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Guaranteeing Quality Power

For Large Networks

Presented by:

A Quarter Century of Continuous Power

www.clary.com
Why Be Concerned With Power Quality?

CLEAN POWER KEEPS


YOUR SYSTEM RUNNING
• Protects The Integrity Of Your Data
• Maximizes Equipment Life
• Provides For Orderly System Shut Down.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power Quality Problems
• Surges
• Sags
• Brownouts
• Blackouts
• Ground Loops
• Noise Transients
• Harmonic Distortion.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Poor Power Quality Symptoms
• Corrupted Files
• Intermittent Lockups
• Hardware Component Failure
• Power Supply Failure
• Complete System Shut Down.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Sources of Power Line Problems

• Weather Induced
• Utility Company
• Neighborhood Induced
• Internal Causes
E n v i r o n Um t ei l in t yt a l

I n t e r n a l
N e i g h b o r

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Typical Office Power

• Typical Office Power


(Time Elapsed - About 20 minutes)

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power Protection Strategies
• Transient Voltage Surge Suppression (TVSS)
“Surge Suppressors”
• Grounding Systems
• Power Conditioners & Voltage Regulators
• Back-up Generators
• Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)
• Continuous Power Systems (CPS).

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS - TRANSIENT
VOLTAGE SURGE
SUPPRESSION
“Surge Suppressors”

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TVSS - Transient Voltage Surge
Suppression
• TVSS Components
Are Activated By A
Rise In Line Voltage

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS Concept

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Inline Surge Suppressers Most Common
• Typical “Department
Store” Surge
Suppressers

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Other
Other Forms
Forms of
of TVSS
TVSS
• Installed At or Near Main Power
Panel
• Embedded Into Equipment.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS TECHNOLOGIES
• Most Common / • Less Common / More
Least Effective Effective
– MOV’s -Metal Oxide – Avalanche Diodes
Varistors – Gas Tube Arresters
(Degrade with use) – Series Mode Inductors

(none of the above


degrade with normal
use)
Many new innovative systems are a combination of the above
technologies.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS and Networks

• Use Care When Equipment is


Interconnected such as printers and
network components
• Some TVSS Devices Can Actually
Introduce New Problems - “Ground
Contamination”.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS Mode 1
• Uses a single surge device between
hot and neutral. Protects against
“normal mode” disturbances.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS
TVSS Mode
Mode 22
• Mode 2 uses additional surge
devices to ground. Also protects
against “common mode”
disturbances

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


TVSS Ground Contamination
• Diverting a Surge to Ground Can Be
Dangerous for Interconnected
Equipment!
“Contaminated Ground”

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


U.S. Government TVSS Classifications

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TVSS Summary
• Surge Suppressors are NOT Power
Conditioners
• Avoid cheap, unrated devices
• Observe classifications
• Do not connect protected devices to un-
protected devices
• Do not connect protected devices to un-
protected networks
• Replace degradable components.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


GROUNDING
GROUNDING

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Grounding

• All Electrical Systems Must Have a Good


Ground
• Safety - Reduces Shock Hazards
• Equipment Protection
• System Ground Generally Provided By
Electrical Contractor.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Grounding in a Typical Building

• Grounding is generally done at main


electrical service entrance

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Methods of Grounding
• Pipes or Plumbing in the Earth
• Special Electrodes in the Earth
• Method Varies with Size of Electrical
Service and Soil Composition
• Only 1 “Neutral-Ground Bond”
Allowed in a System After Each
Transformer.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


““Neutral-Ground
Neutral-Ground Bond”
Bond”
• Connection between neutral and ground

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Summary On Grounding

• Good Grounding is Important -


Particularly With Interconnected
Equipment
• Have a Qualified Electrical
Contractor Check Your Building’s
Ground if You Suspect a Problem.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


POWER CONDITIONERS
Power
Power Conditioners
Conditioners
• Controls Many Forms of Noise &
Interference
• Can Provide Isolation From Utility Line
• Provides Some Voltage Regulation
• Relatively Cheap
• Generally Passive.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Disadvantages of Power Conditioning

• Does Not Replace Emergency


Generator or UPS
• Large / Bulky
• Still Requires Good TVSS System.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power Conditioning Equipment
• Tap Switching Autotransformers
• Isolation Transformers
• Electronic Voltage Regulators
• Motor Generators.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Tap Switching Autotransformers
• Provides Some Form of Voltage
Regulation
• Boost Low Voltage by Switching Taps
• Cheaper Then Isolation Transformers
• Do Not Isolate From Utility.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Isolation Transformers

• Advantages: • Disadvantages:
– Isolates Load From – Large
All Other Circuits – Heavy
– Recreates Neutral- – Little Regulation
Ground Bond
– Rejects Common
Mode Noise On
Line

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Ferroresonant Transformers

• All of the advantages of Isolation


Transformers
• Much better at voltage regulation
• Inefficient, hot & noisy.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Motor-Generator Set
M O T O R G E N E R A T O R
A C I N A C O U T

• Advantages: • Disadvantages:
High Quality Sine Wave
Isolated Mechanical
Good “Ride-Through” Large, Heavy,
Noisy
Cost Effective for
Larger Loads
Only
©1997 CLARY CORPORATION
UNINTERRUPTIBLE
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER
POWER
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


UPS - Uninterruptible Power
Systems
• Provide AC Power Generated From
Energy Stored in Batteries
• Most UPS’s Include Varying Levels of
TVSS
• Some Provide Full Isolation From Utility
• Many Allow Graceful Shutdown of
Computer Systems.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Concept of UPS’s

• Energy is Stored as DC in Batteries


• Inverter Converts DC Back Into AC.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Grades Of UPS’s
• Small Office / Desktop (Department Store)
• Mission Critical (Servers, Workstations)
• Scientific/Medical (Lab Equipment)
• Industrial/Ruggedized (Process Control)
• Military (Data & Communications).

