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Organizing Engineering

Research Papers (17)


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Computer graphic capabilities of storing and
displaying 2D CT images play an increasingly significant role in
brain surgery, in which surgeons rely upon these digitalized
images to ensure success.
However, diagnosing and determining the exact 3D
reconstructed structure of a brain and disease target are
extremely difficult. Besides the complexity involved in explaining
the diagnosis to patients clearly, identifying and determining the
position and direction of the target is also problematic.
In clinical practice, the error in determining the
target position normally exceeds 1 cm. The surgeon must
therefore enlarge the incision of the patients skull.
Such inaccuracy makes high-quality medical
care impossible, not only causing patient injury, but also
expending many resources from the national healthcare system.
Based on the above, we should develop a planning and
navigational system for brain surgery based on 3D computer graphics
and an infrared ray tracking device.
To do so, 2D CT images can be reconstructed to 3D
models and any cross-section can be displayed immediately on a
monitor. A tracking device can then be installed on the surgical
instrument to monitor its position and direction during surgery. Next,
the transformation matrix of the reconstructed 3D model and
instruments coordinate systems can be calculated automatically based
on the reference points of the patients face. Additionally, the
instrument can be displayed in the 3D reconstructed image exactly.
As anticipated, the proposed system can enable surgeons
to diagnose maladies and plan the surgery easily and precisely.
Besides enabling surgeons to identify the target properly
and simplify operational procedures, the proposed system can reduce
errors of the estimated target to less than 1 cm, thus minimizing
complications and patient trauma.
The frequency of embedded Linuxs test has
significantly increased in recent years owing to consumer
demand for audio and video hand-held devices, as well as
increased product diversification. For instance, variable
mp3 players are constructed using various hardware
platforms, with each platform requiring a specialized
embedded Linux, explaining the increasingly larger
frequency of embedded Linuxs test.
However, the conventional method cannot verify
completeness and validity of embedded Linux efficiently,
thus expending enormous human resources and a
prohibitively high error rate. Moreover, the conventional
method cannot verify the completeness and validity of
embedded Linux efficiently, thus expending enormous
human resources and a prohibitively high error rate.
For instance, the conventional method
requires roughly 10 months and four qualified staff
members. Additionally, the average error rate is around
5% in a 40,000 line source code.
A prohibitively large amount of time and
human resources spent in verifying the completeness and
validity of Embedded Linux result in increased overhead
costs, thus delaying market delivery and incurring
significant profit loss. Moreover, a high error rate causes
customers to lose confidence in the product quality.
Based on the above, we should develop a novel
method for verifying the completeness and validity of
Embedded Linux by requiring only three months and two
qualified staff members to do so.
To do so, the proposed method can
adopt an automation mechanism to test Embedded Linux
and display the results graphically. Engineers can select
portions of the embedded Linux for testing. The code
coverage for those tests can then be analyzed. Next,
according to the code coverage, whether the tests are
complete and whether additional test patterns are required
can be determined. Additionally, error portions of the
Embedded Linux can be corrected based on the test
results. Moreover, the above procedure can be repeated
until all tests are completed, thus satisfying the minimal
time requirement via this automation method.
As anticipated, in addition to completing a test
using the code coverage information, the minimal time
requirement can be satisfied using this automation method.
Moreover, minimal human resources can be expended
using this automation method. Furthermore, the average
error rate is only 1.5%.
Importantly, the proposed method can lower
overhead costs and increase profit revenues owing to a low
error rate.
Further details can be found at