from cavitation. (use a ig er
displacement pump)

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


c. Operating Problems. K ere are common operating problems in a pump.
(1) Pressure Loss. Pressure loss means t at t ere is a ig leakage pat in a
system.(relief valve, cylinders, motors, & A badly worn pump).
(2) Slow Operation. K is can be caused by a worn pump or by a partial oil
leak in a system. Pressure will not drop, owever, if a load moves at all.
K erefore, p is still being used and is being converted into eat at a
leakage point.
(3) No Delivery. If oil is not being pumped, a pump-
! Could be assembled incorrectly.
! Could be driven in t e wrong direction.
! Has not been primed. K e reasons for no prime are usually improper start-
up, inlet restrictions, or low oil level in a reservoir.
! Has a broken drive s aft.
(4) Noise. If you ear any unusual noise, s ut down a pump immediately.
Cavitation noise is caused by a restriction in an inlet line, a dirty inlet filter,
or too ig a drive speed. Air in a system also causes noise. Noise can be
caused by worn or damaged parts, w ic will spread armful particles
t roug a system, causing more damage if an operation continues.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


d. Cavitation. Cavitation occurs w ere available fluid does not fill an existing
space.
Most of t e time cavitation occurs in t e suction part of t e system.
W en cavitation takes place t e pressure in t e fluid decreases to a level below
t e ambient pressure t us forming 'vacuum oles' in t e fluid.
W en t e pressure increases, for example in t e pump, t ese
'vacuum oles' implode.
cavitation can be caused by:

‡ acceleration of t e oil flow be ind a t rottle /


w en t e oil contains water or air
‡ ig fluid temperature
‡ a resistance in t e suction part of t e system
‡ a suction line w ic is to small in diameter
‡ a suction ose wit a damaged inside liner
‡ a suction filter w ic is saturated wit dirt (animation)
‡ ig oil viscosity
‡ insufficient breezing of t e reservoir

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran



   )
! A ydraulic actuator receives pressure energy and converts it to
mec anical force and motion.
! An actuator can be linear or rotary.
! A linear actuator gives force and motion outputs in a straig t line. It
is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram,
reciprocating motor, or linear motor.
! A rotary actuator produces torque and rotating motion. It is more
commonly called a ydraulic motor or motor.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 
 
! A cylinder is a ydraulic actuator t at is constructed of a piston or plunger
t at operates in a cylindrical ousing by t e action of liquid under pressure.
! Figure 4-1 s ows t e basic parts of a cylinder.
! A cylinder ousing is a tube in w ic a plunger (piston) operates.
! In a ram-type cylinder, a ram actuates a load directly. In a piston cylinder, a
piston rod is connected to a piston to actuate a load.
! An end of a cylinder from w ic a rod or plunger protrudes is a rod end.
K e opposite end is a ead end. K e ydraulic connections are a ead-end
port and a rod-end port (fluid supply).
a. Single-Acting Cylinder. K is cylinder (Figure)
only as a ead-end port and is operated
ydraulically in one direction.
‡ W en oil is pumped into a port, it pus es on a
plunger, t us extending it. Ko return or retract a
cylinder, oil must be released to a reservoir. A
plunger returns eit er because of t e weig t of a
load or from some mec anical force suc as a
spring.
‡In mobile equipment, flow to and from a single-
acting cylinder is controlled by a reversing
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
directional valve of a single-acting type.
b. Double-Acting Cylinder. K is cylinder (Figure 4-2 must ave ports at t e
ead and rod ends.
! Pumping oil into t e ead end moves a piston to extend a rod w ile any oil
in t e rod end is pus ed out and returned to a reservoir.
! Ko retract a rod, flow is reversed. Oil from a pump goes into a rod end, and
a ead-end port is connected to allow return flow.
! K e flow direction to and from a double-acting cylinder can be controlled by
a double-acting directional valve or by actuating a control of a reversible
pump.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


c. Differential Cylinder. In a differential cylinder, t e areas w ere pressure is
applied on a piston are not equal. On a ead end, a full piston area is
available for applying pressure. At a rod end, only an annular area is
available for applying pressure. A rod's area is not a factor, and w at space
it does take up reduces t e volume of oil it will old.
Kwo general rules about a differential cylinder are t at-
! Wit an equal GPM delivery to eit er end, a cylinder will move faster w en
retracting because of a reduced volume capacity.
! Wit equal pressure at eit er end, a cylinder can exert more force w en
extending because of t e greater piston area. In fact, if equal pressure is
applied to bot ports at t e same time, a cylinder will extend because of a
ig er resulting force on a ead end.

