IMPATT DIODE

AND
TRAPATT DIODE
IMPATT DIODE
IMPATT Stands Ior !act ionization valanche %ransit-%ime
Þn [uncLlon dlode ls
revere
blased
Þn [uncLlon dlode ls
revere
blased
Avalanche mulLlpllcaLlon
of elecLrons and holes
occur
Avalanche mulLlpllcaLlon
of elecLrons and holes
occur
1hls exhlblLs neaaLlve
reslsLance
characLerlsLlcs ln
mlcrowave frequencv
ranaeŦ
1hls exhlblLs neaaLlve
reslsLance
characLerlsLlcs ln
mlcrowave frequencv
ranaeŦ
neaaLlve reslsLance ls
based upon avalanche
mulLlpllcaLlon and
LranslLŴLlme effecL of
carrlers
neaaLlve reslsLance ls
based upon avalanche
mulLlpllcaLlon and
LranslLŴLlme effecL of
carrlers
uevlce based on Lhls
prlnclpal ls called Lhe
lMÞA11 ulCuL
uevlce based on Lhls
prlnclpal ls called Lhe
lMÞA11 ulCuL
ONSTRUTION OF IMPATT DIODE:
Jhereţ
EQUIVALENT IRUIT FOR IMPATT DIODE:
Jhereţ
OPERATION OF IMPATT DIODE:
Voltage and :rrent Vs Time:
IMPATT is designed Ior high power applications
whereas, a diode b:rns (heat-:p) at high power.
IMPATT is operated at reverse bias whereas a diode
is normally operated at Iorward bias beca:se at
reverse bias there is high voltage drop.
OMPARISION
. Operate at Ireq:encies between abo:t 3 and GHz or more.
2. High power capability.
ADVANTAGES OF IMPATT DIODE:
DISADVANTAGES OF IMPATT DIODE :
. Maior drawback oI :sing IMPATT diodes is the high level oI phase
noise they generate.
2. The noise Iig:re Ior IMPATT is 3dB .
3. T:ning range is not as good as G:nn diodes.
APPLIATION OF IMPATT DIODE:
. MIROWAVE GENERATOR
2. MODULATED OUTPUT OSILLATOR
3. REEIVER LOAL OSILLATOR
4. PARAMETRI AMPLIFIER (par amps)
5. INTRUSION ALARM NETWORK
6. FM TELEOMMMUNIATION TRANSMITTERS
7. W DOPPLER RADAR TRANSMITTER.
IMPATT DIODE OSILLATOR:
WVery high Ireq:ency stability
WHigh o:tp:t power
WLow phase noise
WFine spectr:m
WPrecision Ireq:ency adi:stment
WWeak temperat:re dependence
Wompact, low cost
TRAPATT DIODE
TRApped-Plasma Avalanche Trigged Transit Diode
onstr:ction oI TRAPATT Diode:
It is derived Irom IMPATT Diode.
Silicon or Galli:m Arsenide is :sed Ior Iabricating TRAPATT Diode.
TRAPATT Diode can be constr:cted either by p¹ -n-n¹ or n¹-p-p¹.
OPERATION OF TRAPATT DIODE:
A sq:are p:lse is :sed to excite TRAPATT diode.
TRAPATT DIODE WAVEFORM:
AB harging oI i:nction capacitance
B Electron and hole plasma Iormation by depressed Iield
DE Plasma extraction
EF Resid:al extraction
FG harging oI diode
GA onstant voltage aIter I:ll charging
ANALYSIS OF TRAPATT DIODE:
. The c:rrent density is given by,
Where,
2. Electric Iield is given by,
Jhereţ
3. Avalanche zone velocity is given by,
SALIENT FEATURES OF TRPATT DIODE
. It is a high eIIiciency diode oscillator .
2. Its oscillations depend on delay in c:rrent ca:sed by avalanche
process.
3. The diode diameter is abo:t 5 mm Ior W operations and is
abo:t 75 mm at lower Ireq:ency Ior high peak power
application.
