PERKEMBANGAN ORGANISASI DAN MANAJEMEN

OLEH : AMY S. RAHAYU

DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT THEORY
PERIOD 1 PERIOD 2
PRE-SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT (1880) CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT (1880-1930) CLASSICAL ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY

PERIOD 3

BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT (1930-1950) SYSTEM APPROACH

MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (OPERATIONS RESEARCH)

CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT (1950 TO PRESENT)
SUMBER: McLAUGHLIN, 1994:15

THE MODEL FOR ORGANIZATION PREVAILED THROUGH THE GREEK & ROMAN EMPIRES, THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRES, THE FEUDAL SYSTEM OF THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD, THE RENAISSANCE, AND UNTIL THE EARLY EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, ACTING AS A CATALIST, MARKED THE START OF SERIOUS STUDY OF MANAGEMENT AND ORANIZATION
A PIONEER ROBERT OWEN (1771-1858) A MANAGER OF SEVERAL COTTON MILLS IN SCOTLAND, ARGUED THAT IMPROVING THE CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES WOULD LEAD TO INCREASED PRODUCTION AND PROFITS. HE CALLED HIS WORKER ‘VITAL MACHINES’, AND SAID THAT A MANAGER’S BEST INVESMENT WAS IN THE WORKERS. HE REDUCED THE STANDARD WORKING DAY TO 10 ½ HOURS AND REFUSED TO HIRE CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF TEN.

ANOTHER PIONEER WAS CHARLES BABBAGE (1792-1871) AN ENGLISH PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS, WHO STUDIED FACTORY EFFICIENCY. HE ADVOCATED DIVISION OF LABOUR AND PROPOSED THAT VARIOUS SKILLS SHOULD BE ISOLATED AND THAT WORKERS SHOULD ONLY DO THE JOBS THEY WERE TRAINED IN. THE ASSEMBLY LINE IS BASED ON MANY OF BABBAGE’S IDEAS

CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY

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ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED ON HOW RESOURCES COULD BE EFFECTIVELY CONVERTED INTO FINISHED GOODS AND SERVICES. MANAGERS WERE CONCERNED WITH EFFICIENCY AND MAXIMIZATION OF OUTPUT THE PIONEER : • FREDERICK W. TAYLOR (1856-1915) AN AMERICAN ENGINEER. STRESSED THAT THE CORE OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT WAS IN ATTITUDE AND NOT JUST IN SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES. TAYLOR BELIEVING THAT MANAGEMENT AND LABOUR HAD A COMMON INTEREST IN INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY. HIS TWO BOOKS, ‘SHOP MANAGEMENT’ (1906) AND ‘THE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT’ (1911)

TAYLOR’S CONTRIBUTION :
THE FOUR MAIN PRINCIPLE • ALL JOBS CAN BE OBSERVED AND ANALYSED IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE BEST WAY OF ACOMPLISHING THEM THE BEST PERSON FOR THE JOB CAN BE SCIENTIFICALLY SELECTED AND TRAINED YOU CAN ENSURE THAT THE ONE BEST WAY IS FOLLOWED BY TRAINING PEOPLE AND PAYING THEM ON AN INCENTIVE BASIS, TYING WAGES TO PRODUCTION PUT A MANAGER IN CHARGE OF PLANNING, PREPARING ANG INSPECTING WORK. THE WORKER SIMPLY CARRIES OUT THE MANAGER’S DIRECTIONS

• •

THE PIONEER : 2. HENRY GANTT (1861-1919) HE WORKED WITH TAYLOR BEFORE WORKING ALONE AS A CONSULTING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER, AND IS BEST KNOWN FOR DEVISING A CHARTING SYSTEM FOR PRODUCTION SCHEDULING AND CONTROL. THIS SYSTEM CALLED THE ‘GANTT CHART’ IS STILL USE TODAY 3. FRANK AND LILIAN GILBRETH (1868-1924, 1878-1942), MADE CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY IN AREAS OF FATIQUE AND MOTION STUDIES.

TAYLOR AND HIS FOLLOWERS CONCENTRATION FOR SHOPLEVEL (FIRST LINE LEVEL)

CLASSICAL ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY FOCUSES ATTENTION ON FINDING GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS THE PIONEER : • HENRI FAYOL (1841-1925) A FRENCH INDUSTRIALIST. HE ANALYSED MANAGEMENT FROM A TOP-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE AND BELIEVED THAT SOUND MANAGERIAL PRACTICE FELL INTO CERTAIN IDENTIFIABLE PATTERNS TWO MAJOR CONTRIBUTION : 1. HE IDENTIFIED FIVE PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF MANAGEMENT (THE FUNCTION OF MANAGER :POCCC) 2. HE ESTABLISHED A SET OF PRINCIPLES WHICH MANAGER SHOULD APPLY AS THEY PERFORM THESE FUNCTION

MAX WEBER, CONSTRUCTED A MODEL OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE THAT WOULD BE BOTH RATIONAL AND EFFICIENT FOR LARGE ORGANIZATIONS. THE TERM HE CHOSE FOR THIS MODEL WAS ‘BUREAUCRACY’ THE BASIS OF WEBER’S BUREAUCRACY WAS :

