‡An Operating System (OS) is the actual software that controls the allocation and use of a computer s hardware. ‡They enable access to programs, accessories and other hardware. An operating system is just as essential to a computer as the computer s hardware. ‡The OS keeps components working in unison, acting as a communicator between the user the computer s hardware and software.

It takes charge of important activities from the boot up process to the shutdown process. Once up an running, the operating system : Manages memory Saves Deletes and retrieves data Arranges to display data on the monitor Sends data to the printer Responds to kestrokes Recognizes mouse clicks Reads and writes data to the hard and floopy disks.

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MAJOR OPERATING SYSTEMS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CP/M: An Early Operating System MS-DOS and PC-DOS Microsoft Windows OS 2 MAC OS Unix Linux

Operating Systems Components :
‡ User Interface ‡ Kernel (OS Executive) ‡ File Management System

CP/M: An Early Operating System
‡ In 1973, A man named Gary Kildall wrote the first PC operating system (using the PL/M program language he invented) called Control Program for Microcomputer (or CP/M). Initially CP/M ran on the Intel 8008 chip, and later translated to the 8080 chip.

MS-DOS is an operating system developed by Microsoft. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems and was the main operating system for personal computers during the 1980s. It was preceded by M-DOS (also called MIDAS), designed and copyrighted by Microsoft in 1979. MSDOS was written for the Intel 8086 family of microprocessors, particularly the IBM PC and compatibles. MS-DOS was known before as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) and 86-DOS.

Event ‡ 1981 : MS-DOS 1.0 was released August, 1981. ‡ 1982 : MS-DOS 1.25 was released August, 1982. ‡ 1983 : MS-DOS 2.0 was released March, 1983. ‡ 1984 : Microsoft introduces MS-DOS 3.0 for the IBM PC AT and MS-DOS 3.1 for networks. ‡ 1986 : MS-DOS 3.2 was released April, 1986. ‡ 1987 : MS-DOS 3.3 was released April, 1987. ‡ 1988 : MS-DOS 4.0 was released July, 1988. ‡ 1988 : MS-DOS 4.01 was released November, 1988. ‡ 1991 : MS-DOS 5.0 was released June, 1991. ‡ 1993 : MS-DOS 6.0 was released August, 1993. ‡ 1993 : MS-DOS 6.2 was released November, 1993. ‡ 1994 : MS-DOS 6.21 was released March, 1994. ‡ 1994 : MS-DOS 6.22 was released April, 1994.

It all began in Plaza Hotel, New York City on the 10th of November 1983. Two Microsoft founders Paul Allen and Bill Gates officially announced their corporation s first and next-generation graphical user interface operating system Microsoft Windows.

WINDOWS 1.X The first version of Windows provided a new software environment for developing and running applications that use bitmap displays and mouse pointing devices. Before Windows, PC users relied on the MS-DOS® method of typing commands at the C prompt (C :\). With Windows, users moved a mouse to point and click their way through tasks, such as starting applications.

Windows 1.01 was released on November 20,1985. ‡ Officially released on November 20, 1985, this 16bit OS that cost less than 1MB in overall is Microsoft s very first operating system that allows multi tasking with graphical user interface on PC platform that runs on MS-DOS 5.0. ‡ MEDIA SIZE: Five 360 KB 5.25 inch floppy disks. ‡ INSTALLED SIZE: Less than 1 MB.

Windows 1.03 was released in 1986 Introduced in 1986, Windows 1.03 is an upgrade to its previous predecessor Windows 1.01. Entire operating system cost about 2.2Mb hard disk space.

‡ MEDIA SIZE: Six 360 KB 5.25 inch floppy disks ‡ INSTALLED SIZE: Around 2.2 MB

In the late 1980's came the familiar access- making icons of today's interfaces with Windows 2. Along the icons, Windows 2 allowed overlapping (not just tiled) application windows. In the Windows 2 supported program information files (PIF), giving users configuring power to run DOS application more efficiently.

Windows 2.0 was released on December 9, 1987. Windows 2.0 took advantage of the improved processing speed of the Intel 286 processor, expanded memory, and inter-application communication capabilities made possible through Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). With improved graphics support, users could now overlap windows, control screen layout, and use keyboard combinations to move rapidly through Windows operations. Many developers wrote their first Windows based applications for this release.

Windows 2.10 was released on May 27,1988

Less than a year after the release of Windows 2.0, Windows/286 2.10 and Windows/386 2.10 were released on 27 May 1988. These versions can take advantage of the specific features of the Intel 80286 and Intel 80386 processors. ‡ Two editions of Windows 2.10 were released, both of which could take advantage of the Intel processor for which they were designed.

WINDOWS 3.X The third major release of the Windows platform from Microsoft offered improved performance, advanced graphics with 16 colours, and full support of the more powerful Intel 386 processor.

The new Windows 3.0, which offered a wide range of useful features and capabilities, including:

‡ Program Manager, File Manager, and Print Manager. ‡ A completely rewritten application development environment. ‡ An improved set of Windows icons.

Windows 3.1 was designed to have backward compatibility with older Windows platforms. As with Windows 3.0, version 3.1 had File Manager and Program Manager, but unlike all previous versions, Windows 3.1 and later support 32-bit disk access, cannot run in real mode.

