Bell Ringer

List an example of a physical change AND a chemical change your body undergoes each day.

Earth’s Mineral Resources
• Metals have been highly prized by mankind for thousands of years.
• Tools making, art, coins, energy transmission, jewelry.

• In this section you will learn about Earth’s mineral resources and how some minerals are converted to useful metals.

B.1 Sources and Uses of Metals
• Human needs for resources, must be met by chemical supplies present in the Earth. • Different layers of the Earth supply different resources. • Layers are:
– Atmosphere – Lithosphere – Hydrosphere

Atmosphere
• The Atmosphere provides
– Nitrogen (78%) – Oxygen (21%) – Neon – Argon – Helium – H2O – CO2

Hydrosphere
• Earth’s hydrosphere includes all of Earth’s water. • The hydrosphere provides some dissolved minerals • A few include NaCl, Mg, S, Ca and other elements as ions

Lithosphere
• Solid part of the Earth • The Lithosphere provides the greatest variety of chemical resources.
– Petroleum – Metal-bearing ores

• Three sections:
– Crust – Mantle – Core

Earth’s Crust
• Topmost section of the lithosphere • Silicates of Al, Na, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, and other metals. • Petroleum • Carbonates • Oxides • Sulfides

Earth’s Mantle
• 40-2900 km below our feet • Silicates of Mg and Fe
– Lava

Earth’s Core
• Center of the Earth • Fe and Ni

Mining
• Earth’s deepest mines barely scratch surface of lithosphere (crust) • Earth’s resources are not evenly distributed throughout the Earth. • No relationship between a countries supply of resources and its size or its population. • Particular regions of the world are predominate suppliers of certain resources.
– Oil – Diamonds – Copper

Let’s Look at how resources are distributed:
• Look at page 136 • What metal might Australia wish to obtain from America • What metal could Australia trade with the U.S. to obtain the resources in question 1? • From what nation would the U.S. obtain nickel? • Give examples of two trade agreement China could make to obtain iron ore. • What metals might Canada seek to obtain through trade?

Challenges in Mining
• The amount of useful ore at a site • The percentage of metal in the ore
– Ore: a naturally occurring rock or mineral that can be mined and metal or other materials can be extracted – Minerals: Solid compounds containing the element or group of elements of interest.

• Type of mining operation • Distance between mine and processing site • Metal’s supply vs. demand

Copper
• Copper as an example
– Consider the world wide sources of copper – How are these copper- bearing materials are converted to pure copper. – Is there a replacement?

Copper
– – – – – – – One of the most widely used materials Second only to silver in electrical conductivity. Low cost Corrosion resistant Very ductile Most common metal for electrical wiring. Brass, Bronze, and other alloys are copper based compounds

Copper Cycle
• Copper Ore • Reduced to Copper Metal
– Furnaces

• Molded into:
– Electrical wires, pipes, roofing, coins, ammunition, food preparation machinery, radiators for cars.

• Either discarded or recycled
– 21% of copper recycled

Mining Copper
• Ores rich in copper desired. • Ancient technologies limited copper extraction to ores rich (80%) in copper. • Modern technologies, ore with as little as 1% used.
– Copper rich ores rare. – Will future copper supplies be rare?

B.4 Metal Reactivity
• What determines how metals are found in nature? • Reactivity
– More reactive metals found in ores.
• Harder/ more difficult to process

– Less reactive metals found “free”
• Easier to process

– Refer to page 145 in textbook for Activity Series

Activity Series
• Table that ranks how reactive a metal is.
– Notice that Lithium is at the top of the list
• Most reactive metal
– Never found free in nature – Extracted by expensive electrometallurgical extraction » Electricity passed though ore » Expensive to store: highly reactive with air

– Gold is at the bottom of the list
• Least reactive
– Used in jewelry, sensitive electrical components,

Next Class
• Prepare for lab (Friday)
– Page 142-143

• Discuss MSDS sheets and how to use them for prelab.

Homework
• Page 151 #1-6, 8, 9 • In 2 pages, double spaced, 12 point New Times Romans
– Describe an historical example of how the uneven distribution of natural resources has had an impact on relation between nations.
• War, trade pacts, embargos.