DELHI METRO RAIL

A TECHNOLOGICAL AND FINANCIAL BREAKTHROUGH

A Presentation by: Fenil Shah [ 319 ] Raj Shah [323] Divpreet Singh [320] Farhan Tariq [ 322] Rishabh Sinha [ 321] Dhruv Kalia [ 324]

Contents
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Project Planning Financial and feasibility analysis Risk Management Scheduling Project Implementation Project evaluation and maintainance

DELHI METRO PROJECT PLANNING
By, Fenil Shah Roll No. : 319 MBA(Tech.) - Manufacturing

the number of vehicular trips on road system goes up. The result is extreme congestion on Delhi roads. Delhi has experienced phenomenal growth in population in the last few decades. the number of motor vehicles had increased from 0. Its population has increased from 6 million in 1981 to almost 15 million today. For want of an efficient mass transport system. ever slowing speeds.MAIN REASONS BEHIND METRO PLANNING As cities grow in size. increase in road accidents fuel wastage and environmental pollution with motorized vehicles alone contributing to about two thirds of the atmospheric pollution. 4 . This requires a pragmatic policy shift to discourage private modes and encourage public transport.5 million in 1981 to more than 4 million today.

sewerage lines.SOME KEY FACTS ‡ E Sreedharan took over as the managing director of Delhi Metro Rail in the year 1997 ‡ Tow doubts raised was it worth the effort? Equally important. would it finish on time? ‡ subway railway system in a crowded metropolitan city isn t easy ‡ A large number of utilities like water pipes. ‡ India s first metro project in the eastern city of Kolkata took more than 25 years to complete In the case of Delhi. people have to be relocated . as many as 35 studies have been done on the transport problems of Delhi since 1950 and a number have suggested the Metro Rail for a solution in Delhi 5 . telephone and electric cables need to be relocated to facilitate the construction work.

these lines have been extended and new lines are under construction in Phase II of the project. followed by the Yellow Line in 2004. ‡ The Government of India and the Government of Delhi jointly set up the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) in 1995. the Green and Violet Lines in 2010. opened in 2002. ‡ Construction started in 1998. its branch line in 2009. including the Delhi Airport Metro Express whose opening has been postponed until December 2010 due to safety concerns. ‡ Subsequently. and the first section. when the Delhi Development Authority and the Urban Arts Commission came up with a proposal for developing a multi-modal transport system for the city. the Blue Line in 2005. on the Red Line.PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN ‡ Planning for the metro started in 1984. .

2010 October 3. 2010 44 50 Dwarka 59 trains Sector 21 Anand Vihar Mundka 13 trains Sarita Vihar 6 6.25 14 15. 2010 October 30. 2004 June 4. 2005 January 8.1 13 15 29 trains 7 .Line First Last Stations operational Extension December 24. 2008 September 3.1 Terminals Dilshad Garden Rolling stock 23 trains Red Line Rithala Yellow Line 34 45 HUDA Jahangirpuri City Centre Noida City Centre Yamuna Bank Inderlok Central Secretariat 45 trains December Blue Line 31. 2002 December 20. 2010 21 Length (km) 25. 2010 Green Line Violet Line April 3.

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Elevated Via-Duct The Rail Track The Rolling Stock Electrical Systems-Traction and Low Voltage Supply Train Control & Signaling Systems Telecommunication Systems Ticketing Systems 11 . Tunnels.DIFFICULTIES FACED The Structures-Stations.

work was going on three fronts simultaneously: utility diversion. some stretches have finished six months ahead of time and the entire project is expected to be completed by December 2005 ‡ To finish the project faster. Seoul and New York. Contact-less smart cards serve the purpose of tickets for metro passengers. ‡ The station air-conditioning and ventilation system in tunnels have been planned to meet the rigorous climatic conditions of Delhi. The coaches are all air-conditioned. barricading and actual civil construction Already. 12 . ‡ Ticketing is fully automatic.ACTUAL WORKING ACCORDING TO PLAN ‡ Twenty-two kilometers of the metro project are up and running ‡ Not only has the DMRC has stuck within the completion targets. the Delhi Metro project rivals similar services in London.

INTO THE DMRC ‡ All entrances of the metro stations should be controlled through automatic flap gates through which 45 to 60 passengers can exit and enter per minute ‡ The entire fare collection system should be monitored through a central commuter in the operational control Centre of the DMRC. 13 . But the real marvel of the Delhi Metro project stems from two counts ‡ First is the way in which a foreign dependent project has been localized and re-engineered ‡ This was done by roping in Indian companies as consortium members at each stage of the project.

Four of them were global firms: ‡ Pacific Consultants International. BEML will supply 180 coaches. By 2005. a five-member consortium managed it. several capabilities have been acquired by the Indian partners ‡ 2002 Indian engineering firm Bharat Earth Movers Ltd signed a contract with South Korean firm Rotem for manufacturing rust-proof and has fibre-reinforced interiors steel coaches within India under a transfer of technology agreement. 14 . ‡ Railway Technical Services and ‡ Tonichi Engineering Consultants from Japan. project management processes have also been transferred seamlessly ‡ When the metro project started. Alongside the manufacturing practices. ‡ A year later.PLANNING CONTRACTS Over the course of the seven-year venture. and ‡ Parson Brinkerhoff International from the US ‡ Rail India Technical and Economic Services (RITES) was the only Indian consultant. Bharat Earth Movers (BEML) released the first rake comprising two engines and four trailer coaches.

