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General information about HRW History of HRW Founders of organization Who runs the HRW Europe Committee Structure of organization How do they working,operating GENERAL TOPİCS WHO ARE THEY???? METHODS Research Methodology Introduction Initial Research Interview Research: Locations Interview Research: Who they Interview Interview Research: How they Conduct Interviews with Victims/Witnesses Non-Interview Research

 How do they decide what reports to translate into

other languages
 WORLD REPORTS  News about HRW in media  Critisism  Summury

General information about HRW

. Human Rights Watch, is an independent a United States-based international nongovernment organisation that conducts research and advocacy on human rights, has been criticised in the form of commentaries from various organisations, journalists, and bloggers.

History of HRW

Since its formation, HRW has focused mainly on upholding civil and political rights. HRW began in 1978 with the founding of its European division, Helsinki Watch (now Human Rights Watch/Helsinki). This was in response to a call for support from groups in Moscow, Warsaw, and Prague, which had been established to monitor compliance in Soviet Bloc countries with the human rights provisions of the landmark Helsinki accords.
A few years later, the Reagan administration contended that human rights abuses by certain right-wing governments were more tolerable than those of left-wing governments. Thus, to counter charges of maintaining

They pay particular attention to situations in which their methodology of investigation and reporting is most effective, such as when arbitrary or discriminatory governmental conduct lies behind an economic, social and cultural rights violation.

 In the 1980's, Americas

Watch was set up to counter the notion that human rights abuses by one side in the war in Central America were somehow more tolerable than abuses by the other side.

As the organization grew, it formed other "watch committees" to cover other regions of the world. In 1988, all of the committees were united under one umbrella to form Human Rights Watch.

By 1987, HRW had developed a powerful set of techniques for pursuing its agenda: painstaking documentation of abuses and aggressive advocacy in the press and with governments, and it employed these techniques all over the world. Over time, the organization grew to cover other regions of the world. Eventually, all the "Watch" committees were united in 1988 to form Human Rights Watch.

Between 1993 and 2003, HRW has increasingly addressed economic, social, and cultural rights as well. It is particularly attuned to situations in which its methods of investigation and reporting are most effective. Today, HRW comprises seven major divisions: Africa, the Americas, Arms, Asia, Children, Women, the Middle East and North Africa, and Europe and Central Asia.  

Founders of organization

Robert L. Bernstein was a president of the organization and is one of the original founders, along with Jeri Laber, and several others

Roth started working on human rights after the declaration of martial law in Poland in 1981, and later became engaged in Haiti issues PS.. Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice.
 The current executive

director of Human Rights Watch is Kenneth Roth He has held this position since 1993.  Roth is a graduate of Yale Law School and Brown University His father fled Nazi Germany in 1938.

Who runs the HRW Europe Committee?

Who runs the HRW Europe Committee?

Human Rights Watch is organised approximately by continent. HRW was one of these 'private' organisations: in other words, it began as a Cold War propaganda instrument. The committee is now called the Europe and Central Asia Advisory Committee. It is still affiliated with the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, which co-ordinates the "Helsinki committees". The membership now includes fewer ex-diplomats than in the 1990's, more academics, and a few HRW donors The list of committee members below is as of March 2004.

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Structure of organization
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 Human Rights Watch (HRW)

investigates Human Rights abuses throughout the world, publishing its findings in books and reports every year. These activities often generate significant coverage in local and international media.

 This publicity helps to

embarrass abusive governments in the eyes of their citizens and the world. to change their policies and practices

How do they working,operating

How do they working,operating

HRW examines the human rights practices of governments of all political stripes, of all geopolitical alignments, and of all ethnic and religious persuasions. HRW documents and denounces murders, disappearances, torture, Arbitrary imprisonment, discrimination, and other abuses of internationally recognized human rights.

These reports are used as the basis for drawing international attention to abuses and pressuring governments and international organizations to reform. They investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. Researchers conduct fact-finding missions to investigate suspect situations and generate coverage in local and international media. Issues raised by Human Rights Watch in its reports include social and gender discrimination, torture, military use of children, political corruption to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime,, abuses in criminal justice systems, and the legalization of abortion. Human Rights Watch documents and reports violations of the laws of war and international humanitarian law.

