RRAM: Resistive Random Access Memory (Memristor

)

Md. Rezaul Kabir
mrkabir@kth.se

Markus Soldemo
soldemo@kth.se

IM2654 Smart Electronic Materials 2008 ± 11 ± 07

Agenda
Memristor / RRAM History Applications Physics Conclusions
Memristor, HP labs

Memristor / RRAM

Memristor symbol

Memristor, HP labs

History
1971: The theory of the Memristor 2008: HP has a working memristor prototype

t
1960s: Resistance switching End of 1990s: Research on resistance switching

Applications
RRAM, successor to: Memristor

DRAM

Mass storage devices Memristor, HP labs

Physics
Schematic view of RRAM cell Materials/structures used
Perovskite oxides  Transition metal oxides  Molecular materials 

Reasons for resistance switching

Schematic view of RRAM cell

Al / TiOx / Al ´Sandwich´

Materials/structures used
Perovskite oxides
SrTiO3 (STO), SrZrO3 (SZO)

SZO

Perovskite oxide structure

SrZrO3 (SZO) ± Voltage ± Current diagram

Materials/structures used
Transition metal oxides
TiO2, Co-O

Al / TiOx / Al ´Sandwich´

TMO ± Voltage ± Current diagram

Memristor, HP labs

Materials/structures used
Molecular materials 

Conductive filaments Interfacial effects Trapped charges

Conductive filaments  

Interfacial effects

Trapped charges

Reasons for resistance switching
´...so far the reasons for the resistive switching induced by voltage pulse or bias voltage are not clear.´
- Chih-Yi Liu, Pei-Hsun Wu, Arthur Wang, Wen-Yueh Jang, Jien-Chen Young, Kuang-Yi Chiu, and Tseung-Yuen Tseng, ´Bistable Resistive Switching of a Sputter-Deposited Crdoped SrZrO3 Memory Film´, IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 26, NO. 6, JUNE 2005

´The microscopic nature of resistance switching and charge transport in such devices is till under debate, but one proposal is that the hysteresis requires some sort of atomic rearrangement that modulates the electronic current.´
- Dmitri B. Strukov, Gregory S. Snider, Duncan R. Stewart & R. Stanley Williams, ´The missing memristor found´, Nature, Vol 453, 1 May 2008, doi:10.1038/nature06932

Conclusions 

The reason for resistance switching is unknown RRAMs can be build by different kinds of materials The RRAM has advantages on today's memories   

The memristor is found and may have other applications than RRAM

Sources 
H. Shima, Y. Tamai, Oxide nanolayer improving RRAM operational performance, Microelectron. J (2008), doi:10.1016/j.mejo.2008.06.096  Chih-Yang Lin, Chih-Yi Liu, Chun-Chieh Lin, T.Y, Tseng, ´Current status of resistive nonvolatile memories´, J Electroceram, DOI 10.1007/s10832-007-9081-y, 2007  Dmitri B. Strukov, Gregory S. Snider, Duncan R. Stewart & R. Stanley Williams, ´The missing memristor found´, Nature, Vol 453, 1 May 2008, doi:10.1038/nature06932

Chih-Yang Lin, Meng-Han Lin, Ming-Chi Wu, Chen-Hsi Lin, Tseung.Yuen Tseng, ´Improvement of Resistive Switching Characteristics in SrZrO3 Thin Films With Embedded Cr Layer´, IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 29, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2008 
 Chih-Yi Liu, Pei-Hsun Wu, Arthur Wang, Wen-Yueh Jang, Jien-Chen Young, Kuang-Yi Chiu, and Tseung-Yuen Tseng, ´Bistable Resistive Switching of a Sputter-Deposited Cr-doped SrZrO3 Memory Film´, IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 26, NO. 6, JUNE 2005

Picture references
Slide 2, 3, 5, 9 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/9f/Memristor.jpg (accessed: 2008-11-04) Slide 3 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/ba/Memristor-Symbol.svg (accessed 2008-11-04) Slide 5 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/df/Open_HDD_and_SSD.JPG (accessed 2008-11-05) Slide 5 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5f/Edoram.jpg (accessed 2008-11-05) Slide 7, 9 Lee-Eun Yu, Sungho Kim, Min-Ki Ryu, Sung-Yool Choi and Yang-Kyu Choi, ´Structure Effects on Resistive Switching of Al/TiOx/Al Devices for RRAM Applications´, IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTER, VOL. 29, NO. 4, APRIL 2008 Slide 8 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Perovskite.jpg (accessed 2008-11-04) Slide 8 Chih-Yang Lin, Chih-Yi Liu, Chun-Chieh Lin, T.Y, Tseng, ´Current status of resistive nonvolatile memories´, J Electroceram, DOI 10.1007/s10832-007-9081-y, 2007. Slide 9 Chih-Yang Lin, Chih-Yi Liu, Chun-Chieh Lin, T.Y, Tseng, ´Current status of resistive nonvolatile memories´, J Electroceram, DOI 10.1007/s10832-007-9081-y, 2007.

Questions