TPM - A zero sum game

TPM - A zero sum game

TPM Objectives Zero Unplanned Downtime Zero Defects Zero Speed Losses Zero Accidents


The principle characteristics of a TPM system:
1. Operators perform Preventive Maintenance functions they have been trained to perform , that do not require the capabilities of a skilled tradesman. 2. Skilled maintenance personnel train the operators and develop ³one-point lessons´. 3. Maintenance department moves from a ³fire-fighting´ mode to a prevention mode & re-engineering.

e. and maintenance department personnel. 3. encompassing Predictive Maintenance. 2. To establish a total (company wide) PM system. 5. To promote and implement PM related autonomous. overall equipment effectiveness or APU). 4. . small-group activities targeted at continuous improvement of operating efficiency. Preventive Maintenance and Improvement related Maintenance. To effectively involve every employee in the Company from the shop floor associate to all aspects of upper management. equipment operators. To achieve full participation of equipment designers and engineers. To get the most efficient use of all production equipment (i.TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Goals & Objectives: 1.

What is your definition of PM? ‡ Preventive Maintenance ? ‡ Predictive Maintenance ? ‡ Periodic Maintenance? .

Have you heard of the other PM ? (Postponed Maintenance) ³Let¶s postpone our preventive maintenance for one month so we can catch up´ ³We¶re behind.´ Potential Results: ³The Death Spiral´ ‡Equipment breaks down unexpectedly ‡Cycle time increases ‡Production rejects or Scrap increases ³If you could just keep this Darn machine running we could catch up´ . we need operating time. we can¶t shutdown right now.

An Alternative & Better Option: ‡Standardize the TPM ³Culture´ ‡Maintain the discipline of the TPM plan Potential Result: ³I¶m done my production run for the day. I think if I reinforce this bracket we can prolong the life of that drive belt´ . time to clean up and complete my TPM checklist´ ³Based on the data.

The TPM Paradigm Shift
Old Fashioned Attitude I operate, you fix I fix, you design I design, you operate

TPM Approach

Pre- TPM Conditions Checklist
(Check those which exist at your company)
Equipment availability is less than 95%. Machines breakdown suddenly without warning. ( _ _ _ _ Happens!) Machines do not operate at design parameters. Changeover and set-up of equipment requires more than 10 minutes. First Run Capability is less than 99%. New equipment is high-tech. Newly-installed equipment must be ³de-bugged´. Customers¶ products require higher quality performance. Plants are ³dirty, dark, and stinky´. Most associates in the company are indifferent to the production facilities and equipment. Areas of responsibility are not clearly defined. Equipment and process design Equipment sourcing Equipment acceptance Equipment maintenance Roll of the Operator (s) Roll of Maintenance Personnel



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Why Do We Need a TPM Program?

JIT requires all equipment to produce the correct product in the correct quantities when required. Reliability and Flexibility are paramount. New technology & equipment requires significant investment and therefore the related return on investment must be maximized. representing a significant cost reduction opportunity.WHY TPM ? ‡ Manufacturing processes are becoming more synchronized as we drive WIP out of our ³Lean´ Production Processes. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Processes in the total production system are now dependent upon each other. . TPM allows for the more effective use of human resources. Life Cycle Costs need to be reduced to maintain competitiveness in the market. Equipment available time or up-time is critical as inventory levels and production lead times continue to be reduced. supports personal growth and Manufacturing flexibility objectives. Maintenance related expenses can account for over 30% of total manufacturing costs.

If your equipment won t run. and Delivery increasingly depend on equipment conditions.In Summary: Lean Manufacturing requires 100% machine availability producing perfect quality products at lower operating costs. not much else matters!!! . Quality. Cost.

TPM TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE Roles & Responsibilities Defined Who does what? When do they do it? Why do they do it? How do they do it? For how long? .

The Operators TPM Role ‡ Perform basic equipment maintenance Cleaning of machine ‡ Cleaning & replacement of filters ‡ Lubrication ‡ Checking basic machine & safety device functions ‡ Maintain proper condition based upon training and capabilities of operators ‡ Diagnose & perform repairs for some problems. dependent on training ‡ Basic skill levels in: ‡ Monitoring & maintaining critical process parameters ‡ Perform changeover and set-up ‡ Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments ‡ Record/Collect data to track equipment performance ‡ Production control chart ‡ Work order system .

The Operators TPM Role Critical Reminder ‡ TPM cannot be implemented correctly without proper data collection. AND ‡ An accurate emergency work order initiated by the operator.each and every shift. with breakdown situation clearly defined and repair detail completed by maintenance personnel. AND ‡ An accurate planned work order initiated by operator with definition of PM performed along with any observations. ‡ Data collection requires a properly completed Production Control Chart or shop floor data entry . .