d. Nondifferential Cylinder. K is cylinder (Figure 4-3) as a piston rod


extending from eac end. It as equal t rust and speed eit er way,
provided t at pressure and flow are unc anged. A nondifferential cylinder is
rarely used on mobile equipment.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


e. Ram-Kype Cylinder. A ram-type cylinder is a cylinder in w ic a cross-
sectional area of a piston rod is more t an one- alf a cross-sectional area of
a piston ead. In many cylinders of t is type, t e rod and piston eads ave
equal areas.
A ram-type actuating cylinder is used mainly for pus functions rat er t an pull.
Figure 4-4 s ows a telescoping, ram-type, actuating cylinder, w ic
can be a single- or double-acting type.
‡ In t is cylinder, a series of rams are nested in a telescoping assembly.
‡ Except for t e smallest ram, eac ram is ollow and serves as a cylinder
ousing for t e next smaller ram.
‡ A ram assembly is contained in a main cylinder ousing, w ic also provides
t e fluid ports. Alt oug an assembly requires a small space wit all of t e
rams retracted, a telescoping action of an assembly provides a relatively
long stroke w en t e rams are extended.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


f. Piston-Kype Cylinder. In t is cylinder, a cross-sectional area of a piston ead is referred
to as a piston-type cylinder. A piston-type cylinder is used mainly w en t e pus and pull
functions are needed.
‡ A single-acting, piston-type cylinder uses fluid pressure to apply force in one direction.
‡ In some designs, t e force of gravity moves a piston in t e opposite direction. However,
most cylinders of t is type apply force in bot directions.
‡ Fluid pressure provides force in one direction and spring tension provides force in t e
opposite direction.
‡ Figure 4-5 s ows a single-acting, spring-loaded, piston-type cylinder. In t is cylinder, a
spring is located on t e rod side of a piston. In some spring-loaded cylinders, a spring is
located on a blank side, and a fluid port is on a rod end of a cylinder.
‡ Figure 4-6 s ows a double-acting piston-type cylinder. K is cylinder contains one piston
and piston-rod assembly and operates from fluid flow in eit er direction.
‡ If t is is an unbalanced cylinder, w ic means t at t ere is a difference in t e effective
working area on t e two sides of a piston.
‡ Figure 4-6 s ows a balanced, double-acting, piston-type cylinder. K e effective working
area on bot sides of a piston is t e same, and it exerts t e same force in bot
directions.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


g. Cus ioned Cylinder. Ko slow an action and prevent s ock at t e end of a piston stroke,
some actuating cylinders are constructed wit a cus ioning device at eit er or bot ends
of a cylinder.
‡ K is cus ion is usually a metering device built into a cylinder to restrict t e flow at an
outlet port, t ereby slowing down t e motion of a piston. Figure 4-7 s ows a cus ioned
actuating cylinder.

. Lockout Cylinders. A lockout road w eel moves up, a control lever forces t e respective
cylinder to ccylinder is used to lock a suspension mec anism of a tracked ve icle w en
a ve icle functions as a stable platform. A cylinder also serves as a s ock absorber
w en a ve icle is moving. Eac lockout cylinder is connected to a road arm by a control
lever. W en eac ompress. Hydraulic fluid is forced around a piston ead t roug
restrictor ports causing a cylinder to act as a s ock absorber. W en ydraulic pressure
is applied to an inlet port on eac cylinder's connecting eye, an inner control-valve
piston is forced against a spring in eac cylinder. K is action closes t e restrictor ports,
blocks t e main piston's motion in eac cylinder, and locks t eHydraulic
suspension system.
System Rana Ravi Kiran
  
       )
‡ K e limited angle rotary actuator is applied w en t e s aft as to rotate over
a limited angle.
‡ K e animation s ows ow t is simple actuator works: in t is case t e s aft
can rotate over an angle of about 270 degrees.
‡ K is type of actuator is, among ot ers, used as a rotator actuator on (small)
cranes and excavators.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 
       )

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 ]
 
