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Microwave relay communication and transmit project design

Shanghai ZTE microwave integration department:wanshengqian

2005 。 8 。 8

Coaxial cable Radio link




Fiber-optics cable

§1 。 Microwave relay communication frequency of radio wave 。 It’s frequency range Microwave is a

Frequency for microwave : 300MHZ ~ 300GHZ
Wavelength : 1m~1mm Subband : UHF: 0.3-1.12G C : 3.95-5.85G LS : 1.7-2.6 G X : 8.2-12.4G U: 40-60G K: 18-26G S : 2.6-3.95 G L: 1.12-1.7G XC : 5.85-8.2G Ka:26.5-40G KU : 12.4-18G

from : 300MHz--300GHz 。 In this range , frequency is higher , wavelength is lower(1m - 0.1mm), attenuation is more when transmission is along the ground , the capability is lower when it faces a barrier , does not echo when delivery is in the ionosphere 。 So , radio wave can only transmit in straight lines of site. If we want transmit signal from one to another relay is the only choice .






SHF microwave


λ f

10Km 30KHz

1Km 300KHz

100m 3MHz

10m 30MHz

1m 300MHz

10cm 3GHz

1cm 30GHz

1mm 300GHz

一、 Microwave relay communication
• Radio link structure Each station both can uplink and downlink information , can communicate with any station in the network 。 If each the station is connected with the MSC , So all user can communicate with each other.

The radio link propagation follows the line of sight: it requires a perfect clearing between transmitting and receiving antennas. The propagation medium is made of the lower layers of the atmosphere (a few meters to a few hundred of meters above ground)

The non homogeneity of the atmosphere influences the waves propagation: 1°) Path curvature 2°) Reflecting, diverging, focusing intermittent events

System table
Local Wiring Branch Site

Radio link PNMS A C F B


Repeater Site


Terminal Site

二、 Attributes of Digital Microwave
The signal which transmit by microwave is digital signal , So it both have digital and microwave’s attributes 。 1 。 Rapid deployment over difficulty terrain 。 2 。 Economical 。 3 。 High route security 。 4. Network simplicity and flexibility . 5. Robust to fading and interference. 6. highly efficient data and broadband transport



三、 Channel selection
• 1 。 Channel divide

useable frequency divide by some channel , As follows In the table f1, f2,…fn and f1′, f2′,…fn′ is the center frequency of each channel , such as f1 is down channel , the other is up channel 。 The suggestion of microwave relay communication by CCIR is at 283-4,382-2,384频 宽 段 度 3,385-2,386-2,387-3 和 492-2 中。
相 波 间 邻 道 隔 收 间 发 隔 相 频 保 间 邻 段 护 隔 m

频 中 频 段 心 率 f1 f2 f3 fn f0 f1 ' f2 ' f3 ' fn '

波 划 示 图 道 分 意

CAPACITY 1800 channels ANALOG 2700 channels 30 channels 2 Mbit/s 120 channels 8 Mbit/s MF 140 kHz rms/channel 4 PSK 4 PSK 4 QAM DIGITAL 480 channels 34 Mbit/s 16 QAM 16 QAM 1920 channels 140 Mbit/s 64 QAM 30 MHz 14 MHz 40 MHz MODULATION MF 140 kHz rms/channel DEVIATION ≈ 30 MHz ≈ 40 MHz 3.5 MHz 7 MHz 30 MHz

2 。 Rule of channel selection
Generally , two channel couple is needed when constructing a new trunk , channel need added at the across 。 Otherwise system disturbance will be produced , consequently it will difficult to communicate. a 。 When the radio link have same route link or link close to each other , keep away from this scenario is the best choice 。 If we have calculated the disturbance is little and space is enough , we can use the same channel , but polarization must different 。 b 。 When we have across link , if across angle is lessen than 30° , treat as in (a) ; if across angle is more than 60 ° , so we select the channel which have to used in order to save frequency source c 。 In order to avoid disturbance , the fourth station can’t be in the extended line of the first and second , the arrangement of polarization is H,V,V 。 d 。 Frequency selection must avoid that which used by local radar and satellite 。 e.The frequency used should be authorized by regulating government agency. f1
f1 H f2 H f1 V