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‡ soil testing. DMRC and RITES are confident enough to navigate the venture from here alone. ‡ environmental impact and ‡ system designing 16 .PLANNED STUDIES ‡ for the final stretch of the metro project. even though the third stretch will pass through some of the most congested areas of Delhi. ‡ utility mapping. ‡ DMRC s domain expertise acquired over the last seven years is now being used to develop feasibility studies for other metro projects The studies include ‡ route alignment. and ‡ projected demand for transport in the next five decades.

17 .class timeframe. which translated into a per km cost of US$ 18 million. ‡ We have always wanted to have a more patriotic approach in our work and are proud that we can do the job ourselves in such little time. Mr Sridharan said during the presentation.45 km metro project in Hyderabad was estimated at US$ 712 million at April 2003 prices. ‡ The Project implementation period compressed from 10 years to 7 years. ‡ At a presentation made to the Andhra Pradesh government in 2003. Sridharan pointed out that the cost of a 39. ‡ DMRC not only brings in experience and lower costs. ‡ The cost of the Delhi metro project at US $2. says DMRC managing director E.ACHIEVEMENTS We (DMRC and its partners) have acquired the expertise for most of the work. ‡ An important reason why DMRC s skills are being taken to other cities is the cost factor.3 billion for 66 kms of tracks is higher since most of the technology has been sourced from abroad. Sreedharan said in a recent interview. it also shows the rest of India and the world how to put together a world-class project within a world.

8 km (8.99 million) has received budgetary and other clearances. .Planned extensions Several extensions to the Delhi Metro network have been planned.6 mi) long extension of the Violet Line from Badarpur into Faridabad in neighbouring Haryana at a cost of 2. The following routes have received Cabinet clearance and are expected to commence construction by the end of 2010.533 crore (US$ 574. tentatively composed of six routes covering 69. Phase III Phase III. In addition. a 13.57 kilometres (43. has a 2015 deadline. and construction is set to begin in October 2010.23 mi).

6 mi) .PLANNED EXTENSIONS Planned Opening Date December 2010 Route Terminals Length Stations New Delhi IGI Airport Express Airport Dwarka 22.1 mi) Sector 21 Violet Line Green Line Blue Line Sarita Vihar Badarpur 5.32 km (2.06 mi) Ashok Park Main Anand Vihar Vaishali 2.7 km (14.16 km (3.5 km (1.21 mi) 5 December 2010 March 2011 June 2011 3 2 2 Kirti Nagar 3.

Ghazipur. will also interchange with the Delhi Metro.Phase IV ‡ Phase IV has a 2020 deadline. ‡ Apart from these lines in Phases I to IV. as well as the extension of the Red Line from Dilshad Garden to the new Ghaziabad bus stand. and subsequently to Mehrauli via Indirapuram. Noida Sector 62. if built. having a total length of 108. including the extension of the Blue Line from Anand Vihar to Vaishali.4 mi). 20 . ‡ The Ghaziabad Development Authority is planning to extend Delhi Metro lines deeper into Ghaziabad in three phases.5 km (67. Palam. Reola Khanpur. ‡ The independently operated Gurgaon Metro. Najafgarh. Gurgaon and Faridabad. and tentatively includes further extensions to Sonia Vihar. plans have been mooted to construct a new line from Noida Sector 62 to Greater Noida which will intersect Indraprastha ± Noida Sector 32 line.

: 323 MBA(Tech. Raj Shah Roll No.Delhi Metro Rail Financial and Feasibility Report A Presentation by.Manufacturing .) .

CONTENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction Need for Metro Project costing Benefits of Metro Financial Evaluation Conclusion .

. ‡ The increase in road length is not at par with the phenomenal growth in the number of vehicles on roads in Delhi. is one of the fastest growing cities in the world with a population of 13 million as reported in the Census of India Report for the year 2000. it was perhaps the only city of its size in the world depending almost entirely on roads as the sole mode of mass transport. the capital city of India.The Urgent Need ‡ Delhi. ‡ Until recently.

with automobiles contributing more than two thirds of the total atmospheric pollution. the decision of the Government of India to develop a mass transport system for Delhi providing alternative modes of transport to the passengers was most appropriate. ‡ In this context. ‡ The first concrete step in the launching of an Integrated Multi Mode Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) for Delhi was taken when a feasibility study for developing a multi-modal MRTS system was commissioned by the Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) .The Urgent Need ‡ Delhi has now become the fourth most polluted city in the world.

which started in 2005-2006 is expected to be complete by 2010-11. 64.Overview of Costing ‡ The construction of the first phase of DM was spread over 10 years during 1995-96 to 200405 while that of the second phase.060 and Rs. ‡ The total capital cost of DM at 2004 prices for Phase I and Phase II are estimated as Rs. . respectively.260 million. 80.

Overview of Costing .

. ‡ The financial evaluation of a project requires the analysis of its annual cash flows of revenue and costs considering it as a commercial organization operating with the objective of maximizing private profits. ‡ The financial capital cost of DM represents the time stream of investment made by it during its lifetime.Financial Costs and Benefits of the Metro ‡ It is important to examine the financial feasibility of DM before actually taking up its economic appraisal.

If the government gives some commodity tax concessions to DM. they are reflected in the prices paid by DM for such commodities. given the definition of market price of a commodity as producer price plus commodity tax minus commodity subsidy. .Financial Costs and Benefits of the Metro ‡ The investment expenditures made by the project in one of the years during its life time constitutes the purchase of capital goods. ‡ The operation and maintenance cost of the project constitutes the annual expenditure incurred on energy. material inputs for maintenance and payments made to skilled and unskilled labour. cost of acquisition of land and payments made to skilled and unskilled labour and material inputs for project construction. ‡ The investment goods and material inputs used by the project are evaluated at market prices.

