Endocrine System

 Overview  Hypothalamus

and pituitary gland  Hormones, receptors and their actions
± Second messengers

CellCell-Cell Communication  

Necessary for integration of body activities Mechanisms
± neurotransmitters 

released from neurons to travel across gap to 2nd cell holes in cell membranes between cells: links cells electrically and metabolically

± gap junctions 

± paracrine (local) hormones 

secreted into tissue fluids to affect nearby cells

Components of Endocrine System 

Endocrine glands
± produce hormones 

Hormone
± chemical messenger secreted into bloodstream, bloodstream, stimulates response in another tissue or organ 

Target cells
± have receptors for hormone

Endocrine cell Endocrine tissue Interstitial space Target tissue Hormone Blood

widespread effects on many organs .10 msec) and stops quickly ± endocrine system reacts slowly (hormone release in seconds or days).Differences in Nervous and Endocrine Systems  Means of communication ± nervous system has both electrical and chemical methods ± endocrine system has only chemical methods  Speed and persistence of response ± nervous system reacts quickly (1 . effect may continue for weeks  Area of effect ± nervous system effects are targeted and specific (one organ or tissue) ± endocrine system may have general.

epinephrine.Similarities in Nervous and Endocrine Systems  Several chemicals function as both hormones and neurotransmitters ± norepinephrine. dopamine  Some hormones secreted by ³neuroendocrine´ cells (neurons) ± oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone  Overlapping effects on same target cells ± norepinephrine and glucagon cause glycogen hydrolysis in liver  Systems regulate each other ± neurons trigger hormone secretion ± hormones stimulate or inhibit neurons .

Endocrine Organs .

Hypothalamohypophyseal Axis   Hypothalamus Regulates primitive functions from water balance to sex drive Many functions carried out by pituitary gland   Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) Suspended from hypothalamus by stalk (infundibulum) Posterior and anterior parts .

Hypothalamohypophyseal tract .

Hypothalamohypophyseal portal system .

inhibiting hormone GH.releasing hormone Somatostatin   Hormones secreted by hypothalamus. travel in portal system to anterior pituitary Hormones (red box) secreted by anterior pituitary (under control of hypothalamic releasers and inhibitors) .releasing hormone Corticotropin.releasing hormone controls FSH + LH release Thyrotropin.releasing hormone Prolactin.releasing hormone Prolactin.Hypothalamohypophyseal Portal System Gonadotropin.

Pituitary Hormones . FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) ± TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) ± ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)   PRL (prolactin) GH (growth hormone ) .Anterior Lobe  Tropic hormones target other endocrine glands ± gonadotropins target gonads.

stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete of corticosteroids that regulate glucose. fat & protein metabolism  PRL ± female. o LH sensitivity. stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone  TSH ± stimulates growth of gland and secretion of thyroid hormone (TH)  ACTH or corticotropin ± regulates response to stress.Pituitary Hormone Actions Anterior Lobe Hormones  FSH ± ovaries. stimulates development of eggs and follicles ± testes. thus o testosterone secretion  GH or somatotropin ± promotes tissue growth . stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and estrogen ± males. stimulates production of sperm  LH ± females. milk synthesis after delivery ± male.

reduce urine  Oxytocin ± labor contractions.Pituitary Hormones .Posterior Lobe  Stores and releases oxytocin and ADH  ADH ± targets kidneys to o water retention. lactation ± possible role sperm transport. emotional bonding .

corticosteroids . water insoluble. hydrophobic ± act via intracellular receptors ± turn on gene transcription  sex steroids.Hormone Chemistry  Steroids ± derived from cholesterol ± lipid soluble.

most of anterior pituitary hormones . hydrophilic ± act via membrane-bound membranereceptors ± modify existing metabolic proteins  Oxy. ADH. all releasing and inhibiting hormones of hypothalamus.Hormone Chemistry  Steroids  Polypeptides and proteins ± small proteins made by ER/GN ± often processed and modified ± water soluble.

Hormone Chemistry   Steroids Polypeptides and proteins Monoamines (biogenic amines) ± derived from amino acids (usually tyrosine) ± water soluble. hydrophilic ± act via membrane-bound membranereceptors ± modify existing metabolic proteins   catecholamines (norepinephrine. epinephrine. dopamine) and thyroid hormones .