四、 Classify of microwave station 1 。 Communication structure
终端站 分支终端站

终端站 枢纽站 中继站


2 。 CLASSIFY 微波通信系统组成示意图 a 。 Classify by station type Terminal station : At the end of radio link , only can communication in one way 。 Relay station : Between two station of radio link , can communication in two way. Hinge station : In the centre of radio link , can communication in three way 。 b 。 Classify by frequency High station : receive frequency higher than send 。 Low station : receive frequency lower than


Hop NO.1

Hop NO.2 or

Hop No.n




Terminal Station Cable

Relay station (Active) Radio link

Relay station (Passive)

Terminal Station Cable

Distance between the transmitter and the receiver, some km < D < 100 km Availability and quality are depending on distance according I.T.U.R. rules

五、 Microwave equipment
a 。 Structure pange table
(Modulator ) encode TX BB MOD UP CONV PWR AMP BR CKT

Antennas TX Rx






DEM (Demodulator )




Base band



BB : Base band IF : Intermediate Frequency UHF : Ultra-High Frequency (300 - 3000 MHz) SHF : Super-High Frequency (3000 - 30.000 MHz)



Lightning rod Power panel MV lightning diverter HV lightning Iron structure connected to ground network

HV line

Transformer MV circuit-breaker Fence

Ground network

Tower ground

b 。 MAIN FEATURE 1 。 Output power (dB m) Pt : the power of tx which decided by path distance ,use purpose of equipment and so on 。 2 。 Frequency stability of tx : the ratio of fact tx frequency and standard work frequency 。 3 。 Branch loss of TX (dB) Lf: Loss between TXand transmission line 。 4 。 Rx signal (dB m) Pth: the lowest rx signal of receiver 5 。 Frequency stability of receiver : the stability of receiver’s self frequency 。 6 。 Receiver branch loss Ls : the RF signal come from transmission line to receiver 。 7. Capacity: 1 4 8 16 155


2/34 Mbit/s PDH

ADM 155

155 Mbit/s



34,268 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1


140 Mbit/s CMI


8,448 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1


34 Mbit/s HDB3
or 16x2 Mbit/s


2,048 Mbit/s

4 3 2 1


8 Mbit/s HDB3
or 4x2 Mbit/s


30 64 kbit/s 1


2 Mbit/s HDB3
4x2 Mbit/s


六、馈线系 统




The line from receiver branch system to transmit antenna , we called transmission line 。 1 。 The requirement of transmission : loss must lower ; b restrict energy , prevent radiate 。 2 。 Type of transmission line : a 。 Coaxial line ; b 。 Empty waveguide

Use: outdoor installation (pressurized waveguides)
plastic envelop

Semi-rigid brass elliptical waveguide

Length: 120 meters

Loss: useful formula for standard waveguides A.dB/meter ≈ F Ghz 100


2 lgP( ¦ Θ 0 ) 0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5



1 0




1 0



1 。 Action of antenna : receive or send radio wave which bring information 2 。 Main feature: a. Half power angle : at antenna direct map , The angle relative to principal axis direction which is the half power 。 Δ θ = 1.03λ/D(radian) λ: wav legth D: antenna diameter b. Gain : in the case the same intensity electric produce at space , The ratio between Ideal input power and fact input power 。


Parabolic reflector


Skirt + Radome

High performance antenna
(Reduction of backward and side-lobe radiation > 15 dB) Radôme