Sources of Funding .

(d) The DM is permitted to generate resources through property development over a period of 6-20 years and (e) No dividend is paid on GOI share of equity till the senior debt is repaid fully by the twentieth year. the DM had been provided with the following concessions by GOI to make the project viable. The remaining 10 percent of the investments of DM will be covered out of the revenues it earns. 2180 million has been provided as an interest free subordinate loan by GOI/GNCTD to be repaid by the DM within 5 years after the senior debt is repaid fully by the twentieth year of taking the loan (b) The risk associated with the exchange rate fluctuations is borne by government in case of foreign debt. . Around 30 percent of total investments of DM are raised through equity capital with the Government of India (GOI) and GNCTD having equal shares in it. capital gains tax. (c) The DM is exempted from payment of income tax. namely : (a) The cost of land equivalent to Rs. property tax and customs duty on imports. As reported in RITES (1995a).Sources of Funding ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡      More than 60 percent of the funds required for investment are raised as debt capital.

Cost Estimate of DM (Phase I) .

Fare Sensitivity of Ridership on the Metro .

Estimates of Daily Passenger Trips by Metro (in lakhs) .

Estimates of Financial Flows of Revenue Earned by DM (Phases I and II) During its Lifetime .

Measurement of Economic Costs and Benefits of Metro ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduction in the number of vehicles on road Savings in fuel consumption Reduction in air pollution Savings in passenger time Savings due to fewer accidents Savings in vehicular operating costs due to the decongestion effect ‡ Savings in Capital and Operating Cost of Diverted vehicles .

Reduction in the number of vehicles on road The economic benefits from the reduced number of vehicles on Delhi roads due to the Metro could be identified as the following: Savings in Foreign Exchange due to reduced Fuel Consumption Reduction in Pollution Savings in Time for all passengers using Metro and Roads Savings in Accidents Savings in Vehicle Operating Cost (VOC) due to decongestion for residual traffic Savings in Capital and Operating cost of diverted vehicles Savings in the cost of Road Infrastructure .

the fuel saved due to the diverted traffic of cars and twowheelers is estimated as 138. 38/litre for petrol) the corresponding fuel savings for cars. respectively. 5260.Savings in fuel consumption ‡ There are savings in fuel consumption (inclusive of both CNG and petrol) due to the diversion of a part of the Delhi road traffic to Metro and reduced congestion to vehicles still operating on the roads.70 million litres respectively.35 and 25. twowheelers and buses are Rs. 9770 and 710 million. ‡ RITES (2005a) has estimated the total reduction in CNG due to the traffic of buses diverted to the Metro (Phases I & II) during the year 2011-12 as 39. 18/kg for CNG and Rs.65 million kg. ‡ ‡ Similarly. . ‡ There is an inter-fuel substitution of petrol and CNG to electricity that could result in savings of foreign exchange and a reduction of air pollution. ‡ When these fuel savings are valued at 2004 prices (Rs.

Savings in fuel consumption .

‡ The distance saved due to decongestion is estimated by multiplying the time saved with the speed of a vehicle in a decongested situation.Reduction in air pollution ‡ Fewer vehicles and the decongestion for the residual traffic on Delhi roads due to Metro could lead to reduced air pollution. ‡ The cost of conversion of vehicles from Euro II norms to Euro IV norms are also taken under consideration . ‡ An estimate of the pollution reduction by a vehicle in this context could be obtained by multiplying the distance saved by the relevant emission coefficient for different pollutants for each category of vehicle.

Reduction in air pollution .

Savings in passenger time ‡ The savings of travel time of passengers traveling by the Metro instead of by road are calculated as the product of the number of passengers traveled daily and the time saved on the average passenger lead in Delhi. .

legal expenses. administrative expenses on police. Kadiyali et. al. 2002) later updated by Dr. . in association with the Loss Prevention Association of India provides estimates of the cost of various accidents on road. medical treatment expenses. ‡ In the case of buses and other public vehicles. L. R. the loss due to lay off period and unproductive wages paid to the crew are also included. ‡ Components like gross loss of future output due to death/major injury. insurance companies and the intangible psychosomatic cost of pain were included in the estimation.Savings due to fewer accidents ‡ The Road User Cost Study (CRRI.

Savings due to fewer accidents .

.Savings in vehicular operating costs ‡ Annual vehicle operating cost is substantially reduced due to the higher speed of vehicles and consequently lesser hours on road. 15040 million. ‡ According to RITES (2005b). ‡ It is estimated as the product of the residual traffic. time saved on average lead per vehicle annually and the vehicle operating cost per hour. the value of this component for the year 2011-12 is Rs.

Other Benefits ‡ Creation of over 1000 temporary skilled jobs. ‡ Bringing the NCR nearer to the city. ‡ Development of areas near to metro. . ‡ Creation of 500 permanent skilled jobs. ‡ Employment to about 10000 unskilled labours.

‡ The financial cost-benefit ratio of the Metro is estimated as 2.92 at 8 percent and 10 percent discount rates respectively while its financial internal rate of return is estimated as 17 percent. .Conclusion ‡ The Delhi Metro planned in four phases is part of an Integrated Multi Mode Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS) planned for dealing with the fast growing passenger traffic demand in Delhi. ‡ It provides an alternative safe and comfortable mode of transport by rail to a large fraction of passengers using the road transport in Delhi.30 and 1.

