INDIAN ETHOS

‡ Cambridge Advanced Learner¶s Dictionary defines Ethos as ³the set of beliefs, ideas, etc about social behaviour and relationship of a person or group´. ‡ Oxford Advanced Learner¶s Dictionary defines it as ³the moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society´. ‡ Indian Ethos is all about what can be termed as ³national ethos´.

‡ Ethos is an English word based on a Greek word and denotes the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, a nation or an ideology. There are three categories of ethos. ‡ phronesis - practical skills & wisdom ‡ arete - virtue, goodness ‡ eunoia - goodwill towards the audience

ETHICS
Guides to social behaviour

Set of beliefs, ideas, attitudes

Of a Nation / Community / Religion

What u want, Do it to others

What u want, Do it to others

PAINT with LEAD

What u don·t want, don't do

What u don·t want, don't do

What u don·t want, don't do

What harms u, don't do

‡ The body of knowledge which derives its solutions from the rich and huge Indian system of ethics (moral philosophy) is known as Indian Ethos in Management (IEM). Is IEM some kind of Hindu concept of management?

Certainly not.

Not Hindu Concept

‡ Management is behavioral science and it has to be culture specific. IEM has as its basis, the culture base of India and as a country whose culture has its roots in religion - it does draw its lessons from the religions of the land - be it Hinduism, Buddhism, or any other.

CONCEPT Of ALL RELIGIONS

ALL RELIGIONS

INDIAN ETHOS in MANAGEMENT

Not Hindu concept of management Land of Diversity

All Religion & culture

Golden Rule of Ethics
‡ Everything you want others to do to you, you shall do to others. ‡ Do not do to others that which you do not wish them to do to you. ‡ Do not do anything to others that if done to you, would cause harm to you.

What you want from others

Do it to others

What you don¶t want from others

Don¶t do it to others

If others action, harms you

Don¶t do the action to others

Lord Krishna in the Gita says:
‡
³Karmanyeva Adhtkaraste Ma
Phaleshu Kadhachana Ma Karma-phala-heturbuhu Ma The¶ Sangab Asthu Akarmani´

‡

³You have the right only to action, and never to the fruits of your actions, nor be attached to inaction´.

NEED
‡ To develop proper management system in the organisation. Management systems based on principles as per ancient wisdom are of immense help for the smooth conduct of business. Value oriented business can be established with the help of Indian ethos. ‡ To ensure all round growth ,development & prosperity i.e., productivity, marketing & profitability

Ancient Wisdom
(Human productivity than plant capacity)

Indian Ethos

Proper Mgt system Value oriented business Smooth Business

Growth & development

‡ Indian Ethos teaches us that if you work sincerely for the society, for the organisation and for the Nature, you will really enjoy the life through money harmony, peace and bliss. Your image is bright. ‡ Indian wisdom indicates that productivity of human being is more important than plant capacity

INDIAN ETHOS

Sincerely for society, org, nature

Your image is bright

Get money harmony, peace & bliss

‡ Ethics is a requirement for human life. It is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random & aimless. There would be no way to work towards a goal because there would be no way to pick between a limitless number of goals. Even with an ethical standard, we may be unable to pursue our goals with the possibility of success. To the degree which a rational ethical standard is taken, we are able to correctly organize our goals and actions to accomplish our most important values. Any flaw in our ethics will reduce our ability to be successful in our endeavors.

NO GOAL NO ETHICS NO AIM NO SUCCESS

GOALS & ACTIONS ETHICS ORGANISE VALUES SUCCESS

‡ Ethics are essential for the smooth cooperation of all people within a society in order to ensure maximization of collective wellbeing of all the people in a free and fair manner. Therefore ethics are as important as the society is, especially in the context that we are essentially a social being.

ETHICS

SOCIETY

CO-OPERATION

COLLECTIVE WELL-BEING

PURPOSE
‡ "The philosophy that can't help you do things does nothing." - Aristotle. ‡ Establishment of basic guidelines & rules for deciding which behaviour is Good and Bad. So not necessary for the individual to make detailed analyses most of the time.

INDIVIDUAL

COURSE OF ACTION

(CONFUSED)

ETHICS

MINIMISE ALTERNATIVES

DECISION MADE

4 Main Standards - Code of Ethics
‡ Competence - Every member must maintain a high level of professionalism by continuing to develop their skills & knowledge, be able to perform their duties by still abiding by relevant laws & regulations - provide (accurate & timely) supportive decisions & other information and lastly to be able to recognize any limitations or constraints that relate to the success of an activity.