Site and azimuth orientation


Polar. H Polar. V

Gain = 10 log 0.55


π 2 R



θ 3 dB ≈ 58 λ /R (uniform illumination) Polarization decoupling H/V, XPD ≥ 30 dB

Radiation Pattern Envelop of Antenna

Radiation Pattern Envelop of Antenna

Antenna Performance


REQUIREMENT : 1 。 Antenna heights requirement , accord with the rule of air department , in the peak of tower have aviation symbol 。 2 。 Have enough intension 。 Can endure load build on it (such as wind 、 rain 、 snow) , the swing angle at the location of antenna less thanΔθ/2(Δθis antenna half power angle) 。 3Grounding resistanceless than 5Ohm 。 lightning rod must build in the top 。
name spec Net weight ( KG )
11.5 14 43 68 117 190 280

WTG03-71DAR WTG06-71DAR WTG12-71DAR WTG16-71DAR WTG20-71DAR WTG25-71DAR WTG32-71DAR 含边罩 ( 前馈 )

0.3m 0.6m 1.2m 1.6m 2.0m 2.5m 3.2m

§2 。 Radio wave transmit 一、 Radio wave transmit in the free space
Free space is a perfect infinity vacuum space Radio wave cannot bring reflecting 、 refraction 、 and dispersion 1 。 Transmit loss of free

space When radio transmit in free space , loss will cause Distance more far , energy received less 。 The fade caused by radio wave transmit is called free space loss 。 The formula is :

L0 = 92.4 + 20 lg d (km) + 20 lg f (GHz )
式中:d − 站距,Km
2 。 RX Signal in free space

f − 工作频率,GHz

Pt − 发信机输出功率, dBm;

Pro = Pt + (Gt + Gt ) − ( Lt + Lr ) − LEr − L0
Lr、Lt − 分别为收、发馈线损耗,dB;

G t、G t − 分别为收、发天线的增益,dB;

L Er − 分路系统的损耗, dB;

In fact , the space which radio wave transmit by I not free space 。 In this course , reflect caused by ground , dispersion by particle of the atmosphere , In a word , the medium and object on the circuitry will bring influence for the range and phase of radio

二、 Attenuation feature of radio wave transmit 1 。 ATTENUATION

The irregularly change of receiver 。 a). classify by attenuation mechanism 。 dispersion 、 K type 、 channel and mix .mostly factor is refractive index is changed with time ,location ,heights , in a word : attenuation have someth with terrain and time b). Classify by attenuation time 。 Quick attenuation : The duration is several ms— a small s 。 Slow attenuation : The duration is seconds to hours c). Classify by eletricity calm up attenuation : receive calm more than in free space 。 down attenuation : receive calm less than in free space 2 。 Change rule of attenuation a). Frequency more higher , path distance more longer , attenuation Is more serious 。 b). nighttime is more serious than daytime , summer is more serious than winter 。 c). sunshine 、 windless is more than cloudy 、 rain day

d) 。 circuitry on water is more serious than on land 。 e) 。 circuitry on plain is more serious than hill 。 f) 。 when sun sunrise and sundown , fade is serious 。 3 。 the product mechanism of attenuation a) absorb by atmosphere any physical molecule is make up of particle , each particle have it’s frequency , when the frequency across is near it’s self , so resonate absorb is produced 。 Statistics indicate atmosphere absorb can ignore when frequency blow 12GHzB, absorb blow 1dB 。 1d 0
1B d

0 d .1 B

大 对 波 收 线 气 微 吸 曲 图
0 1B .0 d 6 Gz 0H 2Gz 3H 1 Gz 2H

(d /K) B m
7 Gz .5H 1H Gz

b). Fade of rain The little rain drop can cause dispersion to radio wave 。 statistics indicate : rain and fog have little effect to 10GHz micro wave ,but have great effect to micro wave above 10GHz , rainfall different have much effect to micro wave , Even cause communicate break 。

c) 。 attenuation by dispersion This margin is caused by press of atmosphere 、 the particle formative by temperature humidity different with all round , so dispersion is caused 。


d) 。 Fade of k it’s caused by multipath transmit, it’s caused by stright and ground reflect which arrived at receiver ,phase is different 。。 when circuitry design , should avoid circuitry across great water and open plain 。


e) 。 Fade of channel effect by climate , such ground burnt in the day , cool in night 。 When radio wave across refraction caused 。