RISK MANAGEMENT (DELHI RAIL METRO PROJECT) DIVPREET SINGH ROLL NO. 320 MBA(TECH) MANUFACTURING .

INTRODUCTION ‡ Project Risk Assessment is an integral part of Project Risk Management which primarily comprises of cost and schedule uncertainties and risks. ‡ These risks can be assessed or measured in terms of likelihood. risk assessment should be mandatory during the conceptual and feasibility phase of the project ‡ The decision making authorities of the project should take appropriate decision pertaining to the adoption of the mitigation measures for reducing the likelihood of occurrence of the identified risks involved in the project . ‡ For a complex mega infrastructure project like construction of an underground corridor for metro rail operations. impact and consequences.

subfloor drainage. survey works. The most appropriate way of dealing with the project risk is treating it as a function of likelihood and impact [Risk = f (likelihood. . soil and rock excavation. impact)] ‡ Finally. mechanical and electrical installations and backfilling and restoration works.‡ These risks can be assessed or measured in terms of likelihood. steel struts. traffic diversion. suitable risk mitigation measures are to be suggested which will enable to reduce the identified project risks. as risk is a component which cannot be eliminated. timber lagging works. rock anchors. permanent structure works. impact and consequences. waterproofing. utility diversion. ‡ The major activities of the underground corridor construction consist of feasibility studies. construction decks. design. soldier piling and king piling works.

‡ A proper risk mitigation plan if developed for the identified risks. ‡ It would also ensure better construction safety throughout the execution and operational phase of the project. . it would ensure better and smooth achievement of project goals within specified time. cost and quality parameters.

method statement and specifications for the works collected from the project. The summation of the weightages should be equal to 1. Wi = 1. The corresponding Weightage (Wi) of each activity has also been obtained from the feedback of the questionnaire survey circulated among the experts. For Global Priority (GP) the weightages of all the interrelated work packages of the project equals to 1 . ‡ This value ranges from 0 to 1. ie. The weightages can be based on Local Priority (LP) where the weightages of all the activities of a particular work package equals to1. The Likelihood of failure (Li) of each activity as per the feedback from the questionnaire survey from the experts has also been tabulated. ‡ The corresponding expected failure time or Corrective Time (CT) for each activity and their expected failure cost or Corrective Cost (CC) has been tabulated.Risk Analysis by Expected Value Method (EVM) ‡ The Base Time Estimate (BTE) and Base Cost Estimate (BCE) of all the major activities of the project and also for their work packages have been calculated as per the detailed construction drawings.

The values of Ii ranges from 0 to 1 and Wi = 1. .‡ The Risk Cost (RC) and Risk Time (RT) of the activities of the different work packages of the project can be obtained from the following relationship: Risk Cost (RC) = Corrective Cost (CC) x Likelihood of failure (Li) -----------(1) Risk Time (RT) = Corrective Time (CT) x Likelihood of failure (Li) -----------(2) ‡ Composite Likelihood Factor (CLF) = L1(W1) + L2 (W2) + L3 (W3) + + Ln (Wn) = Li ‡ Composite Impact Factor (CIF) = I1(W1) + I2 (W2) + I3 (W3) + + In (Wn) = Ii Wi ‡ Where Ii and Wi are the Impacts and Weightages respectively of the ith risk source of the activities of a work package.

Small values represent unimportant risks that might be ignored and large values represent important risks that need to be treated. ‡ Risk Consequence / Severity can also be expressed as: ‡ Risk Consequence / Severity (RS) = CLF + CIF CLF (CIF) ----------(6) ‡ The Risk Consequence derived from this equation measures how serious the risk is to project performance. ‡ Probable Cost (PC) = BCE + RC + Opportunity Cost -----------(7) Probable Time (PT) = BTE + RT ----------(8) .‡ Risk Consequence / Severity (RS) = Li x Ii ----------(5) Here Li and Ii are Likelihood and Impact respectively of the ith risk source of a work package.

5% shares. Chawri Bazzar. Connaught Place. South Korea) with 26% shares IRCON (IRCON International Ltd. India) with 26% shares SAMSUNG (Samsung Corporation.CASE STUDY(DELHI RAIL METRO UNDERGROUND CORRIDOR) ‡ Details of the project of underground corridor of metro rail taken as case study for Project Risk Management is described as below: ‡ Scope of work: Design and construction of underground Metro Corridor MC1B from Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT) to Central Secretariat (Delhi) with 6 underground stations and twin tunnel system. The underground stations include Delhi Main. Germany) with 9% shares. India) with 9. . ‡ Client: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) ‡ Contractor: International Metro Civil Contractors (IMCC JV) This is a joint venture of five companies as stated below: DYWIDAG (Dykerhoff & Widman AG. Japan) 9. New Delhi.5% and SHIMIZU (Shimizu Ltd. L&T (Larsen & Toubro Ltd. Patel Chowk and Central Secretariat.

000 cum. 1800 Crores.500 MT . Concreting : 3. Length of route : 6569 m Tunnel (by Tunnel Boring Machine [TBM] ) 3811m Tunnel (by Cut & Cover method) 937m Station boxes 1821m Depth of stations: 15 20 m below ground level Typical width of stations : Average 20m Typical length of stations: 275m to 300m Design life: 120 years for underground structures and 50 years for super structures Major scope: Excavation (soil) : 10. Reinforcement : 47.15.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Consultant: General Consultants (GC) Type of contract: Design Build Turnkey Contract Contract Period : April 2001 to March 2006 Total project cost: Rs.90.000 cum.000 cum.500 MT Strutting : 24.00. Excavation (rock): 2.