+  
    
 
 )
K e specifications t at need to be considered w ile purc asing a ydraulic cylinder
are:
a) Bore Diameter: It is t e diameter of t e cylinder bore.
b) Maximum operating pressure: K e maximum working pressure a cylinder can carry
is known as maximum operating pressure.
c) Rod Diameter: It is t e diameter of t e piston or t e rod t at are used in ydraulic
cylinders.
d) Stroke: K e distance traveled by a piston in a ydraulic cylinder is known as stroke.
K e lengt of a stroke could be several feet, or a fraction of an inc .
e)Kype Of Cylinder: K e different types of cylinders are tie-rod cylinder, ram cylinder
and welded cylinder.
1)Kie-rod cylinder: K ese types of ydraulic cylinders make use of a single or
multiple tie-rods to provide extra stability to t e cylinder. K e tie-rods are mostly
installed on t e exterior diameter of t e cylinder. K e tie-rods carry most of t e load
in t is type of ydraulic cylinder.
2)Welded cylinder: K ere are eavy-duty welded cylinders used to balance t e
cylinder. K e welded cylinders are smoot ydraulic cylinders.
3)Ram cylinders: As t e name suggests, t is cylinders act as a ram. K e cross-
section of t e moving components is alf of t e cross-section area of t e piston
rod. K ese ydraulic ram cylinders are not used to pus and are mostly used to
pull. K e ram cylinder is a ydraulic cylinder t at is used in applications of ig
pressure.
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
  
   
! A cylinder is constructed of a barrel or tube, a piston and rod (or ram), two
end caps, and suitable oil seals.
! A barrel is usually seamless steel tubing, or cast, and t e interior is finis ed
very true and smoot ly. A steel piston rod is ig ly polis ed and usually
ard c rome-plated to resist pitting and scoring. It is supported in t e end
cap by a bus ing or polis ed surface.
! K e cylinder's ports are built into t e end caps, w ic can be screwed on to
t e tubes, welded, or attac ed by tie bolts or bolted flanges.
! If t e cylinder barrel is cast, t e ead-end cap may be integral wit it.
Mounting provisions often are made in t e end caps, including flanges for
stationary mounting or clevises for swinging mounts.
! Seals and wipers are installed in t e rod's end cap to keep t e rod clean
and to prevent external leakage around t e rod.
! Ot er points w ere seals are used are at t e end cap and joints and
between t e piston and barrel. Depending on ow t e rod is attac ed to t e
piston, a seal may be needed.
! Internal leakage s ould not occur past a piston. It wastes energy and can
stop a load by a ydrostatic lock (oil trapped be ind a piston).
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
  )
Hydraulic cylinders are compact and relatively simple. K e following lists service tips in
maintaining cylinders:
! a. External Leakage. If a cylinder's end caps are leaking, tig ten t em. If t e leaks still
do not stop, replace t e gasket. If a cylinder leaks around a piston rod, replace t e
packing. Make sure t at a seal lip faces toward t e pressure oil. If a seal continues to
leak, c eck paragrap s 4-3e t roug i.
! b. Internal Leakage. Leakage past t e piston seals inside a cylinder can cause sluggis
movement or settling under load. Piston leakage can be caused by worn piston seals or
rings or scored cylinder walls. K e latter may be caused by dirt and grit in t e oil.
NOKE: W en repairing a cylinder, replace all t e seals and packings before reassembly.
! c. Creeping Cylinder. If a cylinder creeps w en stopped in midstroke, c eck for internal
leakage (paragrap 4-3b). Anot er cause could be a worn control valve.
! d. Sluggis Operation. Air in a cylinder is t e most common cause of sluggis action.
Internal leakage in a cylinder is anot er cause. If an action is sluggis w en starting up
a system, but speeds up w en a system is warm, c eck for oil of too ig a viscosity
(see t e mac ine's operating manual). If a cylinder is still sluggis after t ese c ecks,
test t e w ole circuit for worn components.
! e. Loose Mounting. Pivot points and mounts may be loose. K e bolts or pins may need
to be tig tened, or t ey may be worn out. Koo muc slop or float in a cylinder's
mountings damages t e piston-rod seals. Periodically c eck all t e cylinders for loose
mountings.
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
! f. Misalignment. Piston rods must work in-line at all times. If t ey are side-loaded, t e
piston rods will be galled and t e packings will be damaged, causing leaks.
Eventually, t e piston rods may be bent or t e welds broken.
! g. Lack of Lubrication. If a piston rod as no lubrication, a rod packing could seize,
w ic would result in an erratic stroke, especially on single-acting cylinders.
! . Abrasives on a Piston Rod. W en a piston rod extends, it can pick up dirt and ot er
material. W en it retracts, it carries t e grit into a cylinder, damaging a rod seal. For
t is reason, rod wipers are often used at t e rod end of a cylinder to clean t e rod as
it retracts. Rubber boots are also used over t e end of a cylinder in some cases.
Piston rods rusting is anot er problem. W en storing cylinders, always retract t e
piston rods to protect t em. If you cannot retract t em, coat t em wit grease.
! i. Burrs on a Piston Rod. Exposed piston rods can be damaged by impact wit ard
objects. If a smoot surface of a rod is marred, a rod seal may be damaged. Clean
t e burrs on a rod immediately, using crocus clot . Some rods are c rome-plated to
resist wear. Replace t e seals after restoring a rod surface.
! j. Air Vents. Single-acting cylinders (except ram types) must ave an air vent in t e
dry side of a cylinder. Ko prevent dirt from getting in, use different filter devices. Most
are self-cleaning, but inspect t em periodically to ensure t at t ey operate properly.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran



 )
Hydraulic motors convert ydraulic energy into mec anical energy.
! In industrial ydraulic circuits, pumps and motors are normally combined wit a proper
valving and piping to form a ydraulic-powered transmission.
! A pump, w ic is mec anically linked to a prime mover, draws fluid from a reservoir
and forces it to a motor. A motor, w ic is mec anically linked to t e workload, is
actuated by t is flow so t at motion or torque, or bot , are conveyed to t e work.
! Figure 4-9 s ows t e basic operations of a ydraulic motor.

! K e main types of motors are gear, vane, and piston. K ey can be unidirectional or
reversible. (Most motors designed for mobile equipment are Hydraulic
reversible.)
System Rana Ravi Kiran

    )
Compact and extremely efficient, small ydraulic motors can be
used for various mac ining operations like boring, reaming, drilling
etc. Due to t eir small size t ey are tools of c oice for applications
like:
! Electric motor coil winding
! Oil pipeline inspection equipment
! hndersea camera manipulation
! Jumbo jet maintenance jacks
! Milling and sawing applications
! Dynamite blast ole pump drive
! Automatic clamping
! Kextile was ing agitators
! Orange peeling mac ines
! Fan drives
! Diamond w eel dresser
! Drill and tap mac ine tool
! C icken processing mac inery
! Conveyor drives

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


VALVES

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 )
! Valves are used in ydraulic systems to control t e operation of t e actuators.
! Valves regulate pressure by creating special pressure conditions and by controlling
ow muc oil will flow in portions of a circuit and w ere it will go.
! K e t ree categories of ydraulic valves are pressure-control, flow- (volume-) control,
and directional-control (see Figure 5-1).
! Some valves ave multiple functions, placing t em into more t an one category.
! Valves are rated by t eir size, pressure capabilities, and pressure drop/flow.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


 +   )
! Flow-control valves are used to control an actuator's speed by metering flow. Metering
is measuring or regulating t e flow rate to or from an actuator.
! Some of t ese valves are gasket-mounted, and some are panel-mounted.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


a. Gate Valve. In t is type of valve, a wedge or gate controls t e flow. Ko open and close
a passage, a and w eel moves a wedge or gate up and down across a flow line.
! Figure 5-30 s ows t e principal elements of a gate valve.
! W en t e valve is opened, t e gate stands up inside t e bonnet wit its bottom flus
wit t e wall of t e line.
! W en t e valve is closed, t e gate blocks t e flow by standing straig t across t e line
w ere it rests firmly against t e two seats t at extend completely around t e line.
! A gate valve allows a straig t flow and offers little or no resistance to t e fluid flow
w en t e valve is completely open. Sometimes a gate valve is in t e partially open
position to restrict t e flow rate. However, its main use is in t e fully open or fully
closed positions.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


b. Globe Valve. A disc, w ic is screwed directly on t e end of t e stem, is t e
controlling member of a globe valve.
! A valve is closed by lowering a disc into a valve seat. Since fluid flows equally on all
sides of t e center of support w en a valve is open, t ere is no unbalanced pressure
on a disc to cause uneven wear. Figure 5-31 s ows a globe valve.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


c. Needle Valve. A needle valve is similar in design and operation to a globe valve. Instead
of a disc, a needle valve as a long, tapered point at t e end of a valve stem.
‡ Figure 5-32 s ows a sectional view of a needle valve. A long taper allows a needle
valve to open or close gradually. A needle valve is used to control flow:
‡ Into delicate gauges, w ic could be damaged if ig -pressure fluid was suddenly
delivered.
‡ At t e end of an operation w en work motion s ould alt slowly.
‡ At ot er points w ere precise flow adjustments are necessary.
‡ At points w ere a small flow rate is desired.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


