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Microwave relay communication and transmit project design

Shanghai ZTE microwave integration department:wanshengqian

2005 。 8 。 8

DIFFERENT TRANSMISSION METHODS
Coaxial cable Radio link

MUX

MUX

Satellite

Fiber-optics cable

§1 。 Microwave relay communication frequency of radio wave 。 It’s frequency range Microwave is a

Frequency for microwave : 300MHZ ~ 300GHZ
Wavelength : 1m~1mm Subband : UHF: 0.3-1.12G C : 3.95-5.85G LS : 1.7-2.6 G X : 8.2-12.4G U: 40-60G K: 18-26G S : 2.6-3.95 G L: 1.12-1.7G XC : 5.85-8.2G Ka:26.5-40G KU : 12.4-18G

from : 300MHz--300GHz 。 In this range , frequency is higher , wavelength is lower(1m - 0.1mm), attenuation is more when transmission is along the ground , the capability is lower when it faces a barrier , does not echo when delivery is in the ionosphere 。 So , radio wave can only transmit in straight lines of site. If we want transmit signal from one to another relay is the only choice .

LF

MF

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF microwave

EHF

λ f

10Km 30KHz

1Km 300KHz

100m 3MHz

10m 30MHz

1m 300MHz

10cm 3GHz

1cm 30GHz

1mm 300GHz

一、 Microwave relay communication
• Radio link structure Each station both can uplink and downlink information , can communicate with any station in the network 。 If each the station is connected with the MSC , So all user can communicate with each other.

The radio link propagation follows the line of sight: it requires a perfect clearing between transmitting and receiving antennas. The propagation medium is made of the lower layers of the atmosphere (a few meters to a few hundred of meters above ground)

The non homogeneity of the atmosphere influences the waves propagation: 1°) Path curvature 2°) Reflecting, diverging, focusing intermittent events

System table
Local Wiring Branch Site

Radio link PNMS A C F B

D

Repeater Site

E

Terminal Site

二、 Attributes of Digital Microwave
The signal which transmit by microwave is digital signal , So it both have digital and microwave’s attributes 。 1 。 Rapid deployment over difficulty terrain 。 2 。 Economical 。 3 。 High route security 。 4. Network simplicity and flexibility . 5. Robust to fading and interference. 6. highly efficient data and broadband transport
PABX

PABX

Router

三、 Channel selection
• 1 。 Channel divide

useable frequency divide by some channel , As follows In the table f1, f2,…fn and f1′, f2′,…fn′ is the center frequency of each channel , such as f1 is down channel , the other is up channel 。 The suggestion of microwave relay communication by CCIR is at 283-4,382-2,384频 宽 段 度 3,385-2,386-2,387-3 和 492-2 中。
相 波 间 邻 道 隔 收 间 发 隔 相 频 保 间 邻 段 护 隔 m

频 中 频 段 心 率 f1 f2 f3 fn f0 f1 ' f2 ' f3 ' fn '

波 划 示 图 道 分 意

FREQUENCY SHIFT BETWEEN CHANNELS
CAPACITY 1800 channels ANALOG 2700 channels 30 channels 2 Mbit/s 120 channels 8 Mbit/s MF 140 kHz rms/channel 4 PSK 4 PSK 4 QAM DIGITAL 480 channels 34 Mbit/s 16 QAM 16 QAM 1920 channels 140 Mbit/s 64 QAM 30 MHz 14 MHz 40 MHz MODULATION MF 140 kHz rms/channel DEVIATION ≈ 30 MHz ≈ 40 MHz 3.5 MHz 7 MHz 30 MHz

2 。 Rule of channel selection
Generally , two channel couple is needed when constructing a new trunk , channel need added at the across 。 Otherwise system disturbance will be produced , consequently it will difficult to communicate. a 。 When the radio link have same route link or link close to each other , keep away from this scenario is the best choice 。 If we have calculated the disturbance is little and space is enough , we can use the same channel , but polarization must different 。 b 。 When we have across link , if across angle is lessen than 30° , treat as in (a) ; if across angle is more than 60 ° , so we select the channel which have to used in order to save frequency source c 。 In order to avoid disturbance , the fourth station can’t be in the extended line of the first and second , the arrangement of polarization is H,V,V 。 d 。 Frequency selection must avoid that which used by local radar and satellite 。 e.The frequency used should be authorized by regulating government agency. f1
f1 H f2 H f1 V