‡ EPR 6: Risks in soil excavation works ‡ EPR 7: Risks in rock excavation works .Identification and Classification of Risks Involved in Construction of Underground Corridor ‡ The risks identified at each phase of the project and its subsequent work packages and activities are classified as follows: ‡ FPR : Feasibility Project Risk ‡ PEPR 1: Pre execution Project Risk Design Risks ‡ PEPR 2: Pre execution Project Risk Technology Risks ‡ EPR 1: Execution Project Risk Risks in traffic diversion works ‡ EPR 2: Risks in utility diversion works ‡ EPR 3: Risks in survey works ‡ EPR 4: Risks in soldier piling and king piling works. ‡ EPR 5: Risks in timber lagging works.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

EPR 8: Risks in installation of construction decks EPR 9: Risks in installation of steel struts EPR 10: Risks in installation of rock anchors EPR 11: Risks in shotcreting and rock bolting works EPR 12: Risks in subfloor drainage works EPR 13: Risks in waterproofing works EPR 14: Risks in diaphragm wall construction EPR 15: Risks in top down construction EPR 16: Risks in permanent structure works EPR 17: Risks in mechanical and electrical installation works EPR 18: Risks in backfilling and restoration works

‡ Similarly for Feasibility, Design, Development and Execution Phase, tables have been formulated for identification of the risks involved in the respective work packages along with their likelihood and weightages as obtained from the questionnaire survey. Considering all the work packages, the major type of risks identified for the underground corridor project can be grouped and listed as follows: ‡ Delay in Approval of Detailed Project Report (DPR) ‡ Land Acquisition risks ‡ Design Risks ‡ Technology Selection Risks ‡ Approval and Permit Risks ‡ Joint Venture Risks

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Financial and Investment Risks Political Risks Environment Related Risks Geo-technical Risks Major / Minor Accidents during Execution Unforeseen Heavy Rains Force Majeure Risks like Flood, Fire, Earthquake etc. Labor Agitation and Strikes Inflation Risk Delayed Payment from Client Delayed Payment to Subcontractor

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Application of EVM for Risk Analysis .

500 + 12.1 x 50 = 5 days ‡ Similarly the Risk Cost (RC) of the entire feasibility phase or work package can be calculated as the summation of the RC of all the activities of the work package ie Rs.00.‡ RC = Li x CC = 0.11 % higher than the BTE.9 + 11.62.8 + 29.5 days ‡ Thus for this work package. . 5 + 6.63.500.000 + + 26.15. Thereby it is observed that the PC is about 13.888 + 44.25 + 1. 2.25 + 3 + 0. The Risk Time (RT) for this feasibility phase or work package is the total risk time along the critical path ie. Probable Cost (PC) = BCE + RC + Opportunity Cost = 22. 4.000 = Rs.888.512. the Probable Time (PT) = BTE + RT = 530 + 122.00. 4.000 + 2.000 (assumed 2% of BCE) = 25.5 = 652.5 days.07.27.5 = Rs.75.27.62.00.62.888. Further.25 + 24 + 12.63.1 x 42. RT = Li x CT = 0.5 = 122.3 +22.25 + 6.98 % higher than BCE and PT is 23.

Risk Severity Analysis using Concept of CLF and CIF

‡ he product of likelihood and impact of a risk can be considered as the severity of that risk. This concept can be extended for multiple risk sources in a work package the likelihood and impact of which can be expressed in terms of CLF and CIF respectively. ‡ Risk severity analysis has also been carried out by PERT analysis and the outcome of both EVM and PERT analysis in terms of severity of the major work packages of the project is presented in table 6.

Proposed Risk Assessor Model

or penalties attached to project performance. .MEASURES ADOPTED BY RISK RESPONSE PLANNING ‡ TRANSFER OF RISK-This can be done using contractual incentives. It is to be noted that entire transfer of risk is impossible and transfer of one kind of risk may inherit another kind of risk ‡ AVOID RISK-The risk management team should make the project authorities aware that it is always better to reduce risk to an acceptable level than to attempt to completely avoid the risk. cost or schedule measures. warranties.

and if the cost of avoiding. ‡ ACCEPT RISK-For risks for which impacts or consequences are not severe.‡ RISK CONTINGENCY PLANNING-In risk contingency planning the consequences of the identified risks are anticipated and detailed plan of action is prepared for mitigating these risks. reducing or transferring the risk exceeds the benefit. then it may be advisable to accept the risk .

are large and if not treated or mitigated properly. ‡ As per the analysis carried out by EVM based on the expert questionnaire survey the probable project cost for the sample stretch under analysis (530 m. cut and cover tunnel connecting Patel Chowk to Central Secretariat station. the probability of successful completion of the project within stipulated time and cost frame will reduce. Central Secretariat Station Box and 180m cut and cover over-run tunnel) is about 23.90 % higher than the base cost estimate of the project .CONCLUSION ‡ In present research work it has been found that the numbers of major and minor risks involved during the construction of the project from the feasibility to completion of the execution.

