Job Analysis-Based Performance Appraisals

Dale J. Dwyer, Ph.D.

What factors affect work performance?
How do you measure those factors? How does Job Analysis help measure job performance?

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Linking Performance Planning and Strategy

Organization s Strategic Plan


Individual Unit s Strategic Plan


Job and Task Requirements


Performance Assessment

Performance Behaviors and Results

Skills and Competencies Required

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Examples of Competencies
1. Leading and deciding. Takes control and exercises leadership.
Initiates action, gives direction and takes responsibility.

2. Supporting and cooperating. Supports others and shows respect
and positive regard for them in social situations. Puts people first, working effectively with individuals and teams, clients and staff. Behaves consistently with clear personal values that complement those of the organization.

3. Interacting and presenting. Communicates and networks
effectively. Successfully persuades and influences others. Relates to others in a confident and relaxed manner.

4. Analyzing and interpreting. Shows evidence of clear analytical
thinking. Gets to the heart of complex problems and issues. Applies own expertise effectively. Quickly learns new technology. Communicates well in writing.

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Examples of Competencies, cont¶d.
5. Creating and conceptualizing. Open to new ideas and
experiences. Seeks out learning opportunities. Handles situations and problems with innovation and creativity. Thinks broadly and strategically. Supports and drives organizational change.

6. Organizing and executing. Plans ahead and works in a systematic
and organized way. Follows directions and procedures. Focuses on customer satisfaction and delivers a quality service or product to the agreed standards.

7. Adapting and coping. Adapts and responds well to change.
Manages pressure effectively and copes with setbacks.

8. Performing and evaluating. Focuses on results and achieving

personal work objectives. Works best when work is closely related to results and the effect of personal efforts is obvious. Shows an understanding of business, commerce and finance. Seeks opportunities for self-development and career advancement.

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Performance Standards

Key factors to check when establishing criteria
‡ Is it fair? ‡ Is it attainable? ‡ Is it clear? ‡ Is it challenging? ‡ Is it relevant? ‡ Is it flexible?

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Designing the Appraisal

Components to Determine
‡ What to appraise
> Behaviors (what an employee does) > Results (the outcomes of behaviors)

‡ Type of appraisal
> Evaluative (negative, positive) > Summative (overall judgment) > Formative (tells what needs improvement)

‡ Scoring of appraisal
> Weighting of dimensions or equivalency of dimensions > Separate overall score or weighted total score

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Types of Job Behaviors

‡ Content (Task) Behaviors: Those that entail some
transformation of raw materials into goods and services produced by the organization.

‡ Contextual (Organizational Citizenship) Behaviors:
Those that provide a good work environment and encourage highly proficient task behaviors.

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Behavioral Measures
Critical Incidents Method > Manager prepares a record of the employee's highly favorable and unfavorable actions since the last rating time. > DOWNSIDE: Critical incidents may be perceived differently by managers and employees. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale > Identify the types of behavior actually found on the job. > These behaviors are checked by the rater to arrive at an evaluation of the employee. > DOWNSIDE: Although time-consuming and costly to develop, they do give the rater benchmarks in the form of specific behaviors.

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When to Measure Results
1. Do employees possess needed skills and knowledge (can they do the job)? How closely are behaviors related to results? Can you see consistent improvement in results as a consequence of performing the ³right´ behaviors? Are there different ways to do the job?

2. 3.


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Results-Based Measures
Work Planning, Goal Setting, and Review:
> > >

General approach that is tailored to specific employee and job. Can be done by manager with or without employee¶s input. DOWNSIDE: May not get goal commitment by employee.

Management by Objectives (MBO):
> > > >

Goals set from the top of the organization. Goals achieved from the bottom of the organization become input to next level up. Established jointly with manager and employee. DOWNSIDE: Lots of paperwork and interdependence with other units and employees.

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Thank You!

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