Evolution of Cooking

An overview

Prehistoric times Wash in running water Selection of edible parts of animals and fruits Cracking of nuts and shellfish Grounding with rudimentary tools .

First Improvement Salt Pottery Fire .

to civilization and to profound change in eating habits .Rise of Agriculture All around the world. at different periods in time. the beginning of agriculture will lead to sedentary living for mankind.

First Civilizations Food as social status symbol Food as part religious rites Food as a trade and as ART .

vinegar) and spices flavours Sauces are thickened by purées Food is roasted or cooked in a pot over the open fire Le Viandier de Taillevent (Guillaume Tirel. 1680) .Middle Ages From 450 to 1350 Predominance of acid (verjus.

stews and bouillis). usage of the fork. gelées. Throughout 15th and 16th centuries food refinement will develop considerably as well as table manners and cooking techniques.Renaissance Catherine de Médicis is queen consort of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559. fresh vegetables. various fashions of cooking meats (roasts. etc . Pastries.

and turkey being probably the most successful. potato.Seventieth Century Louis the 14th is king of France and François Vatel makes a name for himself for inventing Chantilly cream. chocolate. The colonies will provide numerous new foods: tomato. corn. .

Eighteenth Century Antoine-Augustin Parmentier is remembered as the promoter of cultivating the potato as a food source (for humans) in France and throughout Europe. this was not his only contribution to nutrition and health. However. he was responsible for the first mandatory smallpox vaccination campaign. .

a time of the year when Christians are supposed to fast. Ironically. He is the author or many books and his elaborate resentations pleased the elite in place in those years after the French Revolution (ended when he was 15. in 1799). his name is French for lent. .Haute Cuisine Marie-Antoine Carême (1784± 1833) is often considered as one of the first celebrity chef.

After 14 or 15 years of experimentation. .Nineteenth Century Nicolas Appert was the French inventor of airtight food preservation. Appert. Appert submitted his invention in 1810 to Napoleon." was a confectioner. known as the "father of canning.

and was one of the most important leaders in the development of modern French cuisine. The Pêche Melba in honour of the Australian singer Nellie Melba and the Tournedos Rossini.Grand Hôtel or Cuisine Classique Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846± 1935) was a French chef. restaurateur and culinary writer who popularized and updated traditional French cooking methods. He is a nearlegendary figure among chefs and gourmets. . in honour of the Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini are still served today. Escoffier created many famous dishes.

From his restaurant "La Pyramide" outof-the-way south of Lyon. trained a generation of French master chefs: Paul Bocuse. Jean and Pierre Troisgros. (1926 . and over adornments from previous trends were removed. baby vegetables. etc.) . Georges Perrier. From its kitchen came the modern lightly-thickened sauces.Nouvelle Cuisine Fernand Point (1897 ± 1955) was a French restaurateur and is considered to be the father ofNouvelle French cuisine. Paul Bocuse.

California Cuisine The emphasis of California Cuisine is on the use of fresh. local ingredients which are often acquired daily at farmers markets. Menus are changed to accommodate the availability of ingredients in season. Alice Waters (1944 . .). is usually credited with originating California cuisine and retains the reputation of offering the ultimate California cuisine experience. of the restaurant Chez Panisse. Her cuisine emphasizes the freshest ingredients which are in season and are procured solely from local farms. Some restaurants create a new menu daily.

). . Wolfgang Puck (1949 . of (amongst many) Spago in Beverky Hills.Fusion The term « fusion » refers to the combination or blending of ingredients or techniques that are originally from foreign cultures. is internationally known for his fusion of occidental and asian cuisines.

.) is a Chicago chef and restaurateur who has developed may dishes where the traditional components are broken down into basic parts to enhance the degustation experience.Deconstructivism Charlie Trotter (1959 .

Ferran Adrià Acosta (1962) chef of El Bulli in Catalonia.Molecular Gastronomy An approach to cooking where the food is broken down to its molecular components and presented in unusual and disconcerting anner. . Heston Blumenthal (1966) is the chef and owner of The Fat Duck in England. Hervé This (1955) is a French physical chemist.

terroirs and traditional cuisines .And now what? ‡Raw food ‡Proximity food. Coffee and doughnut ± T. 100 miles diet ‡New French Cuisine ‡Quebec Regional foods ‡Eco-friendly cooking ‡Socially responsible cooking ‡Hydrocolloids and alginates ‡Slow Food movement ‡Tasting menus and the possible end of the ³Main Course´ ‡Influence of food stylists on today¶s gastronomy ‡Cuisine Bourgeoise Integration of ordinary food and even fast food into gastronomy (Poutine au foie gras ± M. Keller Napa Valley) ‡Sous Vide cooking ‡Preservation of heirlooms. Picard Montreal.

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