Ahmedabad and ongoing projects of Delhi. . Mumbai. Chandigar. the project will result in cost over-run and time overrun which will ultimately reduce the feasibility of successful completion of the project ‡ Hence considering the results of all the analysis carried out in this research work it can be concluded that for complex infrastructure projects like that of an underground corridor construction about Rs.‡ According to basic assumption made for the analytical procedure adopted. Kolkata and Bangalore metro. thus if proper Project Risk Management is not carried out by the authority. the maximum permissible cost over-run for the project is 25 %.8 lakhs per day per station would be incurred extra if proper risk management is not followed to mitigate the anticipated risks ‡ The proposed Risk Management Model will definitely benefit the future anticipated metro projects in Indian cities like Chennai. 8.

The Delhi Metro has a combination of elevated.2002. at-grade and underground lines.‡ The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system in the Delhi that is built and is operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC). ‡ The first section of the Delhi Metro was opened on December 24. It became the second underground rapid transit system in India. after kolkata. .

Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 24 december 2002 .1998 ‡ The first section on red line was inaugrated by the then PM of India.Scheduling ‡ Planning started in 1984 ‡ DMRC was set up in1995 by Gov of India and DDA ‡ Construction started on 1st october .

the Managing Director of the Sreedharan Metro during the Phase I construction. an achievement described as "nothing short of a miracle" by BusinessWeek. on budget and almost three years ahead of schedule. E. .The miracle project ‡ The entire Phase I of the project was completed in December 2005. ‡ Dr. was declared "Indian of the Year for 2007" by CNNIBN news channel. Sreedharan.

IGI Airport. ‡ Yellow Line southwest ‡ Central Secretariat . of which the following sections are under construction.19Jun 2010 ‡ Unnamed south ‡ Central Secretariat .20.Nehru Place . This phase has completion deadline of 2010.Work in progress ‡ Phase II consists of 127 km of new rail.(Gurgaon)27.3Sep 2010 .04kms.QutubMinar .26kms.45 kms.6.Sector 21 .15Sep 2010 ‡ Blue Line west ‡ Dwarka (Delhi) Sector 9 .

46kms.Dwarka (Delhi)22.0711Aug 2009 Airport Express ‡ New Delhi Railway Station .Indira Gandhi International Airport .572kms.NOIDA Sector 32 City Centre15.Mar 2010 .Blue Line east ‡ Mayur Vihar .Sep 2010 Blue Line (branch) east .Vaishali (Ghaziabad)2.

‡ Most of the work on phase II is completed ‡ Delhi airport metro express s opening is postponed to december 2010 due to safety reasons .

2010 Last Extension June 4.2010 - Green line Violet line April 3.Line Red line Yellow line Blue line First operational December 24. 2010 . 2002 December 20. 2008 September 3. 2004 December 31. 2005 January 8. 2010 October 3. 2010 October 30.

2004. 2003. and ‡ Shahdara Dilshad Garden on June 4. 2008. ‡ Inderlok Rithala on March 31. .‡ The Red Line-inaugration of various sections: ‡ Tis Hazari Trinagar (later renamed Inderlok) on October 4.

2004 ‡ Kashmere Gate Central Secretariat opened on July 3. 2005 .The yellow line ‡ It connects jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre ‡ The first section between Vishwa Vidyalaya and Kasjmera Gate opened on December 20.

‡ Due to delay in acquiring the land for constructing the station. 2010. it was constructed using pre-fabricated structures in a record time of nine months and is the only station in the Delhi metro network to be made completely of steel.‡ On 21 June 2010. an additional stretch from QUTUB MINAR to HUDA City Centre in Gurgaon was opened ‡ Chattarpur stn on this line opened on August 26. .

‡ subsequent sections opened between Dwarka Dwarka sector 9 on April 1. . and the first to connect areas outside Delhi ‡ The first section of this line between Dwarka and Barakhamba road was inaugurated on December 31.Blue line ‡ The Blue Line was the third line of the Metro to be opened. 2006. 2005.

2006. ‡ Dwarka Sector 9 Dwarka sector 21 on October 30.‡ Barakhamba Road Indraprasthaon November 11. 2010 . 2009. 2010 ‡ A small stretch of 2. 2009. ‡ Yamuna Bank Noida city centre on November 12. ‡ Indraprastha Yamuna bank on May 10.71 mi) from Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21 was inaugurated on October 30.76 kilometres (1.

Green line ‡ Opened in 2010. the Green Line was the first standard-gauge ‡ connects Mundkawith Inderlok ‡ An interchange with the Red line is available at Inderlok station via an integrated concoursege corridor of the Delhi Metro .

just hours before the inaugural ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games.Violet line ‡ The Violet Line is the most recent line of the Metro to be opened ‡ Inaugurated on October 3. 2010. and connects the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium which was the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the event ‡ Completed in just 41 months .

Routes under construction .

linking the Indira Gandhi International Airport ‡ Originally scheduled to open before the 2010 Commonwealth Games. and was rescheduled to open by the middle of November 2010 .1 mi) from New Delhi Railway Station to Dwarka Sector 21. the line failed to obtain the mandatory safety clearance.‡ The Airport Express line runs for 22.7 km (14.

‡ The line is still to be completed with its final safety inspections and get clearances which is scheduled in December 2010 .

Phase III extensions ‡ The following routes have received Cabinet clearance and are expected to commence construction by the end of 2010: ‡ Central Secretariat to Red Fort (6.4 km) .4 km) ‡ Jahangirpuri to Badali (3.8 km) ‡ Rajouri Garden to Mukundupur (12.

64 km) ‡ Ashok Park to Delhi Gate (9.‡ Three lines are still pending approval: ‡ Anand Vihar to Dhaula Kuan (25.66 km) ‡ Malviya Nagar to Kalindi Kunj (11.64 km) .