Human Rights Watch also supports writers worldwide who are being persecuted for their work and are in need of financial assistance. The Hellman/Hammett grants are financed by the estate of the playwright Lillian Hellman in funds set up in her name and that of her long-time companion, the novelist Dashiell Hammett In addition to providing financial assistance, the Hellman/Hammett grants help raise international awareness of activists who are being silenced for speaking out in defence of human rights.

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PS... Each year, Human Rights Watch awards Hellman/Hammett grants to writers punished by their governments for expressing opposition views, criticizing government officials or actions, or writing about topics that the government does not want reported. A special emergency grant is awarded to writers who need to flee for their safety or need immediate medical treatment for injury caused by torture, assault or harsh prison conditions. Hellman/Hammett grants, which range from US$1,000 to US$10,000

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Watch was one of six international NGOs that founded the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers in 1998.

 It is also the co-chair of the

International Campaign to Ban Land mines a global coalition of civil society groups that successfully lobbied to introduce the Ottawa Treaty a treaty that prohibits the use of anti-personnel landmines.

 Human Rights Watch is a

founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange a global network of nongovernmental organizations that monitor censorship worldwide

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Human Rights Watch has more than 230 paid staff, and a budget of over US$30 million a year. . Human Rights Watch,, supported by contributions from private individuals and foundations worldwide HRW has a full-time staff of 190 employees worldwide and a budget of approximately $22 million per year. The organization has received funding from many foundations, including the Ahmanson Foundation; the Carnegie Corporation of New York;the Columbia Foundation; the Ford Foundation; the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation; the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; the Nathan Cummings Foundation; the JEHT Foundation; the Joyce Foundation; the J.M. Kaplan Fund; the Open Society Institute; the David and Lucile Packard Foundation; the Righteous Persons Foundation; the Rockefeller Brothers Fund; the Rockefeller Foundation; and the Scherman Foundation.

GENERAL TOPİCS

 Not only does HRW encompass the

entire globe for its activities, but HRW is interested in enormously complex and diverse issues.  For example, HRW follows developments worldwide in women's rights, children's rights, and the flow of arms to abusive forces.  Other HRW projects include Academic Freedom, the human rights responsibilities of corporations, international justice, prisons, drugs, and Refugees.  The unique and independent nature of this international organization enables it to target any and all parties to conflict.

GENERAL TOPİCS
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Arms Business Children's Rights Counterterrorism ESC Rights Health International Justice LGBT Rights Migrants Press Freedom Refugees Terrorism Torture United Nations Women's Rights

Topics
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Issues and campaigns Traffic in small arms Land mines Legalisation of abortion Gay rights Rights of AIDS patients Safety of civilians in war; opposes use of cluster bombs Child labor Child soldiers Street children Genocide war crimes and crimes against humanity Torture Extrajudicial killings and abductions Legal proceedings against human rights abusers Trafficking in women and girls Abolition of capital punishment worldwide

WHO

ARE THEY????

rights organization based in the United States. HRW employs lawyers, journalists, academics, and country experts of many More than 240 dedicated nationalities and diverse professionals work for Human Rights backgrounds, and often leverages the force of allied Watch around the world. human rights organizations by joining forces with them They often join forces with human to achieve shared human rights groups from other countries to rights goals. further our common goals

 HRW is the largest human

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 As of February 2002,

Human Rights Watch employed 189 permanent staff plus short-term fellows and consultants.  . It gains most of its support from contributions from private individuals and foundations worldwide.  It accepts no government funds, directly or indirectly, from the United States or any other government

. HRW is not an agency of the U.S. government, nor was it founded by the U.S. government.  Although HRW frequently calls on the United States to support human rights in U.S. foreign policy, the organization also reports on human rights abuses inside the United States.  HRW has made negative reports against the United States in areas such as prison conditions, police abuse, the detention of immigrants, and the imposition of the death penalty.

