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Original Work by: Benjamin Bloom, et al. 1956. Revised in 2001.
In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologist who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. This became a Taxonomy including three overlapping domains, the Cognitive, Psychomotor, and Affective domains.
Cognitive learning is demonstrated through knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions.
to the highest order which is classified as Evaluation.Bloom identified 6 Levels within the Cognitive Domain from simple recall or recognition of facts at the lowest level. through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels. Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation .
Bloom·s Taxonomy .
repeat. label. collect. recount«. recall.Knowledge Know. cite. tell. memorize. relate. . enumerate. define. record. name. specify. list.
discuss. report. retell. . express. review. locate. describe. summarize. explain.Comprehension Restate. translate«. identify. recognize.
apply. use. stimulate. operate. . employ. show. demonstrate.Application Exhibit. dramatize. interview. calculate. practice. experiment«. solve. illustrate.
scrutinize. investigate. probe. inventory. organize. group. test. categorize. arrange. detect. contrast. inquire. distinguish. discover. compare. diagram«.Analysis Interpret. analyze. examine. differentiate. question. . inspect. classify. dissect. survey.
arrange. concoct.Synthesis Compose. generalize. formulate. prepare. systematize«. construct. invent. incorporate. propose. hypothesize. predict. develop. set-up. plan. assemble. design. contrive. imagine. originate. . create.
infer.choose. predict. rate. determine«. evaluate. deduce. recommend. decide. score. . appraise. estimate. select.Evaluation Judge. conclude. criticize. measure. compare. assess. revise.
interest. attention. and ability to demonstrate those attitudinal characteristics or values which are appropriate to the test situation and the field of study«. concern.Affective Learning Affective learning is demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of awareness. and responsibility. ability to listen and respond in interactions with others. .
joins. shares. and volunteers. questions. challenges. attempts. disputes. and values. . appreciations. supports. respecting. and supporting. judges.Affective Learning The domain relates to emotions. defends. such as enjoying. Verbs applicable to the affective domain include: accepts. attitudes. praises. conserving.
Responding. (Character).Affective Learning There are 5 categories listed in the Affective Domain. Organization. . Internalizing. Valuing. Receiving.
Affective Learning .
Affective Learning Receiving Phenomena: Awareness. willingness to respond. or satisfaction in responding (motivation). Attends and reacts to a particular phenomena. selected attention. Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learner. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding. willingness to hear. .
comparing. Valuing is based on an internalized set of specified values. and creating a unique value system. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. The emphasis is on relating. .Affective Learning Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object. by contrasting different values. or behavior. resolving conflicts between them. and synthesizing values. phenomenon. Organization: Organizes values into priorities.
Instructional objectives are concerned with the student·s general patterns of adjustment (personal. characteristic of the learner. social. and emotional). predictable. The behavior is pervasive.Affective Learning Internalizing Values (Characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. consistent. . and most importantly.
coordination. actions which demonstrate the use of fine motor skills such as the use of precision instruments or tools. dexterity. grace. speed. strength. or actions which evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance or athletic performance.Psychomotor Learning Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills. manipulation. .
shorten. and perform (skillfully). write. grasp. express (facially). reach. . handle. operate. differentiate (by touch).Psychomotor Learning Verbs applicable to the Psychomotor domain include bend. stretch. relax.
Imitation Manipulation Precision Articulation Naturalization .Psychomotor Learning There are 5 categories of psychomotor learning.
Psychomotor Learning .
These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person·s response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). to translation. It includes mental. Set: Readiness to act. This ranges from sensory stimulation. .Psychomotor Learning Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activities. through cue selection. physical and emotional sets.
To include performing without hesitation. . Proficiency is indicated by a quick. requiring a minimum of energy. Many learners express themselves verbally as to their performance or actions. They feel their performance. accurate. and automatic performance.Psychomotor Learning Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. and highly coordinated performance.
Psychomotor Learning Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. . Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem.
. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill.Psychomotor Learning Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.
Bloom·s Revised Taxonomy Bloom created a learning taxonomy in 1956. Teachers have also revised the way they plan and implement instruction. and since that time we have learned more about the way that children learn. Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) revised Bloom·s original taxonomy by combining both the cognitive process. . and knowledge dimensions.
The revised taxonomy incorporates both the kind of knowledge to be learned (knowledge dimension) and the process used to learn (cognitive process). . focused objectives. allowing for the instructional designer to efficiently align objectives to assessment techniques. Both dimensions are illustrated in the following table that can be used to help write clear.
The Revised Taxonomy Table .
The Revised Taxonomy Table For teachers. the objectives for an entire unit can be plotted out on the taxonomy table. they could use the taxonomy table to make sure that students not only learned different math procedures. For example. but also learned how to think (meta-cognition) about the best way to solve a math problem. . ensuring that all levels of the cognitive process are used and that students learn different types of knowledge. if a math teacher were planning a unit.
The revised table also gives teachers a place to start.The Revised Taxonomy Table Teachers may also use the new taxonomy dimensions to examine current objectives (State Standards) in units. . and to revise the objectives so that they will align with one another. and with assessments.
Understand: compare.The Revised Taxonomy Table Anderson and Krathwohl also list specific verbs that can be used when writing objectives for each column of the cognitive process dimension. recall«. classify. Evaluate: checking. Analyze: organizing. . Remember: recognize. attributing«. critiquing«. execute«. Apply: Implementing. Create: produce. plan«. summarize«.
.The purpose of writing objectives is to define what the instructor wants the student to learn.
How to use the Revised Taxonomy Table Learning objectives must fall under one of the four categories under the knowledge dimension. . is where the objective stands on the revised taxonomy table. and under one of the six categories of the cognitive process dimension. Where the knowledge and cognitive process dimension intersect.
The Revised Taxonomy Table .
the objective cannot be placed on the table: a clue that the old objective needs to be revised. If an objective has a vague learning procedure for students to complete. . such as ´to knowµ.The Revised Taxonomy Table Utilize this technique to analyze objectives.
Bloom Taxonomy Revised Happy Teaching Gallup-McKinley County Schools .