Palam. Najafgarh.5 km (67.Phase IV ‡ Phase IV has a 2020 deadline. Ghazipur. and tentatively includes further extensions to Sonia Vihar. having a total length of 108. Gurgaon and Faridabad.4 mi) . Reola Khanpur. Noida Sector 62.

its future references should be dealt with. Similar concepts we will be observed here.DELHI-METRO PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION Implementing a project requires a lot of attention specially in the field of risk management.its solution . .The drawbacks .

Construction work on the project commenced on October 1. 1998. Further. these lines were divided into sections :- . The entire project was divided into 4 phases.

1 Yamuna Bank Inderlok Central Secretariat Anand Vihar Mundka 13 trains Violet Line 13 15 Sarita Vihar 29 trains .25 15.Phase I Line Stations Length (km) 25.1 Terminals Rolling stock Red Line 21 Dilshad Garden Rithala 23 trains Yellow Line 34 45 Jahangirpuri HUDA City Centre 45 trains 44 Blue Line 6 Green Line 14 50 Noida City Centre Dwarka Sector 21 59 trains[ 6.

1 mi) 5 Violet Line Sarita Vihar Badarpur 5.21 mi) 3 Green Line Kirti Nagar Ashok Park Main 3.32 km (2.Phase II Route Terminals Length Stations Airport Express New Delhi IGI Airport Dwarka Sector 21 22.16 km (3.6 mi) 2 .06 mi) 2 Blue Line Anand Vihar Vaishali 2.7 km (14.5 km (1.

66 km) (11.64 km) (9.4 km) (25.64 km) .8 km) (12.4 km) (3.PHASE III Routes Central Secretariat to Red Fort Rajouri Garden to Mukundupur Jahangirpuri to Badali Anand Vihar to Dhaula Kuan Malviya Nagar to Kalindi Kunj Ashok Park to Delhi Gate distances (6.

Project had to be executed in very difficult urban environments. It faced the challenge of relocating a large number of utilities like water pipes.CHALLENGES Delhi Metro Project is the biggest urban intervention in India since Independence in 1947. apart from the overwhelming challenge of relocating people. 1.Being in the capital city all actions under close scrutiny of WIPs This project required close attention as there were various links interconnected for creating a route . 2. sewerage lines. telephone and electric cables to facilitate the construction work.

or the force of the metro trains on the supporting pillars had to be calculated carefully as it may create damage to the surroundings if failed. especially in areas where excavation is susceptible to erosion. The excavation of soil is done mainly for cut and cover and tunneling and foundations. and underground tunnel faces can result in excessive soil erosion. Strong calculations were necessary The power generated . . quarry sites.3. 4 Soil Erosion and Disposal Runoff from unprotected excavated areas.

there may be high noise levels as a result of pile driving and the use of compressors and drilling machinery. vent shafts. Diesel generator (DG) sets. construction spoils (concrete. welding and electrical works. During construction. Solid Waste The range of solid waste during construction is varied. paint. Leakage from used lube oil. and loading and unloading activities all contribute to the increase in the ambient noise level. and contractor camps). bricks) waste materials such as metal. including large quantities of earth. and paint scrap (from utilities. plastic. 6 Impact from Noise The baseline noise levels are likely to increase during the preconstruction and construction phases of the activities involving site clearing and construction operations. . scraps. and chemical containers could be a potential source of water pollution.5.

considering its use in washing. sewage waste. . High total suspended solids is a primary concern in regard to water quality. and other construction activities.Impact on Water Quality Water requirement for the construction are met from bore wells along the route alignment. Spillage of earth. oils and greases. used water from stone crushing. dust suppression. chemicals. and concrete agitator washings can pollute water if they leach into surface and the underground water. 7.

 For every tree cut during construction. Because an extensive amount of green cover is affected during the site-clearing operation (the construction phase). DMRC succeeded in reducing environmental degradation.SOLUTIONS Compensatory Afforestation  Through refinement of the alignment and the moving of smaller trees. . Najafgarh. Kakraula. DMRC s environmental policy statement emphasizes conservation and enhancement of green cover. It is paying for the planting and fencing of indigenous tree species in two other sites. a manual count of the existing trees on every median has been carried out to identify the number of the trees that are likely to be affected and/or cut during the construction phase. and other sites. the DMRC is planting ten trees as compensatory afforestation. The Metro has undertaken compensatory afforestation with an 83 percent survival rate at Isapur.

.  Full-height fences. trucks were covered and loaded with sufficient free boarding space left at the top to avoid spills through the tailboard or sideboards. and barricades were erected around the site to control dust during excavation.Dust Control  Installing of dust screens and hoardings alongside the construction area and doing regular water sprinkling during material movement are proving to be beneficial. During transportation of debris and much from construction sites. barriers.

protective devices.  A site-specific noise-monitoring control plan guides noise management and alters the scheduling to minimize noise. baffle wall for the parapets has been constructed up to the rail level to reduce sound levels. soundproof compartments and control rooms. In addition. a track structure without ballast is supported on two layers of rubber pads to reduce noise and vibrations. noise barriers.Noise Control Noise control can be achieved by means of  automation. For elevated corridors. and job rotation. .

 Adequate sanitary facilities and appropriate refuse collection and disposal systems are maintained.Water Management  Wastewater from the construction site is not discharged from the site into water bodies by the contractors. . All water and waste products (surface runoff and wastewater) arising on the site shall be collected and removed from the site via a suitable and properly designed temporary drainage system. Any water obtained from dewatering systems installed in the works is reused for construction purposes or discharged to the drainage.