HRW maintains its headquarters in New YorkBrussels, Bujumbura, Freetown (Sierra Leone), Kigali, Geneva, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, San Francisco, Santiago de Chile, Tashkent, Tbilisi, and Washington.
often set up temporary offices in regions where we're conducting intensive investigations, and their researchers regularly travel to the countries they cover, unless security concerns prevent it.

Human Rights Watch tracks developments in more than 70 countries around the world.

METHODS

METHODS
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HRW pursues active investigations of human rights abuses in more than 70 countries. Its methods for obtaining human rights information has made it a credible source of information for individuals and governments concerned with human rights. To conduct research, Human Rights Watch sends members of its staff to interview people who have firsthand experience with alleged abuse. Researchers work with local activists and other specialists. Their findings are written up in reports. HRW reports categorize and describe human rights violations, detail probable causes for the abuses, and make recommendations for ways to end the abuses. HRW has published more than a thousand reports dealing with human rights issues in more than one hundred countries worldwide. HRW has used its investigations to examine human rights violations associated in the following cases: Taliban massacres in Afghanistan; trafficking of Thai women in Asia; rape in U.S. prisons; refugees in Sierra Leone; and conflicts in Indonesia, Macedonia, Colombia, Russia, and the Congo.

Research Methodology
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Introduction Initial Research Interview Research Locations Who They Interview How We Conduct Interviews with Victims/Witnesses Non-Interview Research Specific Methodological Challenges

Introduction
 they choose their countries of focus, and

the issues they address, based on where they think their attention is needed, and where they can make a difference.   they respond to emergencies, but they also challenge entrenched, longstanding, or steadily deteriorating human rights problems.  At the heart of the work are more than 80 researchers on staff.

 Many are seasoned professionals drawn from peer         

organizations.  Across Human Rights Watch our researcher staff are organized both geographically and thematically: Five geographic divisions – Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe & Central Asia, and Middle East & North Africa, plus a separate program on the United States – give their global spread.

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Thematic divisions and programs add to their  depth and focus on specific issues within countries and regions: Arms; Business & Human Rights; Children's Rights; Terrorism & Counterterrorism; Health & Human Rights; International Justice; Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual &Transgender Rights; Refugees; and Women's Rights. The researchers work under the supervision of divisional or program directors, and core departments such as the Legal & Policy Office and the Program Office, which ensure the highest organizational standards of accuracy, balance, and persuasiveness are consistently met.

Initial Research
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Human Rights Watch develops its research strategies and selects its research topics based upon the guiding principles of the organization. The initial stages of research can differ greatly when researching an emergency or rapidly developing rights violation as opposed to a long-running violation or longer-term human rights issues.  During an emergency, their researchers attempt to document the violations or abuses that are occurring as quickly and thoroughly as possible; this requires researchers to be on location immediately, and they may deploy  our specialists in the country or issue in question, or our dedicated emergencies researchers. For longer-term issues, our researchers deploy their existing specialization in the country or issue to conduct extensive background research, familiarizing themselves with the context and subtleties of their subject before conducting interviews with victims and witnesses.

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Human Rights Watch researchers rely heavily on communication with a network of contacts from the outset, and throughout all stages of research. also confer with other contacts such as lawyers, journalists, doctors, student groups, government officials, diplomats, representatives of international nongovernmental organizations and international experts, to exchange/solicit information and to help identify witnesses, victims, recommendations, and advocacy targets. In addition to preliminary communication with contacts, researchers will conduct extensive background research before beginning witness or victim interviews.  They examine international humanitarian law and international human rights law, domestic or local law, data from the United Nations and other international organizations, academic or policy studies, nongovernmental organization reports, and relevant media stories to gain understanding and context.

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Interview Research: Locations

Human Rights Watch's goal with any research mission is to gain enough information about an incident, or about repeated rights violations, to create an accurate picture of what happened.  This requires not only interviewing victims but also attempting to gain the other multiple sides of the story. To do this, researchers always try to get to specific locations where violations are known to have occurred, or are ongoing. Security conditions and time limitations can greatly affect where researchers can conduct investigations. Before every research mission, they evaluate the security risks  and develop communications and security protocols. In cases of major armed conflict, researchers attempt to remain on location for as long as security will allow.          