• • • • • • •

AN ELABORATE DIVISION OF LABOUR SELECTION AND PROMOTION ON THE BASIS OF MERIT TO MEET PRESCRIBED POSITION SPECIFICATIONS SET SALARIES AND BENEFITS A SET HIERARCHY OF JOBS AND OFFICES OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY VESTED IN SPECIFIC POSITION A CLEAR CHANNEL OF COMMAND FORMAL, IMPERSONAL RULES AND DISCIPLINE

(NEO-CLASSICAL MANAGEMNET THEORY)
BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT THEORY DRAW ON THE FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY IN ORDER TO BETTER UNDERSTAND HUMAN BEHAVIOUR IN A WORK ENVIRONMENT

HUMAN RELATION APPROACH

HUMAN BEHAVIOUR APPROACH

THE PIONEER : • ELTON MAYO (1880-1949) AN AUSTRALIAN BASED IN UNITED STATE. MADE IMPORTANT DISCOVERIES ABOUT WORKERS’ BEHAVIOUR AT THE HAWTHORNE PLANT OF WESTERN ELECTRIC. HIS RESEARCH, FROM 1927 TO 1932, SHOWED THAT WHEN SPECIAL ATTENTION IS GIVEN TO WORKERS BY MANAGEMENT, PRODUCTIVITY IS LIKELY TO INCREASE, REGARDLESS OF ANY CHANGES IN WORKING CONDITIONS. THIS PHENOMENON LATER BECAME KNOWN AS THE “HAWTHORNE EFFECT” A RESULT OF MAYO’S FINDINGS WAS THAT MORE ATTETION WAS DIRECTED TOWARDS TEACHING ‘PEOPLEMANAGEMENT’ SKILLLS, AS OPPOSED TO TECHNICAL SKILLS

DOUGLAS McGREGOR (1901-1964) A MANAGEMENT WRITER AND THEORIEST, THE CLASSICALLY STRUCTURED ORGANIZATIONS (WITH ITS CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY, SPECIALIZED JOBS, CLOSE SUPERVISION OF EMPLOYEES,ets) WAS A REFLECTION OF CLASSICAL WRITER’S ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HUMAN NATURE. McGREGOR CALLED THESE ASSUMPTIONS :

“THEORY X” 1. THE AVERAGE PERSON INHERENTLY DISLIKES WORK AND WILL AVOID RESPONSIBILITY 2. MOST PEOPLE MUST BE CONTROLLED, DIRECTED AND THREATENED WITHPUNISHMENT TO GET THEM TO DO AN ADEQUATE JOB 3. THE AVERAGE PERSON PREFERS TO BE DIRECTED, AND WANTS TO AVOID RESPONSIBILITY

“THEORY Y”
ASSUMPTION HAVE STRONG IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WAY ORGANIZATION SHOULD BE STRUCTURED. THEY PROPOSE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY, LESS CLOSE AND MORE GENERAL SUPERVISION, AND MORE INTERESTING JOBS 4. THE AVERAGE PERSON DOES NOT INHERENTLY DISLIKES WORK 5. EXTERNAL CONTROL AND THE THREAT OF PUNISHMENT ARE NOT THE ONLY MEANS FOR GETTING PEOPLE TO WORK TOWARDS AN ORGANIZATION’S OBJECTIVE 6. PEOPLE ARE MOTIVATED BEST BY SATISFYING THEIR HIGHER ORDER NEEDS FOR ACHIEVEMENT, ESTEEM AND SELF REALIZATION 7. THE AVERAGE PERSON LEARNS, UNDER THE RIGHT CONDITION, NOT ONLY TO ACCEPT BUT TO SEEK RESPONSIBILITIES 8. THE ABILITY TO USE IMAGINATION, INGENUITY AND CREATIVITY IN SOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMS IS WIDESPREAD IN THE POPULATION.

SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS

ESTEEM NEEDS

SOCIAL NEEDS

SAFETY NEEDS BASIC NEEDS
BY ABRAHAM MASLOW

CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT THEORY ATTEMPTS TO INTEGRATE VARIOUS EXISTING MANAGEMENT THEORIES IN ORDER TO FIND THE BEST APPROACH FOR A PARTICULAR SITUATION MANAGER SUBORDINATES TASK ORGANIZATION ENVIRONMENT TIMING SITUATION

• MANAGEMENT SCIENCE OR OPERATION REASEARCH • IT IS AN APPROACH OFTEN USED FOR PROBLEM SOLVING • A TEAM OF SPECIALISTS ANALYSES A PROBLEM AND PROPOSES A COURSE OF ACTION TO MANAGEMENT • MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND COMPUTERS ARE FREQUENTLY USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEM •THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS ARE USEFUL FOR PLANNING AND CONTROLLING, BUT HAVE LIMITED APPLICATION TO ISSUES DIRECTLY CONCERNING PEOPLE

IN THE SYSTEM APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT, THE ORGANIZATION IS SEEN AS A UNIFIED SYSTEM MADE UP OF MANY INTERRELATED PARTS.

WHAT IS SYSTEM ?
INPUT PROCESSES OUTPUT OUTCOME

ENVIRONMENT

FEEDBACK

ENVIRONMENT

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