Evaluation Of Delhi Metro Rail Project .

km. . out of the 640 sq. ‡ 500 m. after the implementation of the complete system 69% area of Delhi will remain beyond walking distance of metro.5 sq. ‡ population residing along the metro within walking distance has the highest accessibility to metro. is an ideal walking distance.km. minimum affordable time loss at interchanges.Influence zone ‡ Public transport service has to meet the needs of commuters ‡ This includes accessible stations. of total urban area) of Delhi thus. safer and reliable services. ‡ the area within 500 m from the metro corridor is 31% (198.

‡ This is not easy because of the inherent transfer costs and wait times at interchanges ‡ phase 1.5 km.46.5 km is 28. .8 km ‡ Total length of metro line is 198.5 km can reach metro by walking but people residing at more than this distance have to use rickshaw or feeder bus ‡ Population residing within the area of walking distance is 3.8 km has Population residing within 0.‡ Expansion of metro influence zone beyond 31% will have to rely on feeder system. applying the same methodology for accessible population as line 1. total population residing within the distance of 0.426.90.560 for the corridor length of 23. Shahadara Barwala metro line of length 23.

117. walking distance is approximately 3.27.8 km.5 km.27.‡ This is approximately 2. ‡ Trips originating in the region of 0.5 km distance is 31. .74.5 km distance i.2 % of the total population of Delhi. This shows that only 31. number of trips originating in the region of 0.117 trips can be shifted to metro if all the persons have destination along the metro corridor.e. Applying same weight to the total length of 198.939 for metro length of 23.

‡ However. . this will translate to higher rider-ship only if commuters are willing to accept the added transfer time and transfer costs. the same ticket will be valid in metro trains as well as buses. accessibility of metro will increase. ‡ DMRC is planning for an integrated ticket. well-organized feeder system is provided to the Metro. coordinated.Feeder service and an integrated ticket ‡ If a very good. ‡ If the integration works out.

it is at walking distance from Sahadra railway station and Sahadra bus terminal but people traveling through this may not take benefit of metro due to restrictions on carrying luggage in metro trains ‡ Many passengers coming and going through railway station and bus terminal have a luggage with them as it is connected to long distance travel ‡ Metro is not available to them.Luggage ‡ One of the Metro stop is Sahadra railway station. .

Parking ‡ Parking place outside the Metro station has been provided but non-metro user can also use it. . ‡ To encourage people to use Metro there should be a separate parking place for the monthly pass holders.

‡ It should have been considered in the cost evaluation. as it needs a large amount ‡ Already 100% cost overrun is estimated for first phase of the metro (Rs.10751/.5 km of metro rail will cost Rs.) .Crores (excluding taxes and duties) and metro has not mentioned anything about the maintenance cost. 6000 crores estimated for first phase in 1996. ‡ maintenance cost of metro rail is as much as the original cost. 12000 crores instead of Rs.INITIAL AND MAINTENANCE COST OF METRO ‡ Total length of 198.

Date & time of Opening of Tender: 08/10/2010 at 15:30 hrs. . TENDER DOCUMENT TENDER Notice No:DMRC/S&T/Radio Towers/10-12 Name of the Work: Annual Maintenance of Radio towers for Two years at various stations for Line 1 & 3 of DMRC Sale of Tender Documents: 15/09/2010 to 07/10/2010 between 10:00 hrs to 17:00 hrs.ANNUAL MAINTENANCE OF RADIO TOWERS FOR TWO YEARS AT VARIOUS STATIONS FOR LINE 1 & 3 OF DMRC DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION LTD. & 08/10/2010 up to 14:00 hrs. (Working Days) Date for Receipt of Tenders: 08/10/2010 up to 15:00 hrs.

12.33.552/-* (* .776/-* OR (b) Two similar works costing not less than the Rs 7.220/-* OR (c) One similar completed work costing not less than Rs.ELEGIBILITY CRITERIA 1.This value shall be computed by taking into account various items such as maintenance of Radio Towers) Order copies of works executed along with their satisfactorily completion letter should be provided by Bidder.67. Work Experience: Bidder should have experience of having satisfactorily completed/executed of similar type of works as detailed in the bid document and should have successfully installation and commissioning during last 5 years as on 31st August 2010 and should be either of the followings:(a) Three similar completed works costing not less than Rs 6. .92.

Bill of Quantities . COMPLETION PERIOD: The work should be completed within Two Years (731 Days) from the date of issue of acceptance letter.33. Financial Standing (Annual Turn Over): Applicant should have average Annual Turnover of Last Three audited financial years not less than Rs.776/3. Tender document consists of the following: Notice Inviting Tender Instructions to Tenderers Special Conditions of Contract.2.6. No extension shall be granted to the contractor unless the reasons are beyond his control and the engineer in-charge is satisfied with the reasons. 4.

The Contract shall be governed by the tender documents. Employer s General conditions of contract are deemed to be part of tender papers. New Delhi-110001. The Tenderer may obtain further information in respect of these tender documents from the office of Deputy General Manager/S&T at 6th Floor. Right Wing. . 6. Metro Bhawan.5. 13 Fire Brigade Lane. 7. Barakhamba Road.

Dy. New Delhi 110001 .No tenderer shall have any cause of action or claim against DMRC for rejection of his proposal.DMRC reserves the right to accept or reject any or all proposals without assigning any reasons. General Manager / S&T-I Metro Bhawan 6th floor Left wing Barakhamba Road.8.

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