‡ Through data analysis and periodic diagnostic tests. ‡ Identify design weaknesses and improve the equipment to error-free function. ‡ Restore deteriorated equipment through Improvement-Related Maintenance.The Maintenance TPM Role ‡ Provide technical support and training for autonomous maintenance done by operators. ‡ Improve technical maintenance skills of all maintenance personnel through systemic training and work assignments. perform appropriate maintenance to avoid predicted equipment failure. . ‡ Implement planned or periodic maintenance system based upon data from equipment manufacturers and operators.

‡ Understand the manufacturing process to successfully achieve the above .not just the symptom.The Maintenance TPM Role ‡ Maintain work order system to provide data for above .calculate MTBF and MTTR.have the capability to operate all the equipment. . ‡ Ensure that the maintenance function is treating the root cause .

TPM Autonomous Maintenance .

.Autonomous Maintenance is a phrase coined by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance to describe the shift toward machine operators maintaining their own equipment.

‡ Step 6: Identify spare parts and tools required and availability.7S campaign ‡ Step 2: Identify and eliminate root cause of machine stoppages ‡ Step 3: Establish data collection and standards to prevent reoccurrence of situations found in steps 1 and 2. ‡ Step 7: Repeat above six steps for continuous improvement. ‡ Step 4: Develop standards to routinely verify key operating parameters.7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance ‡ Step 1: Initial cleanup . Measure results: (Production Control Chart) Zero Machine Breakdowns Zero Set-up Time Zero Defects Zero Lost Time Accidents . (Standard Operating Conditions) ‡ Step 5: Train work-cell associates on equipment function and the key parameters for good operation.

7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 1 Initial Clean-up (Outside of Machine) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Closely aligned with ³7S´ Management and staff show commitment Clean. paint Identify & Tag sources of defects/waste: ‡Gauge hidden ‡Limit switch buried in debris ‡Crack in housing ‡Leaks ‡Worn drive belt . sand.

equipment and the workplace Ensure all Safety devises are in place and functioning correctly Make the cleaning & checking in steps 1-4 a 1habit in the workplace. Make it ³A Way of Life´ Standardize the previous 5 steps throughout the entire organization Satisfy the internal & external Customer .The 7S System 1S 2S 3S 4S 5S 6S 7S Separate Straighten Scrub Safety Spread Standardize Satisfy Separate and eliminate any unnecessary items Put all necessary items in order for easy access & cleaning Clean everything: Tools.

‡Create new Guards ‡Create better access for chip removal ‡Create Acrylic covers to see V belts and moving parts ‡Make the workplace ³Visual´ .7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 2 Repair Sources of Defects (Outside of Machine) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Apply the 5 Whys (Ask Why? 5 times) Replace cracked parts Replace worn seals Set-up workshops (one-point lessons) Modify equipment for easier checking and to eliminate sources of debris and contamination.

7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 3 Develop Standards & Data Collection ‡ Create Standards for clean-up and checking: ‡ What equipment should be Cleaned and Checked? ‡ How to properly Clean & Check the equipment? ‡ What points should be checked? ‡ Who should check? ‡ What check sheet should be used? ‡ How to react to changes? ‡ Establish standards for Data Collection ‡ Production Control Chart ‡ Standards are to prevent falling back to pre-existing conditions. .

Standard Operating Conditions ‡ Operator executes routine verification & adjustments if necessary .7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 4 Standards for Monitoring Key Process Parameters ‡ Develop methods & standards to routinely verify key process parameters .

and operators ‡Tear down equipment ‡Analyze defects ‡Present findings to steering committee . maintenance. Team Leaders & 1st line Supervisors trained to understand the basics of the equipment ‡Hydraulics ‡Air pressure ‡Electrical/Electronics ‡Lubrication ‡Mechanical ‡ One-point lessons developed ‡ Team-up engineers.7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 5 Train Operators on Function & Troubleshooting ‡ Operators.

given by the presenter to his fellow associates.TPM Critical Activity The One .Point Lesson ‡ In-house training material used on the shop floor. . ‡ Prepared to focus on a particular technical issue. hands-on training. ‡ Lecture is 5 minutes long.

make Visual .7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 6 Provide Spare Parts & Tools Orderliness ‡Improve on supply activity ‡Spare parts suppliers leveraged ‡Spare parts stores at point of use ‡Spare parts inventory on MRP ‡ Improve on tool availability ‡Tool crib orderliness ‡Frequently used tools and parts at work the station ‡Shadow Boards.

the process never ends ‡ Monitor TPM Progress with Key Measurables ‡Planned vs. Emergency Work ‡Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) ‡Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) ‡Quick Change Time Reduction ‡Production Control Charts ‡Zero Lost Time Accidents ‡Scrap Reduction & Zero Defects .7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance STEP 7 All out Autonomous Maintenance ‡ Repeat the cycle.

control or prevent deterioration of production equipment Prevent degradation related failures Increase access and ease of inspection and maintenance Improve skill levels & personal growth throughout the Company Improve predictability through data analysis & improved communication .TPM Goals & Objectives of Autonomous Maintenance Stabilize.

