This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

UNDERSTANDING ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

CONTENTS

LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM BASIC VOCABULARY

PART 1: LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM

LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM

Section 1: Variables and units

Variables and units

Physical laws The electric arc

Electrical Distribution Training - déc.-10

4

- multiples and submultiples of units

Multiples

103 k

kilo

106 M

mega

109 G

giga

1012 T

tera

Submultiples

10-3 m

milli

10-6 Q

micro

10-9 n

nano

10-12 p

pico

Electrical Distribution Training - déc.-10

5

Voltage: ML2T-3 I-1 Electrical Distribution Training .déc....units of measure 1/2 Basic units L M T I length mass time electric current metre kilogramme second ampere m kg s A These variables form the basis of all other units Dimensional equation: examples Speed: LT-1 Electric charge: IT Acceleration: LT-2 Force: MLT-2 .-10 6 .

-10 7 .094 yards 0.9842 ton = = = 0.6214 mile Electrical Distribution Training .4 grains 2.déc.units of measure 2/2 Length: 1 centimetre 1 metre 1 kilometre Weight: 1 gramme 1 kilogramme 1 ton = = = 15..2046 pounds 0.3937 inch 1.

-10 8 . reactance ..déc. inductance H capacitance F magnetic induction T magnetic field A/m magnetic flux Wb permeability Q H/m permittivity I F/m conductance S resistivity .m frequency Hz pulsation rd / s .m2 « MECHANICAL Newton Joule Watt Pascal electric charge C voltage V electric field V/m impedance .main variables and related units force N energy J power W acceleration m / s2 pressure Pa moment of inertia kg. resistance ... ELECTRICAL Coulomb Volt ohm Henry Farad Tesla Weber Siemens Hertz (s-1) U=RI R= V l s Electrical Distribution Training ..

10 3 TW re-emitted Electrical Distribution Training .10 12 TW radiation human activity 1000 nuclear groups = 1 TW 180 ..sun-earth power emission 180 .déc.-10 9 .10 3 TW 1400 W / m received loss of mass: 4.109 kg /s 2 200 TW photosynthesis 35 TW internal 10 TW 390 .

déc.Section 2: Physical laws Variables and units Physical laws The electric arc Electrical Distribution Training .-10 10 .

déc.how is electrical energy produced? A rotating magnet near a circuit containing turns generates alternating voltage (Lenz's law) e= e dJ dt Ø= magnetic flux Electrical Distribution Training ..-10 11 .

.an alternating variable can be represented by: A rotating vector A sine wave y T/2 rrr r T U 0 2T y y = a sin U 0 UU U T/2 U T 3T/2 2T 3T/2 Electrical Distribution Training .-10 12 .déc.

..-10 13 .. sin [t T[ 2T[ Root mean square (rms) value: the value of direct current which would give off the same energy by Joule effect in a resistor I rms = Idc / V2 .alternating current I Idc Irms t 0 U[ i = Idc . Same applies for voltage Electrical Distribution Training .déc.

.Ohm's law applied to direct current I R I in A U in V R in .m copper aluminium nickel-chromium (alloy for resistors) 14 Electrical Distribution Training .9. m I in m S in m² 1.déc..10-8 .m 100.. P in W U U=RI P = U I = R I2 = U2 / R Wire resistance: R = V l / s V = V = V= V in .8.m 2.10-8 ...10-8 .-10 .

X in .déc.i z in .) R L z = impedance of the a.Ohm's law applied to alternating current (a. f in Hz u X Z i in complex numbers R Electrical Distribution Training .1/ C[ L: inductance in Henry C: capacitance in Farad u=z.-10 15 .c. circuit with a frequency f [ = 2 T f current pulsation u i equivalent circuit C z z is a complex number the real part of which is the resistance R and imaginary part the reactance X z = R + j..c.X where X = L[ .

J ) in polar form where Z2 = R2 + X2 and tgJ= X / R z = Z e j J i = I e j[t u = z .déc.-10 z U = ZI i 16 ..Ohm's law applied to alternating current (a.i i in complex numbers u J J R X z=R+jX z = (Z .I e j J .c. e j [ t = Z. i = Z.) z u u=z.I e j([ t + J) = U e j([ t + J) Electrical Distribution Training .

-10 17 .active power and reactive power P(t) = U(t) .. I sin([t) sin([t ± N) P(t) = U .I active power in W reactive power in VAR apparent power in VA Q Electrical Distribution Training . I(t) = U . I sin N sin (2 [t) P The integral cycle shows: P = U.I.I.sinN S = U.cosN Q = U.déc. I cos N (1 ± cos2 [t) + U .