‡ Credibility - Each member being able to communicate information objectively & make sure that they disclose all relevant information and delays of deficiencies that have an effect on the organization or its operations ‡ Confidentiality - Each member of the organization keeping all personal information discrete and secret unless it is necessary that the information is disclosed. All parties involved must be aware & comply to the confidential policy. It is also assumed that under this standard each member will refrain from using information that is considered confidential to have an illegal advantage or promote unethical activities

‡ Integrity - Ability to adhere to moral & ethical principles & have regular communication to avoid conflicts of interest. Also acting with integrity includes refraining and abstaining from engagement in any activity that with discredit the company or be deemed as unethical.

Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) - Ethical Principles
‡ Honesty - Being truthful & sincere is said to be acting honestly and it will help in an organization if everyone possesses those qualities ‡ Fairness ± A Co¶s financial statements being presents in an understandable, and comprehensive way to not favor one party over another ‡ Objectivity - not acting based on personal feelings or prejudice and being unbiased. ‡ Responsibility - obligation or duty to do things that you feel is right

Salient ideas & thoughts of IEM - in ancient scriptures
‡ Atmano Mokshartham, Jagat hitaya cha: All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in our lives ‡ Archet dana manabhyam: Worship people not only with material things but also by showing respect to their enterprising divinity within.

‡ Atmana Vindyate Viryam: Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the Divine, God within, through prayer, spiritual readings and unselfish work. ‡ Yogah karmashu Kaushalam, Samatvam yoga uchyate: He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most. ‡ Yadishi bhavana yasya siddhi bhavati tadrishi: As we think, so we succeed, so we become. Attention to means ensures the end.

‡ Parasparam bhavayantah shreyah param bhavapsyathah: By mutual cooperation,respect and fellow feeling, all of us enjoy the highest good both material and spiritual. ‡ Tesham sukhm tesham shanti shaswati: Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to them who see the Divine in all beings. ‡ Paraspar Devo Bhav: Regard the other person as a divine being. All of us have the same consciousness though our packages and containers are different.

Work - Opportunity to do good for the nature Respect people for the knowledge Work Excellence comes from the Divine within

Calm mind achieves Thought shapes you Cooperation, Respect, Fellow feeling - good Infinite happiness & peace ± divine everywhere

Basic principles of (IEM): 1.Immense potential, energy and talents for perfection as human being has the spirit within his heart. 2.Holistic approach indicating unity between the Divine (The Divine means perfection in knowledge, wisdom and power), individual self and the universe.

3. Subtle, intangible subject and gross tangible objects are equally important. One must develop one¶s Third Eye, Jnana Chaksu, the Eye of Wisdom, Vision, Insight and Foresight. Inner resources are much more powerful than outer resources. Divine virtues are inner resources. Capital, materials and plant & machinery are outer resources. 4. Karma Yoga (selfless work) offers double benefits, private benefit in the form of self purification and public benefit.

5. Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam - Excellence at work through self-motivation and selfdevelopment with devotion and without attachment. 6. Co-operation is a powerful instrument for team work and success in any enterprise involving collective work.

Immense strength, potential are within Unity btn Divine, Universe, Individual Selfless work Forecasting the future Self-motivation in work Cooperation ± instrument for success

‡ Karma Yoga - a good pathway for ± self purification & self-development, individual as well as collective growth & welfare, minimum play of passion, jealousy, hatred, greed, anger and arrogance, team spirit, team work, autonomous management, minimum control and supervision, etc. Result -all round happiness & prosperity.

‡ Karma Yoga is an end-state or an alias of Nishkam Karma (NK). ‡ Yoga - union between µindividual consciousness¶ & µsupreme consciousnesses¶. ‡ Work is one of the several methods of achieving this union. Juxtaposed against the NK is the other attitude to work called Sakam Karma (SK).

Indian Socio-political Environment
‡ Indian Socio-political Environment ± Complex ± Diversity in cultures, religions, Customs, rituals ± from Kashmir to Kanya kumari ± Unity in Diversity ‡ 2 tenets ± Human values (Spiritual, ethical, moral values) - Holism (oneness, relation of parts ) ‡ Indian model of Management is spiritualistic model

Salient features of Indian Sociopolitical Environment
‡ FOCUS ON LIFESTYLE - Mgt in Indian socio environment defines Standard of living & Maximizing quality of life ± not only quality of consumer goods & services but also enriching quality of life in the society & environment ± one thinks, speaks & behaves

FOCUS TOWARDS BUSINESS POLICY
‡ Political parties makes policies during their rule and it is mandatory for business to follow it. ‡ Policies are made inline with current situation ‡ Sometimes it is unfavorable. ‡ Different parties have different ideologies ‡ Frame policies for their benefits & interests. ‡ Business people though not favorable has to follow those polices

LACK OF NATIONAL PRIDE & COMMITMENT
‡ People work for their benefit without any commitment. ‡ They work to fulfill the particular role assigned ‡ It will benefit him as a person ‡ The same work when done with country in mind will make him a better citizen both in attitude & mind ‡ It will benefit the country