(prolongs half-life to weeks. protects from enzymes and halfkidney filtration) ± only unbound hormone can leave capillary to reach target cell (half-life a few minutes) (half-   Transport proteins in blood plasma .Hormone Transport  Monoamines and peptides/proteins are hydrophilic so mix easily with blood plasma ± dissolved Steroids and thyroid hormone are hydrophobic and must bind to transport proteins for transport ± bound hormone .hormone attached to transport protein.

± usually thousands for given hormone ± turn activities on or off when hormone binds   metabolic pathways gene expression  Exhibit specificity and saturation .Hormone Receptors  Located on plasma membrane (membrane(membranebound) or intracellular (soluble within cytoplasm or nucleus) ± sometimes found on the membrane of mitochondria and other organelles.

Hormone Mode of Action  Hydrophobic hormones (steroids and thyroid hormone) penetrate by diffusion of the plasma membrane ± ultimately enter nucleus  Hydrophilic hormones (monoamines and peptides) can not pass through membrane so bind to membranemembranebound receptors ± 2nd messenger activation .

Which is it? .

transcription factors etc .Receptor Response to Ligand Change shape. enzymes. change function activate internal proteins.

Membrane Receptor Action Ion Channel Activation  Hormone binding to receptor results in depolarization or hyperpolarization of the membrane .

Membrane Receptor Action G-protein Activation  Hormone binding to receptor results in modification (activation or inhibition) of ³downstream´ enzymes and 2nd messenger formation or degradation .

E E K F E R F K E GDP R* GDP GTP K K F F GDP E* K F E GTP R* K F GDP E* E GTP R* .

cGMP)  Diacylglycerol (DAG)  Inositol triphosphate (IP3)  Calcium  . (cAMP.Second Messengers Cyclic nucleotides cAMP.

degradation.cAMP as a Second Messenger 1) Hormone binding activates G protein 2) GP activates adenylate cyclase 3) AC produces cAMP 4) cAMP activates kinases 5) Kinases activate enzymes 6) Metabolic reactions: synthesis. secretion. altered membrane potentials .

Membrane Receptor Action Enzyme Receptor Activation  Hormone binding to receptor results in activation of intrinsic (receptor) enzyme and ³downstream´ metabolic changes .

Membrane Receptor Action Intracellular Receptors  Hormone binding to receptor results in activation of transcription factors and gene expression .

Summary of Hormonal Actions Hormone Hormone Membrane -bound receptor Intracellular receptor Receptor linked to ion channel Receptor linked to G protein Receptor linked to enzyme Activates genes Opens or closes Ion channels Activates already existing enzymes Synthesizes enzymes Cell Response .

e..Regulation of Hormone Secretion  NonNon-hormonal ± Control of release dependent upon concentration of other nonnon-hormonal substance (i. glucose) .

Regulation of Hormone Secretion   NonNon-hormonal Neuronal ± Secretion or inhibition of release influenced by emotions or stress .

Regulation of Hormone Secretion    NonNon-hormonal Neuronal Hormonal ± Control of release regulated by other hormones .

What are releasing and inhibiting hormones? Where are they released from? What is there target (usually)? Compare and contrast the main classes/types of hormones and their receptors. Briefly summarize the cellular effect of hydrophilic hormone activation and hydrophobic hormone activation. 6. What are the different methods of cell to cell signaling? Provide an example of where/when each method occurs. What different ways do membrane-bound receptors act upon their membranetarget cell? Provide an example of each of these types of activity. How is hormonal release regulated? Provide an example for each way. Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems. 9. Explain how intracellular receptors differ from membrane-bound membranereceptors (include cellular location and mechanism of action). 11. What is the tract system? What about the portal system? Which hormones are released from the anterior pituitary and which from the posterior pituitary? Briefly describe the actions of these hormones on their targets. What are second messengers and why are they important? Be able to provide at least one example of cAMP acting as a second messenger. 8. 4. 2. Name and approximately locate the main endocrine glands. 7. 12. 5. 3. . 10.Review questions 1. Describe the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

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