 Extensive literature reviews,

media reports, and background interviews with experts on the topic are used to guide potential research.

 
 Often, witnesses and victims of

human rights abuses can be found grouped together in single locations such as refugee camps or hospitals.          

Interview Research: Who they Interview
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. Human Rights Watch seeks to interview those directly involved with the abuses: victims and witnesses. In addition to understanding the reality of what has occurred, Human Rights Watch interviews victims and witnesses in order to give them an opportunity to have their voices and stories reach a wider audience. Interviewing victims and witnesses also helps Human Rights Watch develop the recommendations they address to authorities for cessation and redress of human rights abuses. 

Interview Research: How they Conduct Interviews with Victims/Witnesses
Every human rights violation or incident that Human Rights Watch investigates, and every victim or witness a researcher interviews, is unique.    Therefore there is no uniform interview methodology that is universally used by the organization.     Some of the most commonly employed techniques used for interviewing witnesses and victims are to conduct interviews in private settings, one-on-one with the researcher, and to focus the interview on the details of what occurred.           

 One of the most commonly employed

interview techniques for confirming the veracity of a statement is to focus interview questions on details.  By focusing on details such as ages, names, locations, times and other descriptions, Interviews are always conducted in-person when possible.   On the occasion where it is absolutely impossible to conduct an in-person interview, Human Rights Watch researchers have conducted interviews with witnesses or victims via telephone and other modes of communication.    The setting or mode of the interview is always correctly noted in the published Human Rights Watch report. 

Non-Interview Research

they conduct extensive reviews of media reports, domestic legislation, international law, policy papers, academic reports, and civil society reports during the initial stages of, and throughout, the research process.  Trial materials, government reports, conviction and sentencing materials are all often used to make cases in Human Rights Watch reporting.  Data collected from sources such as the UN, regional intergovernmental bodies, and domestic government agencies are also often analyzed to prove the existence and extent of human rights abuses.  Examples of this include using US criminal sentencing data to prove racial discrepancies in the sentencing of juveniles to life without parole or using patient payment records from hospitals in Burundi to prove inequitable and unethical treatment of patients. 

Detailed specific methodological challenges Closed-Society Research

Human Rights Watch conducts research in many countries and regions that can be defined as "closed societies."  Some of these countries, such as Iran or North Korea, completely close their borders to their researchers.  Other "closed regions" may be in countries that are technically "open" but are regions closed to researchers due to insecurity or restrictions put in place by the authorities.  Conducting research in these regions presents many challenges including identifying rights violations, gaining a thorough understanding of the local context, identifying victims and witnesses, and identifying suitable recommendations and advocacy opportunities.   Security is Human Rights Watch's greatest concern, not only for our researchers, but for those with whom researchers speak.  In these closed regions there is often an ongoing security threat to our contacts and to those they speak with, and maintaining their security, long after researchers have left, is our highest priority.

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There are many methods that Human Rights Watch researchers employ to gather information from closed regions.   Even without entering the region, researchers are still able to conduct interviews with victims and witnesses.  Interviews are often conducted via telephone and, at times, through online communication.  These interviews are usually used to gather background information and identify rights violations but occasionally, Human Rights Watch will use witness or victim testimony which has been gathered remotely in reports. 

Recently, Human Rights Watch has begun to use satellite technology to expose rights abuses in closed regions.  Satellite imagery is extremely effective for showing the before and after effects of major conflict, such as the destruction of villages, or mass movements of people, such as the displacement of refugees .  Satellite imagery has been used when Human Rights Watch has received reports of specific locations being attacked but has not had the opportunity to enter the region to confirm these reports.  Using previously taken GPS coordinates from villages reported to have been attacked, researchers have been able to purchase a series satellite images of these villages taken over a period of time.  These time-stamped images give clear evidence of the before and after effects of an attack.

How do they decide what reports to translate into other languages?

 Their reports are

produced in English, but they recognize the great value in issuing their reports in other languages. budget is dedicated to translating reports into languages where there is a large and interested readership.

 Most of their translation

Their staff members, all experts in their field, come from over 40 countries around the world and speak over 50 languages.