MEDIA SIZE: Seven 1440 KB 3.5 inch (HD) floppy disks INSTALLED SIZE: 4.5 MB

‡ Windows NT 3.1 was released on October 24, 1993

That change is represented in the product's name: "NT" stands for new technology. To maintain consistency with Windows 3.1, a well-established home and business operating system at the time, the new Windows NT operating system began with version 3.1.

Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released on August 11, 1993

Windows for Workgroups 3.11 (originally codenamed Snowball) was released on 11 August 1993. It supported 32-bit file access, full 32-bit network redirectors, and the VCACHE.386 file cache, shared between them. The standard execution mode of the Windows kernel was discontinued in Windows for Workgroups 3.11.

Windows NT 3.51 WorkStation was released on May 30, 1995

The Windows NT Workstation 3.5 release provided the highest degree of protection yet for critical business applications and data. With support for the OpenGL graphics standard, this operating system helped high power-end applications for software development, engineering, financial analysis, scientific, and businesscritical tasks.

Windows 95 Windows 95 was released on August 24, 1995. It is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. During development it was referred to as Windows 4.0 or by the internal codename Chicago. Windows 95 was intended to integrate Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products and includes an enhanced version of DOS, often referred to as MS-DOS 7.0. It features significant improvements over its predecessor, Windows 3.1, most visibly in the graphical user interface (GUI). There were also major changes made at lower levels of the operating system.

WINDOWS NT 4.0 Windows NT 4.0 was released on August 24, 1996. ‡ Windows NT 4.0 is a pre-emptive, graphical and businessoriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. It is a 32-bit Windows system available in both workstation and server editions with a graphical environment similar to that of Windows 95. ‡ Launched in July 1996, the OS came in four versions, Workstation, Terminal Server and two Server versions. It included for the first time Internet Explorer and incorporated the Windows 95 interface into the NT lineup.

‡ Windows 98 was released on June 25, 1998. ‡ Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on 25 June 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product based on MS-DOS. ‡ Windows 98 Second Edition was released on May 5, 1999.

WINDOWS 2000 Windows 2000 was released on February 17, 2000. ‡ Windows 2000 is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on business desktops, notebook computers, and servers. Released on February 17, 2000, it was the successor to Windows NT 4.0. The OS worked on both the server and workstation, but its most important feature was Active Directory, Microsoft's first crack at the directory market dominated by Novell.

‡ Four editions of Windows 2000 were : Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server.


Windows ME was released on February 17, 2000. ‡ Windows Me was the successor to Windows 98 and, just like Windows 98, was targeted specifically at home PC users. It included Internet Explorer 5.5, Windows Media Player 7, and the new Windows Movie Maker software, which provided basic video editing and was designed to be easy for home users.

Windows XP was released on October 25, 2001. ‡ Windows XP is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, and media centres. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience". Windows XP is the successor to both Windows 2000 Professional and Windows Me, and is the first consumer-oriented operating system produced by Microsoft to be built on the Windows NT kernel and architecture. Windows XP was first released

on October 25, 2001. ‡ Two major editions: ‡ Windows XP Home Edition ‡ Windows XP Professional

‡ Windows Server 2003 was released on April 24, 2003. ‡ Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. Introduced on 24 April 2003 as the successor to Windows 2000 Server, it is considered by Microsoft to be the cornerstone of its Windows Server System line of business server products.

‡ Windows Vista was released on January 30, 2007. ‡ Windows Vista is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Prior to its announcement on July 22, 2005, Windows Vista was known by its codename "Longhorn."

‡ For consumers, there are four editions, with three available for developed countries. ‡ Windows Vista Starter edition is limited to emerging markets. ‡ Windows Vista Home Basic is intended for budget users with low needs. ‡ Windows Vista Home Premium covers the majority of the consumer market, and contains applications for creating and using multimedia. ‡ The home editions cannot join a Windows Server domain.

‡ For businesses, there are three editions. ‡ Windows Vista Business is specifically designed for small and medium-sized businesses ‡ Windows Vista Enterprise [48] is only available to customers participating in Microsoft's Software Assurance program. ‡ Windows Vista Ultimate contains the complete feature-set of both the Home and Business (combination of both Home Premium and Enterprise) editions, as well as a set of Windows Ultimate Extras, and is aimed at enthusiasts.


‡ Windows server 2008 was released on February 27, 2008. ‡ ‡ Windows Server 2008, released on February 27, 2008, was originally known as Windows Server Codename "Longhorn". Windows Server 2008 builds on the technological and security advances first introduced with Windows Vista, and is significantly more modular than its predecessor, Windows Server 2003.

Windows Server 2008 ships in ten editions:

Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows HPC Server 2008 Windows Web Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Storage Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Small Business Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (32-bit and 64-bit) Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems Windows Server 2008 Foundation Server

‡ Windows 2007 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009. ‡ Windows 7 (formerly codenamed Blackcomb and Vienna) is the latest version of Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, net books, tablet PCs and media center PCs. Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009. ‡ Unlike its predecessor, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 is intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being fully compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista is already compatible.


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