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Plant Start-up and Commissioning Start
Plant commissioning is the first of many start-ups startPotentially hazardous: ability to operate not proven Many unknown factors First startup & subsequent shutdowns and startups Excellent experience and expertise building for operators and maintenance personnel.
StartStart-up and Commissioning apply to
Entire facilities in Greenfield projects Major expansions or additions to existing plants ReRe-commissioning of plants and equipment; Individual items of plant, eg Boilers Instrument air compressors etc
Delays in Startup & Commissioning expensive! slow start-ups reduce the Return on Investment start delayed revenue stream Increased cost of delivery Financial viability ~20~20-25% of construction time (good planning) planning) Causes of delays: 75% due to equipment failure 20% from inadequate equipment 5% from process failure .
plan and execute startup commissioning management Preparation of specific plant procedures Management of risks Safety & environmental compliance .Details vary depending on plant but procedure remains the same prepare.
Inspection and Start up and Operational Performance Post Testing testing commissioning . Mechanical completion Provisional acceptance Construction Acceptance Precommissioning..Construction & Commissioning How we would like it «.
.Construction and Commissioning How it happens «. Inspection and Operational Testing Start up and Performance testing Post commissioning . Mechanical completion Progressive provisional acceptance Construction Progressive acceptance Pre-commissioning.
Commissioning in practice Progressive mechanical completion and concurrent commissioning creates challenges: Coordination and planning Safety and risk Isolation Testing Integration into operating plant .
From construction to commissioning what constitutes mechanical completion? on completion. . start-up can officially commence startproblems when part of a plant are commissioned while construction not yet finished.
The Commissioning Process Key Stages Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning .
Safety and Risk Assessment.1 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Appointment of Commissioning Manager or Lead Commissioning Engineer. Training. . Detailed Plan and Budget Preparation. Procedures and Checklist Development. Commissioning Strategy Development. Appointment of Commissioning Team Members and Support Staff. Information Compilation.The Commissioning Process Detail .
2 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Inspection Pressure testing Cleaning and Flushing Machinery checkout .The Commissioning Process Detail .
SafeSafe-fluid dynamic testing.The Commissioning Process Detail . Process fluid tests. Dry running trials. Solvent dynamic testing.3 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Steam and other utilities introduced. Hot running trials. .
The Commissioning Process Detail . Plant taken to full operations.4 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Introduction of process fluid StartStart-up and initial operation TroubleTrouble-shooting and problem correction. .
Formal Acceptance test .The Commissioning Process Detail .5 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning Performance trails.
6 Preparation and planning Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning From plant on-stream to settled ondown and in regular production. Completion of outstanding punchlist items . modifications and fault correction. Adjustments.The Commissioning Process Detail .
commissioning team. the commissioning team. .. planning.. contractors. massive coordination of construction. coordination and management. vendors. operations and maintenance ± all working to aggressive timelines.What makes commissioning & start-up startdifficult . operations and maintenance must become familiar with extensive range of equipment and technology. very quickly.
Information Management. Permit systems Job safety analysis Planning and control. Towers and pipe work etc. Mechanical Completion and Integrity checking Pre-commissioning & Operational Testing Start Up & Initial Operation Performance and Acceptance testing Post Commissioning . Procedure development Safety and risk management. Removal of hazardous substances and purging Instrumentation commissioning Organisation and roles. Utilities and Electrical System Commissioning Equipment Specific Commissioning Issues Machinery/ Rotating Equipment Vessels.The Commissioning Process Management Issues Preparation and planning Technical Issues Plant preparation and isolation. Budgeting and cost control. Commissioning strategy.
training of operations & maintenance personnel. operation & training.Task force responsibilities During design stage Review design for safety and operability Carry out HAZOP and other safety studies operating procedures & maintenance manuals Familiarization with the plant Check compliance with design. Arrange modifications required Recruitment. intent and standards Documentation for commissioning. .
Typical Operating Instruction Manual The Process Conditioning and Special Equipment Starting Procedures Shutdown Procedures .