两频制时的越站干扰

克服越站干扰的方法

四、 Classify of microwave station 1 。 Communication structure
终端站 分支终端站

终端站 枢纽站 中继站

中继站

2 。 CLASSIFY 微波通信系统组成示意图 a 。 Classify by station type Terminal station : At the end of radio link , only can communication in one way 。 Relay station : Between two station of radio link , can communication in two way. Hinge station : In the centre of radio link , can communication in three way 。 b 。 Classify by frequency High station : receive frequency higher than send 。 Low station : receive frequency lower than

MICROWAVE RADIO LINK

Hop NO.1

Hop NO.2 or

Hop No.n

TX/Rx

TX/Rx TX/Rx

TX/Rx

Terminal Station Cable

Relay station (Active) Radio link

Relay station (Passive)

Terminal Station Cable

Distance between the transmitter and the receiver, some km < D < 100 km Availability and quality are depending on distance according I.T.U.R. rules

五、 Microwave equipment
a 。 Structure pange table
(Modulator ) encode TX BB MOD UP CONV PWR AMP BR CKT

Antennas TX Rx

Source

SYN

RX

decode

RX BB

DEM (Demodulator )

DOWN CONV

LNA

BR CKT

Base band

IF

UHF/SHF

BB : Base band IF : Intermediate Frequency UHF : Ultra-High Frequency (300 - 3000 MHz) SHF : Super-High Frequency (3000 - 30.000 MHz)

MICROWAVE LINK STRUCTURE

RADIO-RELAY STATION - PROTECTION

Lightning rod Power panel MV lightning diverter HV lightning Iron structure connected to ground network

HV line

Transformer MV circuit-breaker Fence

Ground network

Tower ground

b 。 MAIN FEATURE 1 。 Output power (dB m) Pt : the power of tx which decided by path distance ,use purpose of equipment and so on 。 2 。 Frequency stability of tx : the ratio of fact tx frequency and standard work frequency 。 3 。 Branch loss of TX (dB) Lf: Loss between TXand transmission line 。 4 。 Rx signal (dB m) Pth: the lowest rx signal of receiver 5 。 Frequency stability of receiver : the stability of receiver’s self frequency 。 6 。 Receiver branch loss Ls : the RF signal come from transmission line to receiver 。 7. Capacity: 1 4 8 16 155

TRT PRODUCTS

2/34 Mbit/s PDH

ADM 155

155 Mbit/s

CMI

Tx/Rx

34,268 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1

TN4

140 Mbit/s CMI

Tx/Rx

8,448 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1

TN3

34 Mbit/s HDB3
or 16x2 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

2,048 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1

TN2

8 Mbit/s HDB3
or 4x2 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

30 64 kbit/s 1

TN1

2 Mbit/s HDB3
4x2 Mbit/s

Tx/Rx

六、馈线系 统

微波通信馈线系统组成示意图

接设备

接设备

The line from receiver branch system to transmit antenna , we called transmission line 。 1 。 The requirement of transmission : loss must lower ; b restrict energy , prevent radiate 。 2 。 Type of transmission line : a 。 Coaxial line ; b 。 Empty waveguide

ELLIPTICAL WAVEGUIDES
Use: outdoor installation (pressurized waveguides)
plastic envelop

Semi-rigid brass elliptical waveguide

Length: 120 meters

Loss: useful formula for standard waveguides A.dB/meter ≈ F Ghz 100

七、 ANTENNA
a

2 lgP( ¦ Θ 0 ) 0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5

Δθ

抛物面天线原理示意图

1 0

5

0

5

1 0

θ

抛物面方向示意图

1 。 Action of antenna : receive or send radio wave which bring information 2 。 Main feature: a. Half power angle : at antenna direct map , The angle relative to principal axis direction which is the half power 。 Δ θ = 1.03λ/D(radian) λ: wav legth D: antenna diameter b. Gain : in the case the same intensity electric produce at space , The ratio between Ideal input power and fact input power 。

PARABOLIC ANTENNAS

Parabolic reflector

+

Skirt + Radome

High performance antenna
(Reduction of backward and side-lobe radiation > 15 dB) Radôme

