Database II

Introduction to Database Administration
Muhammad Asghar Khan
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Introduction 
Data and information are resources that are valuable for organizations like other financial or other physical resources  Database administration activities have been developed to help achieve organizations goals for the effective management of data  Effective data administration provides support for managerial decision making at all levels in the organization
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Data Administration 
Data Administration is high level activity that is responsible for the overall management of data resources in an organization  DA interact with top management, users and computer applications specialists  The DA should be a respected, senior-level middle manager selected from within the organization, rather than technical computer expert or a new individual hired for that position
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Database Administration (1/2) 
Database Administration is a technical activity that is responsible for physical database design and for dealing with technical issues such as security enforcement, database performance, backup and recovery  The DBA should be involved in every phase of database development , from database planning through maintenance and modification  DBA carries through the standard and procedures developed by DA

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Database Administration (1/2) 
DBA can also act as DA  DBA needs broad technical background in
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hardware Architectures, Data Processing, Database Development Life Cycle, Strong Design and Data Modeling Skills Managerial Skills

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DA vs. DBA 
Figure below depicts the relationship b/w DA and DBA

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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (1/15) 
To ensure that an organization's data and databases are useful, usable, available, and correct requires the DBA to perform a variety of tasks in a variety of areas  These areas include:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Database Design, Performance Monitoring and Tuning, Database Availability, Security and Authorization, Backup and Recovery, Data Integrity, Release Migration
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (2/15)
1. Database Design
‡ The DBA must understand and adhere to sound relational design practices The DBA must understand both relational theory and the specific implementation of the RDBMS he's using to create the database Database design requires a sound understanding of conceptual and logical data modeling techniques The ability to create and interpret ERD is essential to designing a relational database
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (3/15)
‡ The DBA must be able to transform a logical data model into a physical database implementation A poor relational design can result in poor performance

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2. Performance Monitoring and Tuning
‡ ‡ What is meant by database performance? The rate at which the DBMS supplies the information can be termed as database performance Five factors influence database performance: workload, throughput, resources, optimization, and contention
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (4/15)
‡ Workload
‡ It is defined as the work demanded from RDBMS ‡ It is a combination of online transactions, batch jobs, ad hoc queries, data warehousing, analytical queries, and commands directed through the system at any given time ‡ Workload can fluctuate drastically from day to day, hour to hour, minute to minute, and even second to second ‡ Sometimes workload can be predicted (such as heavy month-end processing of payroll, or very light access after 7:30 P.M., when most users have left for the day), but at other times it is unpredictable

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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (5/15)
‡ Throughput
‡ It defines the overall capability of the computer hardware and software to process data ‡ It is a composite of I/O speed, CPU speed, parallel capabilities of the machine, and the efficiency of the operating system and system software

‡ Resources
‡ The hardware and software tools at the disposal of the system are known as the resources of the system

‡ Optimization
‡ It refers to the analysis of database requests with query cost formulas to generate efficient access paths to data ‡ All types of systems can be optimized, but relational queries are unique in that optimization is primarily accomplished internal to the DBMS

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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (6/15)
‡ Contention
‡ It is the condition in which two or more components of the workload are attempting to use a single resource in a conflicting way (for example, dual updates to the same piece of data) As contention increases, throughput decreases

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Therefore, database performance can be defined as the optimization of resource usage to increase throughput and minimize contention, enabling the largest possible workload to be processed The availability of data and databases is often closely related with performance
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3. Database Availability
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (7/15)
‡ The first component of availability is keeping the DBMS up and running Database clustering technologies provide failover techniques that help to reduce downtime Nevertheless, such technology usually requires more skill and planning to implement

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4. Database Security and Authorization
‡ Once the database is designed and implemented, programmers and users will need to access and modify the data Only authorized programmers and users should have access
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (8/15)
‡ It is the responsibility of the DBA to ensure that data is available only to authorized users ‡ The DBA works with the internal security features of the DBMS in the form of SQL GRANT and REVOKE statements ‡ Database security can be enforced in other ways as well. For example, views can be created that block access to sensitive data by end users and programmers

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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (9/15)
5. Backup and Recovery
‡ ‡ The DBA must be prepared to recover data in the event of a problem "Problem" can mean anything from a system glitch or program error to a natural disaster that shuts down an organization The majority of recoveries today occur as a result of application software error and human error In fact, analyst estimates indicate that 80% of application errors are due to software failures and human error The DBA must be prepared to recover data to a usable point, no matter what the cause, and to do so as quickly as possible
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (10/15)
‡ Type of data recoveries can be Recover to Current, Pointin-Time Recovery, Transaction Recovery, ‡ Recover to Current
‡ Usually in the face of a major shutdown ‡ The end result of the recovery is that the database is brought back to its current state at the time of the failure

‡ Point-in-Time Recovery
‡ Usually deals with an application-level problem ‡ Conventional techniques to perform a point-in-time recovery remove the effects of all transactions since a specified point in time ‡ This can cause problems if valid transactions occurred during that timeframe that still need to be applied
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (11/15)
‡ Transaction Recovery
‡ Transaction recovery is an application recovery whereby the effects of specific transactions during a specified timeframe are removed from the database ‡ Therefore, transaction recovery is sometimes referred to as application recovery

‡ To be prepared for any type of recovery, the DBA needs to develop a backup strategy to ensure that data is not lost in the event of an error in software, hardware, or a manual process

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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (12/15)
6. Data Integrity
‡ A database must be designed to store the correct data in the correct way without that data becoming damaged or corrupted Physical Aspect of Data Integrity
‡ Can be implemented using DBMS features such as domains and data types Most relational DBMS products provide the following types of constraints:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Primary Key constraints Referential constraints Unique constraints Check constraints 18

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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (13/15)
‡ Semantic Aspect of Data Integrity
‡ It is more difficult to control and less easily defined ‡ An example of semantic integrity is the quality of the data in the database ‡ Procedures and practices need to be in place to ensure data quality. ‡ For example, a customer database that contains a wrong address or phone number in 25% of the customer records is an example of a database with poor quality ‡ Data quality is encouraged through proper application code, sound business practices, and specific data policies
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DBA Functions and Responsibilities (14/15)
‡ DBMS Internal Aspect of Data Integrity
‡ The DBMS relies on internal structures and code to maintain links, pointers, and identifiers ‡ Internal DBMS integrity is essential in the following areas: ‡ Index consistency
‡ An index is really nothing but an ordered list of pointers to data in database tables

‡ Pointer consistency
‡ Sometimes large multimedia objects are not stored in the same physical files as other data. ‡ Therefore, the DBMS requires pointer structures to keep the multimedia data synchronized to the base table data 20

DBA Functions and Responsibilities (15/15)
‡ Backup consistency
‡ ‡ Some DBMS products occasionally take improper backup copies that effectively cannot be used for recovery It is essential to identify these scenarios and take corrective actions

7. DBMS Release Migration
‡ The DBA is also responsible for managing the migration from release to release of the DBMS DBMS products change quite frequently²new versions are usually released every year or so

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