EXISTENCE OF HUMAN ORIENTATION & VALUES

‡ Components of National development activities require human orientation & values ‡ Like hard work, truthfulness, obedience, good manners, peace & Harmony

PLAIN LIVING & HIGH THINKING
‡ Essence of Indian way of living ‡ Plain life to give more energy & thought to the development of Spiritualism ‡ Mind important than Materialism ‡ Ethics important than Economics

Management Concepts Redefined
Term General Definition (At Present)
Getting things done Output centric Management by results Concern for task and not for people

IEM Definition

Management Productivity Planning Effective supervision Motivation of people

Helping other people to produce extraordinary results People centric Management by strategy Produce performers. Help the subordinates to develop leadership quality

Maslow¶s Theory of Needs Emphasis on self-motivation, with some subordinates encouraged to be modifications creative and given autonomy

Resources Health of the company Profitability

Reliance almost external resources

on Reliance almost on internal resources

Balance Sheet and P/L People oriented performance, a/c; money oriented environment friendly. Private ± public benefit In terms of money. Social In terms of good public image. costs not included in Social costs internalized. Trust of Balance Sheet customers and society Attention only on job enrichment Primary emphasis on mind enrichment

Hygiene factor Rights and duties

Emphasis on taking not Emphasis on giving not on taking. on giving. Rights become Duties given great importance and primary. Duties become Rights assume secondary value subsidiary Hierarchical Ultimately dependent on turnover of goods Organic evolution, autonomous Coordinating private and public benefit

Structure Growth

System

Set of inter-related elements working as a whole. More emphasis on quantity and objective aspect Keen competition to capture and retain demand, market driven economy

Pattern of particular response expressed through organizational functioning. Equal emphasis on quality/quantity with emphasis on subjective aspect Through cooperation by playing complementary role. Social awareness in marketing

Marketing

Job satisfaction Training

Hygiene factor. Creativity Through innovation, uniqueness, ignored extraordinary result, trouble shooting Functional skills, not value oriented and holistic Value oriented, holistic approach and equal emphasis on both (skills / values) Man behind the machine given due regard. Healthy philosophy of life. Emotional stability More stress on natural inclination and character

Man ± machine Machine dominates man equation as human being receives lip sympathy Man Placement As per qualifications and experiences

Quality

Product quality by ISO, TQM, Human quality, values, QC. Human value, quality character, mind enrichment, plays minor role whole man approach.

Indian ethos demands a subjective management system which leads to an understanding of the following:
(a) Management Attitude ± Top management having firm belief in value-oriented holistic management. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all stakeholders ± employees, customers, shareholders and citizens. Fulfillment of social responsibility must be ensured.

(b) Humanising the Organisation ± Looking at the three aspects of humane organisations ,i.e., inter-personal relations, man-machine equation where man is the prime concern and inner management through mental and spiritual growth of individuals.

(c) Interiorising Management ± Self management or management by consciousness. When the soul manages the other four members of the human being, namely, the body, mind, intellect and the heart, the conflict these four have amongst themselves can be resolved. This is management by consciousness. The objective of self management is to first know and manage oneself and then manage others.

(d) Self-introspection ± Embark upon selfstudy, self-analysis and self-criticism to locate areas of friction and disharmony, a self examination of one¶s own thoughts, feelings, emotions, sensations and passions and a desire to reduce and subdue the ego.

‡ (e) Brain-stilling ± For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is a necessity. A perfect Mounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Brain-stilling or meditative silence is the most reliable method to discover solutions to problems and difficulties which seem to be difficult to be tackled by reason and intellect because through this one can come into contact with the inner mind or higher consciousness called Chetana.

‡ (f) Stepping Back (for a while) ± Never decide anything, never speak a word, never throw yourself into action without steppingback. The stepping back from a situation for a while enables one to control and master a situation.

‡ (g) Self-dynamising Meditation ± A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of lower consciousness into higher consciousness and hence is called transforming meditation. Through meditation, in a silent and calm mind, one reaches a higher level of consciousness which offers guidance in the form of intuitions to tackle a multitude of problems. This is called consciousness approach to management.

‡ (h) Role of Intuition ± Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully developed, is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is a prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition.

KARMA
‡ (kárma (help·info), kárman²"act, action, performance´) ‡ Karma in Indian religions is the concept of "action" or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect (i.e., the cycle called sa s ra) originating in ancient India and treated in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh philosophies

KARMA

FATE / DESTINY

ACTION / DEED

DON¶T CLAIM OTHERS FOR THE HAPPENED

HINDUISM,BUDDISM, SIKHISM,JAINISM

BE RESPONSIBLE

‡ Learn to live according to spiritual rules of eternal life and improve the quality of your life. Your mind, emotions, speech and actions are affected by this law. ‡ Mankind sometimes gets struck by their "destiny". Some suffer from illness, accidents, from being beaten half death or death and they most if not all the time claim others of being guilty.

‡ This of course is completely wrong. Mankind - made to the image of God - needs to learn to be fully responsible for all they do. The law of Karma explains why illness, accidents and disasters of any kind may occurs to some persons, and why others may enjoy a happy life, free, healthy and joyful. ‡ Learn to properly apply this law for your personal benefit - it will be at the same time for the benefit of all. By properly applying all spiritual principles of God's Divine creation, your life will become instantly easier - provided you follow ALL rules exactly to the word.

LAW of KARMA
‡ Actually the law of karma is very simple and has been known for thousands of years. The law of Karma is known in Christian teachings, as well as in many other cultures. It says: ‡ Whatever you do to others - will be done to you, in this or any future incarnation of your soul.

Straightforward & Logical
‡ Sometimes is hard to believe, that some persons still think they may somehow get around it. If you knock your head against a wall, it is obvious - it may damage the wall and it may hurt your head. If you knock someone by physically fighting - you may cause harm, pain, injury to the person and the law of Karma requires you to experience the same pain. This is to have you learn to behave in a way that causes but pleasant experiences to others and yourself alike.

THE 12 LAWS OF KARMA

THE GREAT LAW
‡ "As you sow, so shall you reap". This is also known as the "Law of Cause and Effect". ‡ Whatever we put out in the Universe is what comes back to us. ‡ If what we want is Happiness, Peace, Love, Friendship...Then we should BE Happy, Peaceful, Loving and a True Friend.

THE LAW OF CREATION
‡ Life doesn't just HAPPEN, it requires our participation. ‡ We are one with the Universe, both inside and out. ‡ Whatever surrounds us gives us clues to our inner state. ‡ BE yourself, and surround yourself with what you want to have present in your Life.

THE LAW OF HUMILITY
‡ What you refuse to accept, will continue for you. ‡ If what we see is an enemy, or someone with a character trait that we find to be negative,then we ourselves are not focused on a higher level of existence.

THE LAW OF GROWTH
‡ "Wherever you go, there you are". ‡ For us to GROW in Spirit, it is we who must change - and not the people, places or things around us. ‡ The only given we have in our lives is OURSELVES and that is the only factor we have control over. ‡ When we change who and what we are within our heart our life follows suit and changes too.

THE LAW OF RESPONSIBILITY
‡ Whenever there is something wrong in my life, there is something wrong in me. ‡ We mirror what surrounds us - and what surrounds us mirrors us; this is a Universal Truth. ‡ We must take responsibility what is in our life.

THE LAW OF CONNECTION
‡ Even if something we do seems inconsequential, it is very important that it gets done as everything in the Universe is connected. ‡ Each step leads to the next step, and so forth and so on. ‡ Someone must do the initial work to get a job done. ‡ Neither the first step nor the last are of greater significance,As they were both needed to accomplish the task. ‡ Past - Present - Future ‡ They are all connected...

GREAT LAW CREATION HUMILITY GROWTH RESPONSIBILITY CONNECTION

BOOMERANG PARTICIPATION FAULT IN YOU CONTROL OTHERS REFLECTION CONSEQUENCE

THE LAW OF FOCUS
‡ You can not think of two things at the same time. ‡ When our focus is on Spiritual Values, it is impossible for us to have lower thoughts such as greed or anger

THE LAW OF GIVING & HOSPITALITY
‡ If you believe something to be true, then sometime in your life you will be called upon to demonstrate that particular truth. ‡ Here is where we put what we CLAIM that we have learned, into actual PRACTICE.

THE LAW OF HERE AND NOW
‡ Looking backward to examine what was, prevents us from being totally in the HERE AND NOW. ‡ Old thoughts, old patterns of behavior, old dreams... ‡ Prevent us from having new ones

THE LAW OF CHANGE
‡ History repeats itself until we learn the lessons that we need to change our path

THE LAW OF PATIENCE AND REWARD
‡ All Rewards require initial toil. ‡ Rewards of lasting value require patient and persistent toil. ‡ True joy follows doing what we're suppose to be doing, and waiting for the reward to come in on it's own time

THE LAW OF SIGNIFICANCE AND INSPIRATION
‡ You get back from something whatever YOU have put into it. ‡ The true value of something is a direct result of the energy and intent that is put into it. ‡ Every personal contribution is also a contribution to the Whole. ‡ Lack luster contributions have no impact on the Whole, nor do they work to diminish it. ‡ Loving contributions bring life to, and inspire, the Whole.

FOCUS HOSPITALITY HERE & NOW

ENRICH PARTICIPATION RECTIFIES & PREVENTS REPEATS

CHANGE PATIENCE & REWARD INSPIRATION

DESERVES WIN SYNERGY

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