WORLD REPORTS

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The 19th annual World Report summarizes human rights conditions in more than 90 countries and territories worldwide. It reflects extensive investigative work undertaken in 2008 by Human Rights Watch staff, usually in close partnership with human rights activists in the country in question.   Sixty years after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the governments demonstrating the clearest vision on international rights protections, sadly, are those seeking to undermine enforcement. In their foreign policies and in international fora, they invoke sovereignty, non-interference, and Southern solidarity to curb criticism of their human rights abuses and those of their allies and friends. Governments that champion human rights need urgently to wrest back the initiative from these human rights spoilers.

Rain of Fire
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Israel’s Unlawful Use of White Phosphorus in Gaza March 25, 2009 This 71-page report provides witness accounts of the devastating effects that white phosphorus munitions had on civilians and civilian property in Gaza. Human Rights Watch researchers in Gaza immediately after hostilities ended found spent shells, canister liners, and dozens of burnt felt wedges containing white phosphorus on city streets, apartment roofs, residential courtyards, and at a United Nations school. The report also presents ballistics evidence, photographs, and satellite imagery, as well as documents from the Israeli military and government.

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Barred from Treatment Punishment of Drug Users in New York State Prisons March 24, 2009 In this 53-page report, Human Rights Watch found that New York prison officials sentenced inmates to a collective total of 2,516 years in disciplinary segregation from 2005 to 2007 for drug-related charges. At the same time, inmates seeking drug treatment face major delays because treatment programs are filled to capacity. When sentenced to segregation, known as "the box," inmates are not allowed to get or continue to receive treatment. Conditions in the box are harsh, with prisoners locked down 23 hours a day and contact with the outside through visitors, packages, and telephone calls severely restricted.

Detained and Dismissed Women’s Struggles to Obtain Health Care in United States Immigration Detention  March 17, 2009  This 78-page Human Rights Watch report documents dozens of cases in which the immigration agency's medical staff either failed to respond at all to health problems of women in detention or responded only after considerable delays.
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Recent Features
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Rain of Fire: White Phosphorus in Gaza March 25, 2009 During Israel's 22-day military operations in Gaza, from December 27, 2008 to January 18, 2009, named Operation Cast Lead, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) repeatedly exploded white phosphorus munitions in the air over populated areas, killing and injuring civilians, and damaging civilian structures, including a school, a market, a humanitarian aid warehouse and a hospital. Senior Military Analyst Marc Garlasco discusses Human Rights Watch's on the ground investigation and findings.

Two brothers aged and 4 or 5 were killed and 14 others were wounded when white phosphorus  Shells burst above this UN school in Beit Lahiya on January 17 2009

An ısreal soldıer attaches fuses to amerıcan manufactured M825A1 155MM whıte phosphorus artilery shells prior to firing them into Gaza ın january 2009

 A burning wedge of white phosphorus in Khuza a village

ten days after it hit the town the spend wedges  Usually contain enough phosphorus after burning out that they reignite when kicked

At least theree white phosphorus shells struckt the main compound of the united nations relief and welfare agency UNRWA in central Gaza city on january 15 wounding three and starting fires that guted four buıldings and destroyed more than us $ 3.7 million worth of medical supplies

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Aya al- Najjar 7 in Khuza a village where she was suffered a broken arm and burns from a white phosphorus shell in her hause Her mother Hannan 47 was killed in the atackt on january 10 2009

Sri Lanka: War on the Displaced
February 19, 2009 Abuses against civilians in the Vanni. More than 200 000 people are trapped in apocket of less than 100 square km in the vanni area northen sri lanka as a result of recent fighting between government forces and the separatist liberation tigers of tamil eelam LLTE the sri lanka army has repeatly shelled safe areas crowded with civilians while the LTTE prevents civilians from fleeding to government*held arreas away from the fighting

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An injured woman is rushed away after an artilery attack in front of tharmapuram hospital Sri Lanka: War on the Displaced

 An injured child controlled in the area vanni

The Christmas Massacres: LRA attacks on Civilians in Northern Congo February 13, 2009