TPM & Breakdown Maintenance .

TPM Three Steps to ³Standardized Breakdown Work´ 1st 2nd 3rd .Eliminate cause .Standardize preventive work to eliminate reoccurrence .Identify root cause .

Identify Root Cause ‡ Maintenance Technician reviews Pareto of production control chart downtime codes. ‡ Detailed inspection of machine symptoms and identify true root cause elements (Utilize the ³5 Whys ?´) ‡ Brainstorm & create preliminary action plan . ‡ Define elements within downtime code causing process stoppages.

‡ Re-calibrate basic operating perameters ‡ Eliminate each root cause for the answers to the ³5 why questions´. ‡ Try-out/Validate the Repair .Eliminate Cause ‡ Replace worn or failing parts.

. ‡ Determine the frequency that repairs need to be made. include detailed instructions from above in database.Standardize Work ‡ Write a detailed description of the repair including any special techniques or requirements. ‡ Create a planned maintenance work-order to prevent reoccurrence. ‡ Adjust TPM Autonomous work-list if applicable and perform 1 point lesson.

Breakdown Maintenance Transition to Preventive Maintenance 7S Activities Minor stoppages data collection Breakdown Data TAG Campaign Review by Maintenance Teams Unexpected breakdown data collection Action plans for Permanent countermeasures by STRIVE teams Implementation of Autonomous Maintenance (Preventive) Standards Implementation of Planned Maintenance Standards .

TPM Planned Maintenance .

analysis of data from Production Control Charts.Schedules for operations personnel ‡ Control of: . ‡ Re-adjustment of machines to bring back to initial state.Lubrication analysis . Emergency Work Finding and coping with chronic defects.MTTR . ‡ Maintain schedule boards in each department: . ‡ Feedback breakdown information to planned maintenance system .Schedules for maintenance department . ‡ ‡ Machine accuracy control (calibration). ‡ Trend charting of breakdown data & performance: .MTBF .Spare parts .Vibration analysis .Planned vs.Planned Maintenance ‡ Skilled Maintenance tradesmen primarily responsible.

Planned Maintenance Objectives ‡ Reduction of MTTR ‡ Increase of MTBF ‡ Less than 1% of total maintenance hours devoted to reactive maintenance .

etc..Planned Maintenance ‡Maximize Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) ‡Machine Breakdown ‡Tool Breakdown ‡Performance Degradation or Part Failure ‡ Minimize Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) ‡Diagnose problem quickly & accurately ‡Correct problem quickly & accurately ‡Optimized machine set-up to make good parts ‡Optimized Spare parts location & control ‡ Analyze Data & Key Indicators ‡Breakdown measurements ‡Problem solving tools ‡Vibration analysis tools. ..

TPM Upstream Maintenance .

Start-up. supervisors. and Adjustments ‡ Define Initial de-bug requirements ‡ Identify all Safety issues ‡ Define Preventive Maintenance Standards ‡ Autonomous ‡ Planned Work Skilled Trades . engineers) ‡ Maintenance and operations manual preparation ‡ Define Installation.Maintenance Prevention New Equipment & Tool Design Considerations ‡ Input from Breakdown Maintenance ‡ Input from Planned Maintenance ‡ Input from Work-cell STRIVE ‡ Life Cycle Costing ‡ Design reviews (operators.

TPM Overview ³THE BIG 6´ .

Actual operating speed versus designed speed. 6. 4. Defects and/or reworking of defects. 5. 3. Reduced yield between start of production and stable production. 2. Unexpected breakdowns. Minor stoppages.TPM Targets ³6 Big Machine Losses´ 1. Set-up and adjustments (Changeover). .

Examples: ‡Drive system failures ‡Electrical system failures ‡Structural fatigue .1 of 6 Breakdown Losses ‡ Sudden. dramatic or unexpected equipment failures that result in loss of productivity.

Degree of loss depends on: ‡Process Standards ‡Maintenance level of equipment ‡Maintenance level of tooling ‡Operator skill level .2 of 6 SetSet-up and Adjustment Losses (Change over) ‡ Downtime and defective product that occurs when production of one part ends and the equipment is set-up/adjusted to meet the requirements of another part.

3 of 6 Idling and Minor Stoppage ‡ Production is interrupted by a temporary malfunction or when the machine is idling. Contributing factors include: ‡Defective products shut line down ‡Disruption of production flow ‡Mis-location of part ‡Temporary equipment malfunction TPM Note: Accurate data for this type of loss must be recorded on the Production Control Chart. .

Contributing factors include: ‡ Mechanical problems ‡ Defective quality ‡ Fear of abusing or overtaxing equipment ‡ Operator training .4 of 6 Reduced Speed Losses ‡ Refers to the difference between equipment design speed and the actual operating speed.

Degree of loss depends on: ‡Maintenance level of equipment ‡Maintenance level of tooling ‡Operator skill level .5 of 6 Quality Defects and Rework ‡ Losses in quality caused by malfunctioning equipment or tooling.

6 of 6 StartStart-up Losses ‡ Yield losses that occur during the early stages of production .from machine start-up to stabilization. Degree of loss depends on: ‡ Maintenance level of equipment ‡ Maintenance level of tooling ‡ Operator skill level ‡ Standardization level .

TPM Education Ways to Spread the ³Knowledge´ .

TPM Education Methods ‡ TPM GEMBA Weeks/Workshops ‡ ³7S´ Standards ‡ Visual Management ‡ Process Flow ‡ Autonomous Work Checklists ‡ Display key process parameters * Temperatures * Cycle times * Control settings ‡ One-Point Lessons .

TPM Key Indicator Actual Productive Utilization .

APU A way of measuring how the 6 major losses are affecting your equipment. OR A way of measuring the amount of ³Value Added´ activity your equipment is contributing to your product. .

Performance: ‡Improved by eliminating speed losses.APU Three Measurables Availability: ‡Improved by eliminating breakdowns and other stoppage losses.minor stoppages and idling. . Quality: ‡Improved by eliminating quality defects in process and during set-up. Optimizing set-ups and change over related losses.

APU Calculation APU = NOTE: Good Pieces X 100 Scheduled Pieces Scheduled Pieces = Available Minutes Planned Cycle (Standard) .

Example Available Minutes APU Calculation Established Standard Cycle P/N 1234 = 2.4% APU .5 seconds 480 minutes available per 8 hour shift -30 minute lunch -2x10 minute breaks 430 net minutes available or 25800 seconds Therefore Scheduled Pieces equals 25800 / 2.5 = 10320 pieces If Assumed Actual for the day = 8300 pieces APU = 8300 10320 X 100 = 80.

TPM Reminder Overall Objectives ‡ Maximize ³Actual Productive Utilization´ (APU) through total employee involvement. ‡ To aim for maximum economy in equipment and manage for the entire life of the equipment. ‡ Improve equipment reliability and maintainability as contributors to quality. . ‡ To cultivate equipment related expertise and skills among operators and technicians. and to raise productivity.

WorkWork-cell TPM STRIVE Workshop .

STEP 1 Select a Work-cell Work& Perform 7S Initiatives .

STEP 2 TPM Tag Campaign ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Tag anything that can¶t be understood Tag anything that is wasteful Tag anything that makes it difficult to see what is going on Tag anything that is malfunctioning Tag hidden or difficult-to-see gauges Tag anything that is loose Tag cracked housing or sources of leaks Tag loose nuts or bolts .

‡ Compile shopping list of work-cell based tool center needs ‡ Design & implement a work-cell based tool center ‡ Submit planned work ³Work Orders´ to Maintenance system ‡ Compile shopping list of ³One point Lesson´ needs ‡ Create TPM Project follow up List .STEP 3 Corrective Actions ‡ Work-cell Associates fix what can be fixed ‡Tighten Screws. etc. Fittings. Bolts.

STEP 4 Training & Standards .

and Safety performance ‡ Manufacturing Personnel to Conduct Weekly* STRIVE meetings. Quality issues. if process is out of control. ‡ Review production control charts ‡ Pareto Downtime & Quality causes ‡ Define tracking method to find failure root cause ‡ Eliminate root cause ‡ Review OPC standards looking for improvements * Daily.TPM Work-cell STRIVE Goals & Objectives ‡ Drive away from the need for Workshops and make TPM a daily ³Way of Life´ ‡ Work-cell personnel daily review & perform tasks on TPM checklists ‡ Work-cell personnel to review Daily. . Planned Production requirements.

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