f )。 mixed fade Involve of k fade ,channel fade , atmosphere fade 。

三 、 Ways of avoid fade when fade is caused , SRN is lower , deep fade may cause communication break 。 In order to make sure transmit quality and reliability , must adopt some measure to avoid fade 。 1 。 Frequency diversity Frequency diversity is which adopt two or more frequency which have a distance send and receive the same signal at the same time , next
compose or select lighting the effect of fade 。 disadvantage is effect better , only need one couple of antenna 。 But frequency have not make full use of 。 requirement for frequency : frequency relativity is little 0.8 ∆f 。 I= ⋅ ⋅ 10 Fd / 10
式中: Δf/f- 两个频率之差与中心频率的比值。 公式中其它参数的取值范围如下: 2GHz≤f≤11GHz; 30km≤d≤70km; Δf/f≤5 % . 超出这个范围将导致误差。该公式仅仅对于 I≥5 有效。

f *d




ODU x2 Hybrid IF Cable
to ODU #1 to ODU #2


1+1 IDU



ODU #1

RF Coaxial Cable

ODU #2 IF Cable

1+1 IDU

2 。 SPACE DIVERSITY Diversity is that one frequency received by two or more antenna which is not the same size, next copose or select a stronger signal 。 The advance of frequency diversity is can improve effect , economic frequency 。 But equipment complex ,need tow couple antenna is it’s disadvantage. The key of space diversity is make sure two couple of antenna is V = G1 − appropriate, altitude difference is enough 、 so antenna G 2 work in can reverse phasic when decline is appear , now the decline can avoid 。

I = 1 − exp( − 3.34 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ S0.87 F 0.12 d 0.48 ⋅ p −1.04 ) ⋅ 10( Fd− V ) /10
Fd- 衰落概率为 P 时对应的衰落深度, db.

p − 平均最坏月份的衰落概率;



p 2 两 分 接 示 图 重 集 收 意

p 1

Climatic reflection hm h1 h2 Path equalization dB Combineur Combined IF output F1 h1 N









Two operating modes: 1 - minimum distorsion for an high level received 2 - maximum power for a weak level received (≤ - 65 dBm)

d≥ 100 to 150 λ


ODU #1 IF Cable Div. Antenna

ODU #2

1+1 IDU

Main Antenna


RF Coaxial Cable ODU #1

Div. Antenna IF Cable

ODU #2 1+1 IDU

3 。 Angle diversity

Angle diversity use the same antenna send the same signal with θ , use two antenna receive main signal at receive side 。 the feature is : two main wave received are different , effect is better , but complex 。


4 。 Polarization diversity


IT’S using the same antenna send the same signal with two polarization , one antenna receive polarization signal at receive side , next composed 。

5 。 Mix diversity

combination with frequency diversity and space diversity ,

5 。 Avoid reflection by terrain
by the best design of antenna heights , reflection wave avoid or in the ground which reflectance is little 。

statistics feature of fade indicate , margin and stat
1 。 Path distance d

terrain have relate with path length 。 Terrain and path length different , margin is different 。

The rule is : d more longer , Attenuation is more ; d more shorter , Attenuation is lessen 。 so , the relay distance relay on the parameter of the equipment such as , work frequency 、 terrain 、 climate 、 antenna heights and some test data 。 generally , the region which transmit condition is better , D can be longer ; otherwise , D can’t be too long 。 Besides , also should calculate D too long or too short will bring receive electric calm is too high or too low 。 Receive signal above normal 。 Receive signal blow normal 。 Two case can bring error code increase , sometime communication will break 。 so , when have no fade circuitry design must enable the difference between receiver signal an normal less than 6dB 。 2 。 profile profile can divided four type :

Relay on terrain, climate, antenna heights , the

A(HILL) : It’s made up of hill ,building, no rain and lake 。 The reflectance is less than 0.5 。