Rline (in Watts) (V = V1 ..V2 (in Volts) z=R+jX V1 V2 line Source I Load Electrical Distribution Training .déc.do not confuse: "Line loss" and "Voltage drops " Joule effect only depends on R Depends on R and X 2 P = I .-10 18 .

déc.law of impedance combination Series: z = z1 + z2 The impedances are added z1 z2 Parallel: z1 z2 1 / z = 1 / z1 + 1 / z2 z = z1 .-10 19 . z2 / (z1 + z2) The admittances are added (Admittance = inverse of impedance) Electrical Distribution Training ..

V1 in vectors V2 V2 lagging of 2T 3 behind V1 in balanced three-phase operating conditions. U31 : phase-to-phase voltages U12 = V2 . V3 : single-phase voltages U12.déc. U23. 3 Electrical Distribution Training .the three-phase diagram Ph3 V3 U31 2T 3 Ph2 N 3 windings with phase displacement of 120° (2 T / 3) Ph1 U23 2T 3 2T 3 V 1 U12 V1.-10 20 .. V2. U=V.

c.-10 21 . generator motor Electrical Distribution Training .why three-phase current? The most economical means of remotely transmitting movement: minimal number of windings to create a rotating magnetic field A..déc.

-10 .three-phase power diagram Active power Pa = U. 3 cos J in W (= 3 VI cosN) Pr J Reactive power Pr = U.déc. 3 in VA (= 3 VI) jXI J I RI 22 Electrical Distribution Training .I..I. 3 sin J in VAR Pa Apparent power S = U.I.

q' 4TI r2 F q d q' F Two charges of the same sign repel each other Two charges of the opposite sign attract each other Dielectric constant I!I0 . 10-12 F/m I0 = dielectric constant of vacuum Ir = relative permittivity of ambient material q in C E in V r in m d in m I in F/m Electrical Distribution Training .* Coulomb's law Concrete applications: static electricity. Ir I = 10-7 / 4 T c0 = 8.-10 23 .déc. Electric field on point M created by a punctual load q q q E= r 2 4TI r Interaction face between two punctual electric loads F= M E q .85 .. capacitors..

déc.-10 .* Kirchhof's law Concrete applications: loop networks protection« protection by open delta« earth current measurement 7 i=0 On a node N A 7(u = 0 Around a loop B C E D 24 Electrical Distribution Training .

10-7 r Q = Q0.-10 25 . creates a magnetic induction B in the surrounding space I B= Q0 I 2Tr B in T I in A r in m div B = 0 Magnetic permeability Q0 = 4 T 10-7 = 12.6 .800 for iron I .* Ampere's law Concrete applications: disturbance by proximity of a conductor An infinite rectilinear conductor. through which a current (I) flows. c02 = 1 Electrical Distribution Training . Q0 . aluminium Qr = 600 . air.Qr µ0 in H/m B Qr = 1 for vacuum.déc.

sin E An induction B exerts a force F on a conductor through which a current (I) flows F Thumb B Middle finger E Index finger Right hand I Electrical Distribution Training .* Laplace's law of force Concrete applications: electromechanical forces« motors F = i . dl 0 B F = i . dl .-10 26 . B .déc.

déc. this circuit is subjected to an electromotive force E along the circuit variable (increasing) B E = .dJ / dt E Electrical Distribution Training .. A conductive circuit forms a ring around a surface through which the induction varies.* Lenz's law Concrete applications: generator.-10 27 ..

déc.* Ampere¶s and Laplace¶s laws Concrete applications: electrodynamic forces« busbar withstand« withdrawable circuit breaker arm I I I I Force of attraction Proportional to the product of the currents Force of repulsion ---> loop effect Electrical Distribution Training .-10 28 .

-10 29 .déc.* Lenz¶s and Laplace¶s laws Concrete applications: energy meters« electric brakes« over-heating of cubicle side panels by Eddy currents Circular currents induced in the metal frames by a variation in magnetic flux: Aluminium disk Electrical Distribution Training .

.N Load V1 X.-10 30 ..I A H B I N V2 I Voltage drop in vectors V1 .I $ (V (V = R I cos J + X I sin J REMARK: the voltage drop may be negative. Electrical Distribution Training .X).* Voltage drop calculation Concrete applications: a very useful professional rule z = R + jX V1 line Source (V V2 Z.déc..V2 = z .I As an absolute value this is very close to AB = AH + HB Whence R. I = (R + j.

Section 3: The electric arc Variables and units Physical laws The electric arc Electrical Distribution Training .-10 31 .déc.

-10 32 .the electric arc The arc is created when the voltage between two conductors is higher as the maximum dielectric withstand value of the medium separating them Irreversible deterioration in solid insulating materials Ionisation of the medium separating the contacts air SF6 gas oil vacuum: vapourization of the metal of the contacts The ionised insulating medium becomes temporarily conductive Presence of an arc voltage depending on the ionised medium and on the nature of electrodes Electrical Distribution Training .déc..

déc.-10 33 .breaking techniques: the puffer technique Moving contact I Fixed contact Flow of current Separation of contacts & arcing Lengthening of the arc & blow-out Extinction of the arc as the current reaches zero Electrical Distribution Training ..

breaking techniques: the vacuum technique Moving contact I Fixed contact RMF AMF U net Flow of current Initial Constricted Diffuse Arc control Electrical Distribution Training ..déc.-10 Interruption 34 .