d. Restrictor. A restrictor is used in liquid-powered systems to limit t e movement speed
of certain actuating devices by limiting flow rate in a line.
‡ Figure 5-33 s ows a fixed restrictor. Figure 5-34 s ows a variable restrictor, w ic
varies t e restriction amount and is a modified needle valve.
‡ K is valve can be preadjusted to alter t e operating time of a particular subsystem.
Also, it can be adjusted to meet t e requirements of a particular system.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


e. Orifice C eck Valve. K is valve is used in liquid-powered systems to allow normal
speed of operation in one direction and limited speed in anot er.
Figure 5-35 s ows two orifice c eck valves.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


f.pressure compensated flow control: Ko control t e velocity of a ydraulic motor or
cylinder one as to control t e flow to t ese components. K is can be done wit a
simple flow control
K e flow t roug a flow control is determined by:
a) K e area of t e flow control: a larger area means a ig er amount of flow and
b) t e pressure drop across t e flow control: an increase of t e pressure drop means
an increase of flow.

‡ W en t e pressure drop across t e flow control decreases as a result of an increase


of t e load on t e cylinder t e flow and velocity of t e cylinder will decrease. If t e
velocity as to remain constant and independent of t e load one as to use a pressure
compensated flow control

K e plunger finds it's balance w en:


p2 = p3 + pspring ==> p2 - p3 = pspring and because of t e fact t at pspring= constant
(8 bar) t e pressure compensator keeps t e pressure drop across t e needle valve on a
constant value of 8 bar. K is means t at t e flow t roug t e needle valve remains
constant!

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran

     )
‡ Directional-control valves also control flow direction. However, t ey vary considerably
in p ysical c aracteristics and operation. K e valves may be a
‡ Poppet type, in w ic a piston or ball moves on and off a seat.
‡ Rotary-spool type, in w ic a spool rotates about its axis.
‡ Sliding-spool type, in w ic a spool slides axially in a bore. In t is type, a spool is
often classified according to t e flow conditions created w en it is in t e normal
or neutral position.
‡ Directional-control valves may also be classified according to t e met od used to
actuate t e valve element.
‡ A poppet-type valve is usually ydraulically operated.
‡ A rotary-spool type may be manually (lever or plunger action), mec anically (cam
or trip action), or electrically (solenoid action) operated.
‡ A sliding-spool type may be manually, mec anically, electrically, or ydraulically
operated, or it may be operated in combination.
‡ Directional-control valves may also be classified according to t e number of positions
of t e valve elements or t e total number of flow pat s provided in t e extreme
position.
‡ For example, a t ree-position, four-way valve as two extreme positions and a
center or neutral position. In eac of t e two extreme positions, t ere are two
flow pat s, making a total of four flow pat s.
Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
a. Spool valves (see Figure 5-11) are popular on modern ydraulic systems because
t ey-
‡ Can be made to andle flows in many directions by adding extra lands and oil
ports.
‡ Can be precision-ground for fine-oil metering.
‡ Stack easily into one compact control package, w ic is important on mobile
systems.
‡ Spool valves, owever, require good maintenance.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


b. Poppet Valve. Figure 5-12 s ows a simple poppet valve. It consists primarily of a
movable poppet t at closes against a valve seat.
‡ Pressure from t e inlet tends to old t e valve tig tly closed. A slig t force applied to
t e poppet stem opens t e poppet.
‡ K e action is similar to t e valves of an automobile engine. K e poppet stem usually
as an O-ring seal to prevent leakage.
‡ In some valves, t e poppets are eld in t e seated position by springs. K e number of
poppets in a valve depends on t e purpose of t e valve.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


c. C eck Valves. C eck valves are t e most commonly used in fluid-powered systems.
K ey allow flow in one direction and prevent flow in t e ot er direction.
‡ K ey may be installed independently in a line, or t ey may be incorporated as an
integral part of a sequence, counterbalance, or pressure-reducing valve.
‡ K e valve element may be a sleeve, cone, ball, poppet, piston, spool, or disc. Force of
t e moving fluid opens a c eck valve; backflow, a spring, or gravity closes t e valve.
‡ Figures 5-14, 5-15 and 5-16 s ow various types of c eck valves.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
Pilot-Operated Kype: (Figure 5-19). In diagram A, t e valve as poppet 1 seated on
stationary sleeve 2 by spring 3.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