Site and azimuth orientation

R
TRT

Polar. H Polar. V

Gain = 10 log 0.55

(

π 2 R

)

2

θ 3 dB ≈ 58 λ /R (uniform illumination) Polarization decoupling H/V, XPD ≥ 30 dB

Radiation Pattern Envelop of Antenna

Radiation Pattern Envelop of Antenna

Antenna Performance

八、 IRON TOWER

REQUIREMENT : 1 。 Antenna heights requirement , accord with the rule of air department , in the peak of tower have aviation symbol 。 2 。 Have enough intension 。 Can endure load build on it (such as wind 、 rain 、 snow) , the swing angle at the location of antenna less thanΔθ/2(Δθis antenna half power angle) 。 3Grounding resistanceless than 5Ohm 。 lightning rod must build in the top 。
name spec Net weight ( KG )
11.5 14 43 68 117 190 280

WTG03-71DAR WTG06-71DAR WTG12-71DAR WTG16-71DAR WTG20-71DAR WTG25-71DAR WTG32-71DAR 含边罩 ( 前馈 )

0.3m 0.6m 1.2m 1.6m 2.0m 2.5m 3.2m

§2 。 Radio wave transmit 一、 Radio wave transmit in the free space
Free space is a perfect infinity vacuum space Radio wave cannot bring reflecting 、 refraction 、 and dispersion 1 。 Transmit loss of free

space When radio transmit in free space , loss will cause Distance more far , energy received less 。 The fade caused by radio wave transmit is called free space loss 。 The formula is :

L0 = 92.4 + 20 lg d (km) + 20 lg f (GHz )
式中:d − 站距,Km
2 。 RX Signal in free space

f − 工作频率,GHz

Pt − 发信机输出功率, dBm;

Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gt ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LEr − L0
Lr、Lt − 分别为收、发馈线损耗,dB;

G t、G t − 分别为收、发天线的增益,dB;

L Er − 分路系统的损耗, dB;

In fact , the space which radio wave transmit by I not free space 。 In this course , reflect caused by ground , dispersion by particle of the atmosphere , In a word , the medium and object on the circuitry will bring influence for the range and phase of radio

二、 Attenuation feature of radio wave transmit 1 。 ATTENUATION

The irregularly change of receiver 。 a). classify by attenuation mechanism 。 dispersion 、 K type 、 channel and mix .mostly factor is refractive index is changed with time ,location ,heights , in a word : attenuation have someth with terrain and time b). Classify by attenuation time 。 Quick attenuation : The duration is several ms— a small s 。 Slow attenuation : The duration is seconds to hours c). Classify by eletricity calm up attenuation : receive calm more than in free space 。 down attenuation : receive calm less than in free space 2 。 Change rule of attenuation a). Frequency more higher , path distance more longer , attenuation Is more serious 。 b). nighttime is more serious than daytime , summer is more serious than winter 。 c). sunshine 、 windless is more than cloudy 、 rain day

d) 。 circuitry on water is more serious than on land 。 e) 。 circuitry on plain is more serious than hill 。 f) 。 when sun sunrise and sundown , fade is serious 。 3 。 the product mechanism of attenuation a) absorb by atmosphere any physical molecule is make up of particle , each particle have it’s frequency , when the frequency across is near it’s self , so resonate absorb is produced 。 Statistics indicate atmosphere absorb can ignore when frequency blow 12GHzB, absorb blow 1dB 。 1d 0
1B d

0 d .1 B

大 对 波 收 线 气 微 吸 曲 图
0 1B .0 d 6 Gz 0H 2Gz 3H 1 Gz 2H

(d /K) B m
7 Gz .5H 1H Gz

b). Fade of rain The little rain drop can cause dispersion to radio wave 。 statistics indicate : rain and fog have little effect to 10GHz micro wave ,but have great effect to micro wave above 10GHz , rainfall different have much effect to micro wave , Even cause communicate break 。

c) 。 attenuation by dispersion This margin is caused by press of atmosphere 、 the particle formative by temperature humidity different with all round , so dispersion is caused 。

闪烁衰落示意图

d) 。 Fade of k it’s caused by multipath transmit, it’s caused by stright and ground reflect which arrived at receiver ,phase is different 。。 when circuitry design , should avoid circuitry across great water and open plain 。