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Cords used to tie up victims found at one massacre site. HRW researchers and local civil society members vent to the massacre sites to document the location of graves and collect remaining evidence. The team found the cords used to tie of the victims the blood stained bats and items of clothing all of which were moved to a secure location

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A grandfather abducted along with his four grandchildren in Dungu by the Lords residance army LRA on november 1 2008 He was kept for four days and forced to carry heavy loads The LRA killed a man beside hm who refused to carry his load. He was later released but his grandchildren were not

 A victim of the christmas day attacts in Faradje He

said the LRA beat him and cut off his ear

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A headmaster from a local scholl near Dungu who narrowly escaped being killed by the LRA The LRA abducted 65 of his students many of whom havenot returned

 A woman

whose husband was killed by the LRA  inAligi suburb on the outkirts of Faradje on Chistmas Day

Unspeakable Things: Migrant Workers in Russia

 Woman walk through a construction site in moskow  Millions of migrant workers work in Russia s

construction sector

Sakhoba holds her child at their home in the village of Lyakan in northerm Tajikistan
 Sakhoba s husband left his family to work in Russiia in hopes of

earning a decent salary and saving money  To support his family

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Khujand,Tajikistan Kakhramon Musabaev,a former migrant worker from Tajikistan,lost a portion of both legs from frostbite after fleeing an abusive employer. Musabaev s ecured a job in Russia through an employement agency in Tajikistan but the agency later confiscated his passport and placed him with an employer who forced him to work without wages and beat him

 Migrant workers from Central Asia  Build a Mosquie in Central Moskow

Migrant workers from Tajikistan wait along the highway on the edge of Moskow hoping to be hired as day lobores on construction sites around Moskow

 January 23, 2009  Ethnic Chin of Burma's far-flung western Chin State

have long borne the brunt of abusive military rule. Ongoing repression and abuses by the Burmese military, combined with policies and practices of the military government have caused thousands of ethnic Chin to flee the country. Most go across the border to India, and some to Malaysia and Thailand.

Ethnic chin of burma s far flung westem chin state have long bome the brunt of abusevi military rule Ongoing repsession and abuses by the Burmese military combined with polices and practices of the military government have caused thousands of ethnic Chin to flee the country Most go across the border to india and some to Malaysia and Thailand

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Ethnic Chin of Burma s far flung westerm chin statehave long bome the brunt of abusive military rule Ongoıng repression and abuses by the burmese military combined with policies and practices of the military government have caused thausands of ethnic chin to flee the country Most go across the border to india and some to Malasia and Thailand

 A prisoner in chains is forced to construct a road in

northern chin state Burma June 2007

Red Hand Campaign
 February 12, 2009  Former child soldiers and other youth

from around the world have gathered more than 250,000 “red hands” as part of a campaign to demand stronger action by international leaders to end the use of child soldiers.

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World Report 2008 Events of 2007 January 30, 2008 In its World Report 2008, Human Rights Watch surveys the human rights situation in more than 75 countries. Human Rights Watch identified many human rights challenges in need of attention, including atrocities in Chad, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia’s Ogaden region, Iraq, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Sudan’s Darfur region, as well as closed societies or severe repression in Burma, China, Cuba, Eritrea, Libya, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam. Abuses in the “war on terror” featured in France, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, among others.

A BETRAYAL OF TRUST violonce against children

CHANNGES FOR A RESPONSİBLE POWER

DESPOTS MASQUERADING AS DEMOCRATS

TWO NOWEMBERS movemets rights and the Yogyakarta Principles

KENYA;Justice vital to stabilty…

 Kenyans registered to vote in record

numbers for the presidential and parliamentary elections on December 27, 2007 the 24-year presidency of Daniel Arap Moi ended in 2002. Mwai Kibaki, the incumbent and a former minister in Moi's government, led the Party of National Unity (PNU) and Raila Odinga, a former political prisoner, led the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). predicted to prevail. Turnout was higher than Kenya had ever seen.