d. Kwo-Way Valve: A two-way valve is generally used to control t e direction of fluid flow
in a ydraulic circuit and is a sliding-spool type.
‡ Figure 5-21 s ows a two-way, sliding-spool, directional-control valve. As t e spool
moves back and fort , it eit er allows or prevents fluid flow t roug t e valve.
‡ In eit er s ifted position in a two-way valve, a pressure port is open to one cylinder
port, but t e opposite cylinder port is not open to a tank.
‡ A tank port on t is valve is used primarily for draining.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


e. Four-Way Valves. Four-way, directional-control valves are used to control t e direction
of fluid flow in a ydraulic circuit, w ic controls t e direction of movement of a work
cylinder or t e rotation of a fluid motor.
‡ K ese valves are usually t e sliding-spool type. A typical four-way, directional-control
valve as four ports:
‡ One pressure port is connected to a pressure line.
‡ One return or ex aust port is connected to a reservoir.
‡ Kwo working ports are connected, by lines, to an actuating unit.
‡ Ports t at are sealed off from eac ot er in one position may be interconnected in
anot er position. Spool positioning is accomplis ed manually, mec anically,
electrically, or ydraulically or by combing any of t e four.

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Figure 5-22 s ows ow t e spool position determines t e possible flow conditions in t e
circuit. K e four ports are marked P, K, A, and B:
‡ P is connected to t e flow source;
‡ K to t e tank; and
‡ A and B to t e respective ports of t e work cylinder, ydraulic motor, or some ot er
valve in t e circuit.
‡ In diagram A, t e spool is in suc a position t at port P is open to port A, and port B is
open to port K. Ports A and B are connected to t e ports of t e cylinder, flow t roug port
P, and cause t e piston of t e cylinder to move to t e rig t.
‡ Return flow from t e cylinder passes t roug ports B and K. In diagram B, port P is
open to port B, and t e piston moves to t e left. Return flow from t e cylinder passes
t roug ports A and K.

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     )
‡ A pressure-control valve may limit or regulate pressure, create a particular pressure
condition required for control, or cause actuators to operate in a specific order.
‡ All pure pressure-control valves operate in a condition approac ing ydraulic balance.
‡ hsually t e balance is very simple: pressure is effective on one side or end of a ball,
poppet, or spool and is opposed by a spring.
‡ Most pressure-control valves are classified as normally closed.
a. K e pressure relief valve: K e pressure relief valve is mounted at t e pressure side of
t e ydraulic pump.
‡ It's task is to limit t e pressure in t e system on an acceptable value. In fact a
pressure relief valve as t e same construction as a spring operated c eck valve.
‡ W en t e system gets overloaded t e pressure relief valve will open and t e pump
flow will be leaded directly into t e ydraulic reservoir.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


b. Sequence Valves. Sequence valves control t e operating sequence between two
branc es of a circuit.
‡ K e valves are commonly used to regulate an operating sequence of two separate
work cylinders so t at one cylinder begins stroking w en t e ot er completes stroking.
Sequence valves used in t is manner ensure t at t ere is minimum pressure equal to its
setting on t e first cylinder during t e subsequent operations at a lower pressure.
‡ Figure 5-7, diagram A, s ows ow to obtain t e operation of a sequencing pressure by
adjusting a spring's compression

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran
‡ e. Pressure Switc es. Pressure switc es are used in various applications t at require
an adjus-table, pressure-actuated electrical switc to make or break an electrical circuit
at a predetermined pressure
‡ An electrical circuit may be used to actuate an electrically controlled valve or control
an electric-motor starter or a signal lig t.
‡ Figure 5-10 s ows a pressure switc . Liquid, under pressure, enters c amber A. If
t e pressure exceeds t e adjusted pressure setting of t e spring be ind ball 1, t e ball is
unseated. K e liquid flows into c amber B and moves piston 2 to t e rig t, actuating t e
limit to make or break an electrical circuit.
‡ W en pressure in c amber A falls below t e setting of t e spring be ind ball 1, t e
spring reseats ball 1.
‡ K e liquid in c amber B is t rottled past valve 3 and ball 4 because of t e action of
t e spring be ind piston 2. K e time required for t e limit switc to return to its normal
position is determined by valve 3's setting.

Hydraulic System Rana Ravi Kiran


Thank you
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