B hill 。 The profile is make up of hill which is not toobig , have no big river and lake 。 The reflectance of this circuitry blow 0.7 , the receive electric calm bring up by ground reflect is less than 10 DB C plain 。 The profile is make up of flat ,water 。 The profile is which more plain or water , reflectance is more than 0.7 。 The rx signal decline than 10db is caused by ground reflect 。 Water more , the multipath fade is more serious by atmosphere asymmetry 。 D sea 。 Make up of sea , most above the water 。 The attenuation caused by atmosphere asymmetry is more serious of this kind circuitry which is the badly circuitry transmit for radio wave 。 The mission of microwave circuitry design is : avoid the profile of c 、 D , select A 、 B 。 If difficulty to implement , so need add diversity and protect,or select the equipment which have resist mutipath 。

3 。 Stat rule of attenuation After great test and sat , the attenuation of microwave rule with ruilin distributing 。 It’s feature is quick and deep 。 When the rule used in microwave communication , in the view of condition of transmit , the formula is : B c

PR = k1Qf d

P = PN ⋅ 10 − Fd / 10


Design is at the base of reconnaissance the tool need is : 1. GPS satellite receiver 1 2. compass 1 3. ruler 30 M 4. 1/50000 Relief map 5. Magnifier 1 6. Pencil, Eraser 7. Frequency chart 1 8. Microwave transmitter 1 2side In 9, Test antenna microwave circuitry design , two work is important , one is select suit antenna

heights ; the other is calculate by circuitry break rate , decided the configure of equipment and frequency 。 The newly contract circuitry , antenna heights is an inportant factor of communication 。 If antenna heights is not suitably , the equipment is advanced , also difficulty to get better quality of communication 。 The design of antenna heights , the most is control the spare of circuitry , make sure reflect wave is avoid or reflect point is at the ground which k is small. 1 。 Spare atandard K = Kmin Hc/F1≥0.3 for the barrier like knife k= 0 K = 4/3 Hc/F1≥0.6 K =∞ Hc/F1<1.35 when calculate spare , the heights of building and tree on the circuitry I also consider 。

一、 Design of antenna heights

Select of circuitry work point
Vdb 6 0 - 10 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 1. 0 H F1= n c/ 2. 5

- 0. 5


0. 5

0. 577


1. 5

1. 414



A h

2 。 Requirement of near antenna region a) 。 paraboloid antenna widen terrain 1m antenna antenna heights is 4.1m 1.5m antenna antenna heights is 6.2m 2m antenna antenna heights is 8.3m 3.2m antenna antenna heights is 13.2m



10D 17. 1*D / λ *D


b) 。对全向天线

< 50m

< 50m


3 。 calculate of reflect point the purpose of calculate reflect point is control it’s location, adjust by antenna heights , avoid reflect point on water or the region which reflectance is height 。 generally , improve the stability need avoid the line of reflect ①Smoothly ground




h1 d1= h1+ D h2

h2 d2= h1+ D h2

D d1+ = d2


②terrain of sphericity



d1 = d / 2 + 2 q cos( φ / 3 + 240  )

( km)

φ = cos −1 ( γ / q

q )

q = (d 2 / 12) + 8.5K ( h1 + h 2 ) / 4

γ = 6.37 Kd( h 2 − h1 ) / 4
We can draw conclusion from above formula : reflect

pointd1(d2)is the function of antenna heights , control antenna heights , the reflect point is also control ; reflect point also is the function of k , the value of k is change with terrain , so reflect point also is a region ; the purpose of antenna heights design is avoid reflect region in the region of



二、 Break rate of circuitry circuitry design , high error code is the design feature 。 Because if high error code is satisfy , the lower also can satisfy. 1 。 reference circuitry Suggestion by CCIR , for digital link and circuitry which capacity is 64k , the longest circuitry can reach27500Km , make up by three grade channel , as follow chart 。 64kb/ s 端局 64kb/ s 交换局 交换局 端局