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 the country's first multi-party polls since

 In opinion polls the ODM was widely

 Counting of votes started on the

evening of December 27 and carried on throughout the following day.  The parliamentary elections proceeded smoothly. In the presidential race Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement took an early lead in the count.  But then the counting and tallying was beset by delays and the governmental Electoral Commission of Kenya was besieged with complaints

Vote counting was tense and when news spread of the delays, riots erupted in Nairobi and Kisumu, the ODM stronghold. Police responded with excessive force against the protesters and a general

The delays continued and on December 30 counting resumed only to show the gap between Kibaki and Odinga narrowing considerably. Mobs formed quickly and began demonstrating against what they saw as the rigging of the election. The government outlawed public gatherings and police responded to the demonstrations across the country with excessive force

Russia
Used needles are returned to a needle exchange point in St. Petersburg, Russia

Injection drug users at a needle exchange point

A young woman uses sex work to support her drug use….

This report is Human Rights Watch's fifteenth annual review of human rights practices around the globe. It summarizes key human rights issues in sixty-four countries, drawing on events through November 2004. Each country entry identifies significant human rights issues, examines the freedom of local human rights defenders to conduct their work, and surveys the response of key international actors, such as the United Nations, European Union, Japan, the United States, and various regional and international organizations and institutions. The volume begins with four essays addressing human rights developments of global concern in 2004. The lead essay examines far-reaching threats to human rights that emerged during the year: large-scale ethnic cleansing in Darfur in western Sudan, and detainee abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, symptomatic of a broader problem of torture and mistreatment of detainees by U.S. forces. It argues that the vitality of human rights defense worldwide depends on a firm response to both of these threats. International indifference and inaction in the face of continuing atrocities in Darfur have cost the lives of tens of thousands of people and damaged the human rights principle that sovereignty should not stand in the way of protecting people from mass atrocities. The U.S. government’s use of torture at Abu Ghraib, though affecting far fewer people directly, reflects a larger pattern of disregard for human rights law and standards by the world’s sole superpower. While the lead essay focuses on Abu Ghraib and its repercussions, the second essay, a companion piece to the first, details what has taken place in Darfur and the continuing reluctance of the U.N. Security Council and other powerful international actors to mount a decisive response. 

 From July to December

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2005, greater emphasis was placed on reporting human rights abuses in Tunisia (29 points), Morocco (33 points), Iran (49 points), Iraq (53 points), Egypt (48 points), Jordan (19 points), Saudi Arabia (21 points) Syria (13 points), than on claims regarding Israel (7 points).

War in Iraq: Not a Humanitarian Intervention     Africa on its Own: Regional Intervention and Human Rights   Losing the Peace in Afghanistan Sidelined: Human Rights in Postwar Iraq “Glad to be Deceived”: the International Community and Chechnya Above the Law: Executive Power after September 11 in the United States     Drawing the Line: War Rules and Law Enforcement Rules in the Fight against Terrorism Beyond the Hague: The Challenges of International Justice Children as Weapons of War Cluster Munitions: Toward a Global Solution Weapons and War Crimes: The Complicity of Arms Suppliers Engine of War: Resources, Greed, and the Predatory State In War as in Peace: Sexual Violence and Women’s Status Legacy of War: Minority Returns in the Balkans Right Side Up: Reflections on the Last Twenty-Five Years of the Human Rights Movement 

Children’s Drawings from Darfur, Sudan
Above drawing by Mahmoud, Age 13 Human Rights Watch: What’s happening here? Mahmoud: These men in green are taking the women and the girls. Human Rights Watch: What are they doing? Mahmoud: They are forcing them to be wife. Human Rights Watch: What’s happening here? Mahmoud: The houses are on fire. Human Rights Watch: What’s happening here? Mahmoud: This is an Antonov. This is a helicopter. These here, at the bottom of the page, these are dead people.

News about HRW in media

Iran Killing Kids? Juvenile Death Penalty in the Spotlight

 Iran's president has blocked efforts to

stop juvenile executions in Iran, according to Human Rights Watch.   Two teenagers in Iran narrowly escaped the death penalty last month for crimes committed when they were minors. The incident, Human Rights Watch says, highlights Iran's status as the "world leader in juvenile executions."  Sina Paymard, 18, and Ali Alijan, 19, were facing death by hanging for a murder committed when they were under the age of 18.  They were spared after the victim's family granted a pardon. Under Iranian law, the victim's survivors can grant clemency, sometimes taking "blood money" or financial compensation for the crime committed. 