PART 2: BASIC VOCABULARY BASIC VOCABULARY Back to the beginning of the part "Laws of Electromagnetism" .

déc.-10 36 .Section 1: Electrical definitions Electrical definitions Apparatus functions Types of networks Electrical Distribution Training .

-10 37 .déc..voltages Three voltage values define the equipment operating characteristics rated voltage is the maximum value of the voltage which the equipment can withstand in normal operation service voltage is the voltage applied to the terminals of the equipment rated insulation level determines the dielectric withstand to overvoltage and impulse voltage - it depends on the rated voltage Electrical Distribution Training .

.-10 38 .voltages Electrical Distribution Training .déc.

5 times its rms value Two current values define the network operating characteristics: service current is the circuit load value calculated from the consumption of the connected apparatus short-circuit current is the overcurrent due to a fault or faulty operation on the circuit: Isc Electrical Distribution Training .currents Two current values define the equipment operating characteristics: rated normal current is the value of the current that the equipment can withstand permanently without exceeding the temperature allowed by the standard rated short-time withstand current is the value of the short-circuit current to be withstood for one second (or sometimes three seconds) ± the peak value of the rated short-time withstand current is equal to 2.déc..-10 39 .

Electrical Distribution Training .. Some countries use both frequencies: Saudi Arabia.-10 40 ...déc.frequency There are two frequencies normally used in the world: 50 Hz in Europe 60 Hz in North America.

-10 41 .déc.Section 2: Apparatus functions Electrical definitions Apparatus functions Types of networks Electrical Distribution Training .

safety functions: isolating.-10 42 .déc. earthing DESIGNATION AND SYMBOL FUNCTION Switching on-off the service currents Closing and breaking the faulted currents Disconnector insulate NO NO Earthing switch insulate NO NO (to be able to close on c/c) Electrical Distribution Training ..

déc..-10 43 .control functions DESIGNATION AND SYMBOL FUNCTION Switching on-off Closing and breaking the service currents the faulted currents Switch Switch on-off not insulate YES NO Disconnector switch Switch on-off insulate YES NO Contactor Switch on-off not insulate YES NO Electrical Distribution Training .

déc.ins late in withdrawn position YES YES Withdrawable circ it-breaker YES YES Fuse Protect not ins late NO YES (once) Electrical Distribution Training ..-10 44 .protection functions DESIGNATION AND SYMBOL FUNCTION Switching Switc ing on-off the service c rrents Closing and breaking the fa lted c rrents Fixed circ it-breaker Protect not ins late Switch on-off Protect .

déc.-10 45 .Section 3: Types of networks Electrical definitions Apparatus functions Types of networks Electrical Distribution Training .

.déc.two types of configuration MV distribution networks may be either: overhead or underground radial or loop configuration Electrical Distribution Training .-10 46 .

.déc.radial configuration Electrical Distribution Training .-10 47 .

.déc.-10 48 .open loop configuration Electrical Distribution Training .

..-10 49 .déc.networks The network is everywhere in the landscape.. «and in every building as well Electrical Distribution Training .

-10 50 .public energy network EHV national HV regional MV local HV consumer (heavy industry) LV local MV LV consumer consumer (tertiary.déc.. small industry) Electrical Distribution Training .

fr And.END OF TRAINING Thanks for the time you have spent on this training course We hope it will be useful for your job For any further information.déc.-10 51 . the whole Electrical Distribution Training team remains at your disposal Electrical Distribution Training . you can contact us by e-mail: FR-ED-Training@mail. of course.schneider.

- 66_15575_EC410_2014_1__2_1_LECTURE 10
- 2009 Report Solar Energy
- Ernst
- Key Concepts in Welding Engineering
- Ejemplo Del Nec
- Heater Details
- 7 Smelting Furnace
- Mutual Inductance
- Design of Inductor
- Swirl Diffusers Catalogue
- 4foldWP
- Session Planner EMTL Session Planner for 2-2 ECE JNTUH
- surface roughness tester
- 11 Desing and Analysis of Heat Sink
- 7138.pdf
- FC 0412
- Electricity
- Sensor_suhu
- Automotive Sound Absorbing
- pneubook
- Calculating Cable Fault Ratings
- Characteristics of intermetallics and micromechanical properties during.pdf
- DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC HORNS FOR ULTRASONIC WELDING
- CAP_LEV_MEAS
- Variables Affecting Resistance
- Liquid Flow in Control Valves Portland ISA
- Concert Halls Acoustic Design

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd