1.LIPIDET E THJESHTA
‡ a)vajrat ±jane estere te acideve yndyrore ‡ me glicerol.(te lenget) ‡ b)yndyrnat-estere te acideve te larta yndyrore me peshe molekulare te larte te alkooleve monohidroksile(te ngurte).

. Lipidet e perbera ‡ a)fosfolipidet ‡ b)glikolipidet ‡ c)lipidet tjera te perbera-sulfolipidet dhe aminolipidet ‡ 3.lipidet e perfituara nga hidroliza e disa ‡ grupeve.2.Ketu bejne pjese acidet yndyrore ‡ te ngopura dhe te pangopura dhe pasi jane te paelektrizuara quhen lipide neutrale.

yndyrore Keta quhen me emrin cerebrozidet.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Glikolipide e thjeshta permbajne Galaktoze. Cerebrozidet ndahen Kerazin Cerebron Nervon oksinervon .sfingozine dhe ac.

‡ Vetite e perbashketa te lipideve ‡ a)te patretshem ne uje ‡ b)treten ne tretes jopolar-eter.benzen ‡ c)funksion energjetik.ne te treten vitaminat e tretshme ne yndyrna.funksion mbrojtes ‡ d)gjendet shume ne indin nervor-fijet nervore .kloroform .

‡ Hipolipoproteinemije ‡ -Abetalipoproteinemija ‡ Mungesa e LDL ‡ -Hipobetalipoproteinemia familjare ‡ SASIA E ZVOGLUAR E LDL ‡ -mungesa e alfalipoproteinemi familjare ‡ mungesa e HDL .

1. . Hiperlipoproteinemia ‡ disbetalipoproteinemia familjare ‡ 4.Hiperlipoproteinemia ‡ -mungesa e lipazes lipoproteinike 2.Hipertriacilglicerolemia familjare.hiperholesterolemi familjare ‡ hiperbetalipidemi 3.sasi e madhe e nivelit te VLDL.

‡ Gangliozidet perbehen nga ‡ Galaktoza +ceramidet +ac.sijalinik .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Lipidet e plazmes se gjakut Holesteroli Trigliceridet VLDL LDL1 LDL2 LDL3 HILOMIKRONET ALBUMINET(INDI DHJAMOR) .

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approximately 37 million have total blood cholesterol levels of 240 mg/dL or higher. and those with levels from 200 to 239 mg/dL are at borderline-high risk. placing them at a higher risk for CAD. Nearly 105 million American adults (49 million men and 56 million women) have total blood cholesterol levels (TC) of 200 mg/dL or higher.1 Adults with total cholesterol levels of 240 mg/dL or higher are considered to be at high risk. with desirable levels considered to be below 200 mg/dL.1 . Of the US adults with elevated TC levels.‡ Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for both CAD and stroke.

saturated fatty acids. most cases of severe hypercholesterolemia appear to be the result of the coexistence of at least two defects in LDL metabolism. and several genetic defects. they can be treated successfully only by using cholesterol-lowering drugs in high doses or in combination.‡ ETIOLOGY OF HYPERLIPIDEMIA ‡ Dietary factors (cholesterol. . Yet there are other factors associated with borderline-high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. the loss of estrogen-stimulated LDL-receptor synthesis after menopause. With the exception of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). and as a rule. they are important causes of borderline-high cholesterol. and obesity) clearly raise the TC level. including the unexplained decline of LDLreceptor activity associated with normal aging.

HDLs are thought to be responsible for transporting cholesterol from the walls of the arteries through the bloodstream to the liver for excretion. The two most commonly monitored are LDLs and HDLs. HDLs carry approximately one third to one fourth of blood cholesterol. . LDLs carry the largest amount of cholesterol in the blood and are responsible for transporting it to extrahepatic tissue and depositing it in arterial walls.‡ Lipoproteins are responsible for transporting cholesterol and other fats through the bloodstream. Conversely.

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Conditions that cause hyperlipidemia include diabetes. not exercising. and smoking.‡ What causes hyperlipidemia? ‡ Most hyperlipidemia is caused by lifestyle habits or treatable medical conditions. Lifestyle contributors include obesity. kidney disease. . and an underactive thyroid gland. pregnancy.

your desirable lipid levels are: ‡ ‡LDL less than 130 mg/dL. To have a low risk of heart disease.‡Total cholesterol less than 200 mg/dL. HDL (sometimes called "good") cholesterol. total cholesterol (LDL plus HDL).‡ Most blood tests measure levels of LDL (sometimes called "bad") cholesterol.‡HDL greater than 40 mg/dL (men) or 50 mg/dL (women). . and triglycerides. and‡Triglycerides less than 200 mg/dL.

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‡ CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH ‡ acidi linoleik ‡ CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH ‡ acidi oleik .

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‡ Complications of Hyperlipidemia ‡ Macrovascular complications: ± ± ± ± Unstable Angina (chest pain) Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease (stroke) Coronary Artery Disease (heart disease) ‡ Microvascular complications: ± Retinopathy (vision loss) ± Nephropathy (kidney disease) ± Neuropathy (loss of sensation in the feet and legs .

protease inhibitors. beta blockers. cyclosporine. progestins. alcohol . thiazide diuretics.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Risk Factors for Hyperlipidemia High fat intake Obesity Type 2 diabetes mellitus Advanced age Hypothyroidism Obstructive liver disease Genetics Drug induced: glucocorticoids. sirolimus.

High .‡ ‡ Lipoprotein Level Classification LDL-C < 100 mg/dL-----------------------------Optimal ± ± ± ± 100-129 mg/dL --------------------------Near or above optimal 130-159 mg/dL---------------------------Borderline high 160-189 mg/dL --------------------------High > or = 190 mg/dL -----------------------Very high ‡ Total -C ± <200 mg/dL-----------------------------.Desirable ± 200-239 mg/dL---------------------------Borderline high ± > or= 240 mg/dL-------------------------High ‡ TG-C: ± ± ± ± <150 mg/dL------------------------------Optimal 150-199 mg/dL --------------------------Borderline high 200-499 mg/dL --------------------------High > or = 500 mg/dL -----------------------Very high ‡ ‡ HDL cholesterol: ± <40 mg/dL -------------------------------Low ± >60 or = 60 mg/dL --------------------.

Nyje limfatike .

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