By- Siddhant Sethi
The whole process in which water evaporates and falls on the land as rain and later flows back into the sea via rivers is known as the water-cycle.
It is divided into 5 parts: 1) Precipitation 2) Runoff 3) Evaporation 4) Condensation 5) Transpiration
1) Precipitation Condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface is known as precipitation. Most precipitation occurs as rain, but also includes snow, hail, fog drip, graupel, and sleet.
2) Runoff Runoff is the water flow that occurs when soil is full to capacity and excess water from rain, melt water, or other sources flows over the land.
3) Evaporation The transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the atmosphere is known as evaporation.
4) Condensation Water vapor cools and forms around small dust particles as small droplets. These droplets are attracted to each other and become clouds.
5) Transpiration The release of water vapor from plants and soil into the air is transpiration. Water vapor is a gas that cannot be seen.
Natural cyclic process in the course of which atmospheric nitrogen enters the soil and becomes part of living organisms.
Steps of Nitrogen Cycle: 1) Nitrogen Fixation 2) Nitrogen Assimilation 3) Ammonification 4) Nitrification 5) Denitrification
1) Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen fixation is the natural process, either biological or abiotic, by which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3).
2) Nitrogen Assimilation
It is assimilation of nitrates and ammonia resulting from nitrogen fixation into the specific tissue compounds of algae and higher plants. Animals then ingest these algae and plants, converting them into their own body compounds.
The remains of all living things and their waste products are decomposed by microorganisms which yields ammonia.
It is a process carried out by nitrifying bacteria, transforms soil ammonia into nitrates, which plants can incorporate into their own tissues.
The process where nitrates are metabolized by denitrifying bacteria to free nitrogen and returned to the atmosphere.
Carbon atoms are cycled through both living and non-living parts of an ecosystem. Producers or plants take up carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis where the plants use sunlight to create sugars and starches.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
As animals consume plants some of the carbon atoms are released as carbon dioxide, during the process of cellular respiration, when consumers break down sugars. The other carbon atoms are stored as energy in the forms of glucose in the body. Through the process of cellular respiration carbon is released into the atmosphere as inorganic carbon dioxide.
CO2 (Carbon dioxide) energy
Also when animals breathe in they are taking in oxygen and when they breathe out they are releasing carbon atoms (in the form of carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere.
This is the cycle of carbon atoms. Carbon is released when an animals is eating, breathing and when they die decomposers break them down and release carbon atoms into the atmosphere. Also when leaves break down and are decomposed there is carbon atoms released into the air. Trees also take in carbon to convert it to sugars and starches through the process of photosynthesis.
Decomposition via detritivores and decomposers
CO2 in air
Organic matter in producers
Organic matter in consumers
Organic matter in dead organisms and in detritus
2) Combustion This is a process of burning. When combustion occurs CO2 is released into the atmosphere. Natural combustion includes volcanic eruptions, however most pollution occurs because cars and factories release CO2 by their burning fossil fuels.
Fossil Fuels: Coal, Gas and Oil.
Combustion due to fossil fuels over contributes to the carbon cycle, which is accelerating the negative effects of global warming.
An increase in the percentage of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that causes the average temperatures to increase worldwide is called the greenhouse effect. Some of the greenhouse gases include Carbon-di-oxide, methane etc. Sources of Greenhouse Gases are chlorofluorocarbons, aerosol containers etc. The Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of visible light. This light is absorbed at the Earth's surface, and re-radiated as thermal radiation. Some of this thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere, and re-radiated both upwards and downwards; that radiated downwards is absorbed by the Earth's surface. Thus the presence of the atmosphere results in the surface receiving more radiation than it would were the atmosphere absent; and it is thus warmer than it would otherwise be.
The process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy
Mechanisms in which animal life and bacteria consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
The oxygen cycle starts off in plants. Plants use photosynthesis to produce Carbohydrates and oxygen Plants ´breatheµ in carbon dioxide and ´breatheµ out oxygen