4. It can be operated over a range oI 4MHz to 2GHz.
5. Its has an eIIiciency oI 2 - 4.
ADVANTAGES OF TRAPATT DIODE:
. Its eIIiciency is relatively high.
2. It can be :sed over a Ireq:ency range oI a Iew h:ndred MHz
to several GHz.
DISAVANTAGE OF TRAPATT DIODE:
. It has high noise Iig:re.
2. Its :se at :pper microwave Ireq:encies is limited .
3. It generate strong harmonics d:e to the short d:ration oI
c:rrent p:lse.
APPLIATION OF TRAPATT DIODE :
W in p:lse radar as local oscillator.
W in radio altimeter.
W air borne and marine radars.
W in microwave beacons and landing
system.
W in low power Doppler radars.
It is :sed in
APPLIATION OF
MIROWAVE ENGINEERING
IN
BIOMEDIAL INSTRUMENTS
BIOMEDIAL INSTRUMENTS
The Signal !74.088ing and n897:20n9a9i4n S0.9i4n (S!S) provides electrical,
electronic, electro-optical, and comp:ter engineering s:pport to clinical and biomedical
research proiects involving advanced real-time signal transd:ction, signal processing,
and control.
FIG: A JARVIK-7 artiIicial heart, an example oI a biomedical engineering
. APPLIATION IN STERILIZING MEDIAL EQUIPMENTS
W S907iliza9i4n (or 8907ili8a9i4n) is a term reIerring to any process that eliminates
(removes) or kills all Iorms oI liIe, incl:ding transmissible agents (s:ch
as I:ngi, bacteria, vir:ses, spore Iorms, etc.) present on a s:rIace, contained in a
Il:id, in medication, or in a compo:nd s:ch as biological c:lt:re media.
W Sterilization can be achieved by applying the proper combinations oI heat,
chemicals, irradiation, high press:re, and Iiltration.
FIG: Sterilizing s:rgical instr:ments
W Low-cost technology to kill harmI:l bacteria has been developed at
Glyndwr University in Wrexham.
W Researchers Io:nd that by attaching a vac::m vessel to a microwave
oven, atomic oxygen and ozone - both aggressive gases - can be generated.
W The modiIied microwave :sed by the team cost less than £2,,
compared to £7, Ior conventional systems.
W The new method, developed by a team led by senior research scientist Dr
Andy Wright, provides a chemical-Iree sol:tion to killing harmI:l bacteria
on medical tools :sed in GP, dentist and veterinary s:rgeries.
HOW MIROWAVES ARE USED FOR
STERILIZING PROESS?
2. APPLIATION IN HISTOPATHOLOGY
W ReIers to the microscopic examination oI tiss:e in order to st:dy the
maniIestations oI disease.
W SpeciIically, in clinical medicine, histopathology reIers to the examination oI
a biopsy or s:rgical specimen by a pathologist, aIter the specimen has been
processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides.
FIG: Micrograph showing contraction band necrosis, a histopathologic Iinding
oI myocardial inIarction (heart attack)
HOW MIROWAVES ARE USED IN
HISTOPATHALOGY ?
W Microwave accelerated proced:res are :seI:l at every step oI sample
preparation Ior microscopy by speeding :p reaction process and saving
time.
W Even more important , microwave proced:res improves the retention
oI sol:ble Antigen imm:no reactivity better than conventional methods.
W In short, microwave accelerated techniq:es can be :sed to improve the
eIIiciency oI variety oI histopathology laboratory proced:res, s:ch as
Iixation, decalciIication , processing oI specimens Ior paraIIin wax or
resin embedding and staining.
W Two types oI microwave devices are being :sed in histopathology
laboratory setting :
. Microwave instr:ments speciIically designed
and certiIied as medical devices
2. ommercial grade microwave :nits modiIied
Ior lab/clinics
W Laboratory microwave devices are designed with exha:st Ians
and saIety Ieat:res to protect microwave devices.
Presented By:
GROUP 4
Roll No:
4 to 5

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