World NewsLatest global news and top Human Rights Watch says Israeli international stories military's
use of white phosphorous in Gaza was indiscriminate by Karin Laub / Associated Press  Wednesday March 25, 2009, 9:00 PM

Associated PressIn this Tuesday, Jan. 27, 2009, photo, Palestinian Mohammed Al Haddad is seen in a hospital bed suffering what doctors say are burns from white phosphorous fired during Israel's military offensive, as he recovers at Shifa Hospital in Gaza City. Human Rights Watch issued a report Wednesday March 25 2009 that Israel fired white phosphorous shells indiscriminately over densely populated Gaza, and that this is evidence of war crimes.

Saudi women "treated like legal minors

"

Submitted by Sahil Nagpal on Mon, 04/21/2008 - 15:51. Riyadh Saudi Arab  Riyadh - Saudi women are prevented by World News male guardians from enjoying their basic

rights, including travelling, working and getting married, the Human Rights Watch group said Monday. "Saudi women often must obtain permission from a guardian (a father, husband, or even a son) to work, travel, study, marry or even access health care," the New York-based group said. A report, entitled Perpetual Minors: Human Rights Abuses Stemming from Male Guardianship and Sex Segregation in Saudi Arabia, draws on over 100 interviews with Saudi women to document the effect of discriminatory policies on women's basic rights. "The authorities essentially treat adult women like legal minors who are not entitled to authority over their lives and well-being," the 50-page report said.

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April 7, 2008 - 6:16 PM Rights' records come under UN gaze Image caption: Human Rights Watch says severe overcrowding and institutionalized violence are chronic and widespread in Brazilian prisons (Reuters) The Geneva-based United Nations Human Rights Council has started its first-ever Universal Periodic Review (UPR), scrutinizing the human rights records of all UN members. Observers are warning the council's credibility depends on the success of the new mechanism. Switzerland is due to go before the review on May 8. Over the next two weeks, the first 16 countries will have their human rights records examined by a UPR working group, including Bahrain, Britain, India, Brazil, Algeria, South Africa, and Argentina. This is the first time the records of all 192 UN member states, regardless of their size, wealth, military or political importance, will be examined using a common mechanism. The review, which began on Monday, is seen as a major move away from the selectivity that so often afflicted the council's predecessor, the much-maligned and highly politicised Human Rights Commission.

criticisms
 Human Rights Watch has been criticized for

perceived anti-Western, anti-China, anti-Serb and anti-Israel bias while others have criticized it for having a pro-Western and pro-Israel bias.  According to a report in the Egyptian press, "the government often accuses human rights groups [including Human Rights Watch] of importing a Western agenda that offends local religious and cultural values.

SUMMURY
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Human rights are not the only ideology of intervention. The 'civilising mission', which justified 19-th century colonisation, is another example. The point is that human rights can serve a geopolitical purpose, which is unrelated to their moral content. It is not possible to show that 'human rights' exist, and most moral philosophers would not even try. It might not be a very important issue in ethics anyway - but it is important in politics and geopolitics. And geopolitics is what Human Rights Watch is about - not about ethics. HRW itself is an almost exclusively US-American organisation . Its version of human rights is the Anglo-American tradition. It is 'mono-ethical' - recognising no legitimate ethical values outside its own. However, the human-rights tradition is not, and can never be, a substitute for a general morality. Major ethical issues such as equality, distributive justice, and innovation, simply don't fit into rights-based ethics.

Human Rights Watch is one of the world’s leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights.  By focusing international attention where human rights are violated, they give voice to the oppressed and hold oppressors accountable for their crimes.  their rigorous, objective investigations and strategic, targeted advocacy build intense pressure for action and raise the cost of human rights abuse.  For 30 years, Human Rights Watch has worked tenaciously to lay the legal and moral groundwork for deep-rooted change and has fought to bring greater justice and security to people around the world.

Dziekuje…MELIKE AYDIN   

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