K型衰落示意图

e) 。 Fade of channel effect by climate , such ground burnt in the day , cool in night 。 When radio wave across refraction caused 。

克服波导型衰落示意图

波导型衰落示意图
克服波导型衰落示意图

f )。 mixed fade Involve of k fade ,channel fade , atmosphere fade 。

三 、 Ways of avoid fade when fade is caused , SRN is lower , deep fade may cause communication break 。 In order to make sure transmit quality and reliability , must adopt some measure to avoid fade 。 1 。 Frequency diversity Frequency diversity is which adopt two or more frequency which have a distance send and receive the same signal at the same time , next
compose or select lighting the effect of fade 。 disadvantage is effect better , only need one couple of antenna 。 But frequency have not make full use of 。 requirement for frequency : frequency relativity is little 0.8 ∆f 。 I= ⋅ ⋅ 10 Fd / 10
式中: Δf/f- 两个频率之差与中心频率的比值。 公式中其它参数的取值范围如下: 2GHz≤f≤11GHz; 30km≤d≤70km; Δf/f≤5 % . 超出这个范围将导致误差。该公式仅仅对于 I≥5 有效。

f *d

f

Antenna

REAR VIEW ODU #1 ODU #2

ODU x2 Hybrid IF Cable
to ODU #1 to ODU #2

Hybrid

1+1 IDU

Antenna

RF CABLE CONNECTION Hybrid

ODU #1

RF Coaxial Cable

ODU #2 IF Cable

1+1 IDU

2 。 SPACE DIVERSITY Diversity is that one frequency received by two or more antenna which is not the same size, next copose or select a stronger signal 。 The advance of frequency diversity is can improve effect , economic frequency 。 But equipment complex ,need tow couple antenna is it’s disadvantage. The key of space diversity is make sure two couple of antenna is V = G1 − appropriate, altitude difference is enough 、 so antenna G 2 work in can reverse phasic when decline is appear , now the decline can avoid 。

I = 1 − exp( − 3.34 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ S0.87 F 0.12 d 0.48 ⋅ p −1.04 ) ⋅ 10( Fd− V ) /10
Fd- 衰落概率为 P 时对应的衰落深度, db.

p − 平均最坏月份的衰落概率;

[

]

p 2 两 分 接 示 图 重 集 收 意

p 1

SPACE DIVERSITY
Principle
Climatic reflection hm h1 h2 Path equalization dB Combineur Combined IF output F1 h1 N
R1

(F1)

N

R2

(FI)

F1

F1

Receivers

h2

Two operating modes: 1 - minimum distorsion for an high level received 2 - maximum power for a weak level received (≤ - 65 dBm)

d≥ 100 to 150 λ

Main Antenna SPACE DIVERSITY SYSTEM

ODU #1 IF Cable Div. Antenna

ODU #2

1+1 IDU

Main Antenna

SPACE DIVERSITY SYSTEM

RF Coaxial Cable ODU #1

Div. Antenna IF Cable

ODU #2 1+1 IDU

3 。 Angle diversity

Angle diversity use the same antenna send the same signal with θ , use two antenna receive main signal at receive side 。 the feature is : two main wave received are different , effect is better , but complex 。

θ

4 。 Polarization diversity

角度分集原理示意图

IT’S using the same antenna send the same signal with two polarization , one antenna receive polarization signal at receive side , next composed 。

5 。 Mix diversity

combination with frequency diversity and space diversity ,

5 。 Avoid reflection by terrain
by the best design of antenna heights , reflection wave avoid or in the ground which reflectance is little 。

statistics feature of fade indicate , margin and stat
1 。 Path distance d

terrain have relate with path length 。 Terrain and path length different , margin is different 。

The rule is : d more longer , Attenuation is more ; d more shorter , Attenuation is lessen 。 so , the relay distance relay on the parameter of the equipment such as , work frequency 、 terrain 、 climate 、 antenna heights and some test data 。 generally , the region which transmit condition is better , D can be longer ; otherwise , D can’t be too long 。 Besides , also should calculate D too long or too short will bring receive electric calm is too high or too low 。 Receive signal above normal 。 Receive signal blow normal 。 Two case can bring error code increase , sometime communication will break 。 so , when have no fade circuitry design must enable the difference between receiver signal an normal less than 6dB 。 2 。 profile profile can divided four type :

Relay on terrain, climate, antenna heights , the

A(HILL) : It’s made up of hill ,building, no rain and lake 。 The reflectance is less than 0.5 。

B hill 。 The profile is make up of hill which is not toobig , have no big river and lake 。 The reflectance of this circuitry blow 0.7 , the receive electric calm bring up by ground reflect is less than 10 DB C plain 。 The profile is make up of flat ,water 。 The profile is which more plain or water , reflectance is more than 0.7 。 The rx signal decline than 10db is caused by ground reflect 。 Water more , the multipath fade is more serious by atmosphere asymmetry 。 D sea 。 Make up of sea , most above the water 。 The attenuation caused by atmosphere asymmetry is more serious of this kind circuitry which is the badly circuitry transmit for radio wave 。 The mission of microwave circuitry design is : avoid the profile of c 、 D , select A 、 B 。 If difficulty to implement , so need add diversity and protect,or select the equipment which have resist mutipath 。

3 。 Stat rule of attenuation After great test and sat , the attenuation of microwave rule with ruilin distributing 。 It’s feature is quick and deep 。 When the rule used in microwave communication , in the view of condition of transmit , the formula is : B c

PR = k1Qf d

P = PN ⋅ 10 − Fd / 10

§3 。 TRANSMIT PROJECT DESIGN

Design is at the base of reconnaissance the tool need is : 1. GPS satellite receiver 1 2. compass 1 3. ruler 30 M 4. 1/50000 Relief map 5. Magnifier 1 6. Pencil, Eraser 7. Frequency chart 1 8. Microwave transmitter 1 2side In 9, Test antenna microwave circuitry design , two work is important , one is select suit antenna

heights ; the other is calculate by circuitry break rate , decided the configure of equipment and frequency 。 The newly contract circuitry , antenna heights is an inportant factor of communication 。 If antenna heights is not suitably , the equipment is advanced , also difficulty to get better quality of communication 。 The design of antenna heights , the most is control the spare of circuitry , make sure reflect wave is avoid or reflect point is at the ground which k is small. 1 。 Spare atandard K = Kmin Hc/F1≥0.3 for the barrier like knife k= 0 K = 4/3 Hc/F1≥0.6 K =∞ Hc/F1<1.35 when calculate spare , the heights of building and tree on the circuitry I also consider 。

一、 Design of antenna heights

Select of circuitry work point
Vdb 6 0 - 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 1. 0 H F1= n c/ 2. 5

- 0. 5

0

0. 5

0. 577

1

1. 5

1. 414

2

衰落与余隙关系曲线图

A h
3

2 。 Requirement of near antenna region a) 。 paraboloid antenna widen terrain 1m antenna antenna heights is 4.1m 1.5m antenna antenna heights is 6.2m 2m antenna antenna heights is 8.3m 3.2m antenna antenna heights is 13.2m

20°

D

20°
10D 17. 1*D / λ *D

线近场区要求示意图

b) 。对全向天线

< 50m

< 50m

全向天线近场区净空要求示意图

3 。 calculate of reflect point the purpose of calculate reflect point is control it’s location, adjust by antenna heights , avoid reflect point on water or the region which reflectance is height 。 generally , improve the stability need avoid the line of reflect ①Smoothly ground

h1

d1

d2

h1 d1= h1+ D h2

h2 d2= h1+ D h2

D d1+ = d2

h2

②terrain of sphericity

h1

d2

d1 = d / 2 + 2 q cos( φ / 3 + 240  )

( km)

φ = cos −1 ( γ / q

q )

q = (d 2 / 12) + 8.5K ( h1 + h 2 ) / 4

γ = 6.37 Kd( h 2 − h1 ) / 4
We can draw conclusion from above formula : reflect

pointd1(d2)is the function of antenna heights , control antenna heights , the reflect point is also control ; reflect point also is the function of k , the value of k is change with terrain , so reflect point also is a region ; the purpose of antenna heights design is avoid reflect region in the region of

h2

d1

二、 Break rate of circuitry circuitry design , high error code is the design feature 。 Because if high error code is satisfy , the lower also can satisfy. 1 。 reference circuitry Suggestion by CCIR , for digital link and circuitry which capacity is 64k , the longest circuitry can reach27500Km , make up by three grade channel , as follow chart 。 64kb/ s 端局 64kb/ s 交换局 交换局 端局