中 级

高 级

中 级


27500km 数字信道假想参考电路

2500km , main application is international and inter trunk 。 Intermediate is 1250km , main application is inter branch 。 The customer channel is 50km , main apply in local digital switch and links between 64kb/s customer 。

The total length of highness digital channel is

2 。 Digital microwave channel feature
①high circuitry (2500km) The time which in any month one second’s error rate than 1×E-3 less than 0.054﹪ ②middle circuitry(1250km) The time which in any month one second’s error rate than 1×E-3 less than 0.04 ﹪ . ③consumer circuitry(50km) The time which in any month one second’s error rate than 1×E-3 less than 0.015﹪ 3 。 Target assign Consider relay path is different , the longer is more easy to break 。 So , CCIR930 suggest the break feature should assign to every sect :
high circuitry

Pe =

D × 0.054% 2500
D × 0.04% 1250

Middle circuitry

Pe =

Consumer circuitry

0 。 015 %

三 、 Common circuitry calculate ①.Location selection and route profile 。 The hill and mountain forest which altitude difference more is the best choice for route selection , one side higher , the other lower , shape “high—low” model circuitry , the better is have hill which up and down but can’t avoid line of sight , the profile is indentation, so the radio wave avoided reflection decline. the location satisfy that case , close the place which living ,traffic ,power is convenient as possible , in order to maintenance , economic invest 。 Many other factors should be consider , such as disturb by route 、 radar 。 Thunder in the region should also be consider ,lightning rod should build. ②Relay on profile data ,draw profile map , according to spare stand to decide antenna heights 。 Follow question must attentive : the circuitry reflect more , adjust antenna heights avoid reflect or reflect point at the ground reflectance is small 。 ③antenna azimuth angle

设A点的经度为 ω1,纬度为 λ1;B点的经度为 ω2,纬度为 λ 2,则

∠α A = tg −1 {sin ( ω2 − ω1 ) /[ cos λ1 tgλ 2 − sin λ1 cos( ω2 − ω1 ) ]}

④. Transmit attenuation in free space L0 = 92.4 + 20 lg( D × f ) ⑤. RX signal of free space Pr = Pt + Gt + Gr − ( L ft + L fr ) − ( Lbt + Lbr ) − L 0 ⑥.Average margin

F = Pr − Fth


Pt h t

The conclusion drew from that chart is : fade reserve more , the possibility of incept calm decline to limited is less 。 So add margin reserve can improve system feature 。 The way add such as increase the output power transmitter , increase

⑦.calculate the probability of circuitry breaken

Path condition Mountain(Re<0.5) Hill(0.5<Re<0.7) Plain(Re>0.7) Sea 1.072×10-4 2.75×10-5 2.884×10-5 2.630×10-6

P = K1Qf Bd c ⋅ 10 − Fd / 10
KQ B 1 1 1 1 C 1.30 1.80 2.20 3.20

⑧.calculate the value of circuitry d target Pp = × 0.04% 1250 ⑨.Calculate target Spare P M = 10× lg p P总 IF M>3dB Proper IF M<3dB Inproper adjust output power 、 increase antenna 、 add
The link frequency above 10GHz , rain Attenuation should calculate , in order to meet the performance 。 After the spare of link performance is enough , the work such as equipment frequency configure should
分集、 shorten path distance

四、 Equipment configuration
• At the case of power is decided, the size of antenna is the main factor which is lie on path distance , generally require loss above 30--35dBm 。 When the terrain is plain,the rule of antenna configuration is : path distance Km diameter m diameter m <10Km 0.6 0.6 10<D<16 0.6(1.2) 1.2(0.6) 16<D<25 1.2 1.2 25<D<30 1.5(1.2) 1.2(1.5) 30<D<36 1.5 1.5 36<D<40 1.5(2.0) 2.0(1.5) 40<D<45 2.0 2.0 45<D<48 2.4(2.0) 2.0(2.4) 48<D<50 2.4 2.4 If profile is better ,such as hill and mountainous, so diameter can minish ;if profile is water ,so need enhance .

• • • • • • • • • • •