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power Ratings of UPS’s
• Power handling capacity stated in
“VA” (Volt/Amps)
• VA not exactly the same as Watts
• Ratio between VA and Watts is called
the “Power Factor”
• Better UPS’s include “Power Factor
Correction”.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


UPS Basics - Off Line
2 Basic UPS design topologies:
1. Off Line (Line Interactive, Standby)
Single Conversion

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


UPS Basics - True On Line
2 Basic UPS design topologies:
2. TRUE ON-LINE - Double Conversion

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Line-Interactive or Single Conversion
UPS
• Quiet and Inexpensive
• Inverter is “off-line” - Passes AC Line Directly
Through to Load During Normal Operation
• Inverter powers load only when there is a
disturbance on input AC supply
• Cannot Offer Power Factor Correction.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Off Line Diagram
• Off Line system runs on utility power until
inverter is needed

• No Power Factor Correction


• Can provide some voltage boost
• Output is usually a step wave.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Step Wave UPS - Problems
• Never Connect a Surge Suppresser Downstream of a
Step-Wave UPS
• This can cause premature aging of TVSS devices.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


True On-Line / Double Conversion UPS
• Critical load powered by inverter at all times
• Load protected from variations at all times
• Boosts low voltage w/o discharging battery
• Better systems have Power Factor Correction
• Better systems produce clean sine wave output
• Battery conservation and management are optimized.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


True On Line Diagram

• Inverter Powers Load Continuously

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Input Voltage vs. Output Voltage
• True On-Line Systems Always
Regenerate Power

OFF-LINE TRUE ON-LINE


©1997 CLARY CORPORATION
Power Ratings of UPS’s
• UPS’s are rated by VA (not Watts)
• Typical Desktop PC - 200VA
• Small Server - 200VA to 800VA
• Large Servers 800VA to 2KVA.
• Power rating must be equal to or
larger than the load (cheaper systems
should have an even greater margin)

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power Factor Correction (PFC)

• Power Factor is the ratio of Watts to Volt-Amps(VA)


• Watts = True energy NEEDED by load
• VA = Energy ABSORBED by load
• Off Line UPS’s incapable of PF Correction - Only True
On-Line UPS’s Provide PFC.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power Factor in Computers
• Computer power supplies distort power

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Good and Bad Power Factor

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Why is PFC Important?

• Computer Power Supplies Distort Input AC


• Poor PF Can Cause Certain Wiring in Older
Buildings to Overheat.
• Higher Electricity Bills - Utilities Charge for
VA, Not Watts!
• Interaction With Other Equipment
• PFC Now a Requirement in Europe and will
soon be in USA.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


CONTINUOUS
CONTINUOUS POWER
POWER
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
Next Generation Of Uninterruptible
Power Systems

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Next-generation:
On-Line Triple Conversion UPS
• All digital - digitally recreated sine wave
• Third step of DC to DC conversion
for extended voltage regulation
• Better Power Factor Correction
• High Frequency Isolation
no bulky transformers
• Higher efficiency - less heat, less cooling
• Greater connectivity
• Better battery management.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


SOFTWARE / CONNECTIVITY

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Why Monitor Your Power
System?
• Use as Problem Analysis and Solving
Tool
• Shutdown Software Safely Closes
Files and Applications
• Remote Management Saves
Administration Costs.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Network Monitoring Capabilities
• Set alarms for problem conditions
• Remote alarm notification
• Local and remote system shutdown
• Remote rebooting and load control
• Instantaneous power status -
input/output voltage and power
• Record power and event histories.

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Power System Monitoring &
Control
2 ways to connect:
Direct local connection (serial
cable)
Network connection (SNMP)

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Direct UPS Connectivity
• UPS Connects Directly to
Workstation via Serial Cable

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Network Connectivity

• SNMP Connectivity on Networks

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Monitoring Over a Network Using
SNMP

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


POWER PROTECTION SUMMARY
• Transient Voltage Surge Suppression
(TVSS)
“Surge Suppressors”
• Grounding Systems
• Power Conditioners & Voltage Regulators
• Back-up Generators
• Uninterruptible Power Systems (UPS)
• Continuous Power Systems (CPS).

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


WHY BE CONCERNED WITH POWER
QUALITY?

CLEAN POWER KEEPS


YOUR SYSTEM RUNNING

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION


Thank You

“When it absolutely, positively has to keep running!”

www.clary.com

©1997 CLARY CORPORATION