用户级

中 级

高 级

中 级

用户级

27500km 数字信道假想参考电路

2500km , main application is international and inter trunk 。 Intermediate is 1250km , main application is inter branch 。 The customer channel is 50km , main apply in local digital switch and links between 64kb/s customer 。

The total length of highness digital channel is

2 。 Digital microwave channel feature
①high circuitry (2500km) The time which in any month one second’s error rate than 1×E-3 less than 0.054﹪ ②middle circuitry(1250km) The time which in any month one second’s error rate than 1×E-3 less than 0.04 ﹪ . ③consumer circuitry(50km) The time which in any month one second’s error rate than 1×E-3 less than 0.015﹪ 3 。 Target assign Consider relay path is different , the longer is more easy to break 。 So , CCIR930 suggest the break feature should assign to every sect :
high circuitry

Pe =

D × 0.054% 2500
D × 0.04% 1250

Middle circuitry

Pe =

Consumer circuitry

0 。 015 %

三 、 Common circuitry calculate ①.Location selection and route profile 。 The hill and mountain forest which altitude difference more is the best choice for route selection , one side higher , the other lower , shape “high—low” model circuitry , the better is have hill which up and down but can’t avoid line of sight , the profile is indentation, so the radio wave avoided reflection decline. the location satisfy that case , close the place which living ,traffic ,power is convenient as possible , in order to maintenance , economic invest 。 Many other factors should be consider , such as disturb by route 、 radar 。 Thunder in the region should also be consider ,lightning rod should build. ②Relay on profile data ,draw profile map , according to spare stand to decide antenna heights 。 Follow question must attentive : the circuitry reflect more , adjust antenna heights avoid reflect or reflect point at the ground reflectance is small 。 ③antenna azimuth angle

设A点的经度为 ω1,纬度为 λ1;B点的经度为 ω2,纬度为 λ 2,则

∠α A = tg −1 {sin ( ω2 − ω1 ) /[ cos λ1 tgλ 2 − sin λ1 cos( ω2 − ω1 ) ]}

④. Transmit attenuation in free space L0 = 92.4 + 20 lg( D × f ) ⑤. RX signal of free space Pr = Pt + Gt + Gr − ( L ft + L fr ) − ( Lbt + Lbr ) − L 0 ⑥.Average margin
P

F = Pr − Fth

Pr

Pt h t

The conclusion drew from that chart is : fade reserve more , the possibility of incept calm decline to limited is less 。 So add margin reserve can improve system feature 。 The way add such as increase the output power transmitter , increase

⑦.calculate the probability of circuitry breaken

P总=P平+P选+P干
Path condition Mountain(Re<0.5) Hill(0.5<Re<0.7) Plain(Re>0.7) Sea 1.072×10-4 2.75×10-5 2.884×10-5 2.630×10-6

P = K1Qf Bd c ⋅ 10 − Fd / 10
KQ B 1 1 1 1 C 1.30 1.80 2.20 3.20

⑧.calculate the value of circuitry d target Pp = × 0.04% 1250 ⑨.Calculate target Spare P M = 10× lg p P总 IF M>3dB Proper IF M<3dB Inproper adjust output power 、 increase antenna 、 add
The link frequency above 10GHz , rain Attenuation should calculate , in order to meet the performance 。 After the spare of link performance is enough , the work such as equipment frequency configure should
分集、 shorten path distance

四、 Equipment configuration
• At the case of power is decided, the size of antenna is the main factor which is lie on path distance , generally require loss above 30--35dBm 。 When the terrain is plain,the rule of antenna configuration is : path distance Km diameter m diameter m <10Km 0.6 0.6 10<D<16 0.6(1.2) 1.2(0.6) 16<D<25 1.2 1.2 25<D<30 1.5(1.2) 1.2(1.5) 30<D<36 1.5 1.5 36<D<40 1.5(2.0) 2.0(1.5) 40<D<45 2.0 2.0 45<D<48 2.4(2.0) 2.0(2.4) 48<D<50 2.4 2.4 If profile is better ,such as hill and mountainous, so diameter can minish ;if profile is water ,so need enhance .

• • • • • • • • • • •