Keep up maintenance records.Maintenance Responsibilities Publish work and safety procedures. Negotiate with vendors and contractors. Specify maintenance activities Select and purchase maintenance supplies and spare parts. Make detailed designs of any changes and additions made during commissioning. Storage of spare parts and supplies. Schedule routine daily work and that for planned shutdowns. .
venting. purging) process and utility systems. draining.Safety in Maintenance . Locking out electrical systems Instructions covering atmospheric testing. type of test and permissible limits of contaminants. .1 Detailed procedures for maintenance work and work to be done when executing the commissioning procedure Need to cover each major piece of equipment & system take into account all possible hazards Include: Instructions for isolating (blinding.
Safety in Maintenance .2 Definition of type of permit required to carry out work Type of equipment required for maintenance Description of personal protection equipment required Instructions regarding emergency equipment Instructions on potential hazards Emergency procedures .
Pipe fittings.Spare Parts and Maintenance Minimum Inventories for Commissioning and Start-up inimum Start manufacturer¶s recommended spare parts for motive equipment . 5% of total of each in the plant should be sufficient) Instrument air tubing.avoid duplication gaskets for vessels and heat exchangers. plus adequate fittings . valves and gaskets (approx.
.Spare Parts and Maintenance .2 Minimum Inventories for Commissioning and Start-up Start Pressure gauges of appropriate ranges Thermometers and any special instrument parts Rupture disks Pipe insulation materials including jacketing Lubrication oils and greases Spare parts for electronic & analytical equipment.
Centrifugal compressors 2. Reciprocating compressors 6. Gas turbines 7. Electric motors in size categories above 1000 HP 5. Gas expanders .Process Plant Machinery Commissioning Failure Problems in decreasing order of problem frequency 1. Steam turbines 3. Large gear speed increaser units 4.
Commissioning Team Information Requirements Project design file Process file Engineering data file Plant layout file Operating instructions Analytical procedures Log sheets and calculation procedures. .
weather) Maintenance procedures specific to the new plant . and giving the procedure for taking it out of service Training manual detailing the program for new personnel Safety manual setting policies and procedures Emergency response manual.Commissioning Documentation Technical manual giving process technology and equipment Standard operating procedures giving details of each system Safety valve and rupture disk manual. listing the design basis for each safety device. tabulating emergency procedures and responses to adverse conditions (e.g.
Commissioning and Start Up Budget Cost Estimation .
Costs for unexpected changes and additions. Costs for normal startup equipment.Startup Budgets Three categories of cost. . Costs for mechanical equipment breakdowns. materials and personnel.
suitable for initial project budget .Estimating plant startup & commissioning Allow from 5-15% of overall capital cost of the 5project for startup and commissioning Empirical rules for estimating both startup time and startup costs.
02 for moderately dependent -0.03 for relatively new -0. B = Process factor D = Labour factor 0.02 for familiar process 0.07 for radically new 0.02 for relatively new -0.04 for labour in very short supply 0.01 for surplus labour C = Equipment factor N = Number of process units involved E = Dependency factor 0.10 + B + C + D +NE) A = Direct fixed capital cost of project.04 for interdependent process units 0.03 for familiar equipment 0. .05 for radically new process 0.02 for independent plants.02 for labour somewhat scarce -0.Estimate Startup Costs Cost = A(0.
05 for relatively new -0.15 + b + c + d +Ne) a = Construction Time b = Process factor D = Labour factor 0.01 for familiar process 0.02 for independent plants.Estimate Startup Time Time = a(0.01 for surplus labour c = Equipment factor N = Number of process units involved E = Dependency factor 0.05 for labour somewhat scarce -0.05 for relatively new -0.01 for familiar equipment 0.08 for very new 0.15 for radically new 0. .15 for radically new process 0.15 for labour in very short supply 0.10 for moderately dependent -0.25 for interdependent process units 0.
. Its capital cost is $100 Million and it is expected to take 8 months to complete. Once operational the plant will be dependent on the existing Gas Processing facility for smooth operation. Estimate the cost and time to commission this unit. Because of its remote location it will be difficult to attract skilled labour for the commissioning.Startup Costs and Time Example A Crude Stabilisation Plan is currently under construction. but it has been designed to allow it to be isolated from the gas side given that it is a single operating unit. The technology is all familiar and proven technology.
15+1*0.Estimate Startup Costs & Time Startup Costs Cost = 100 (0.01= 8 * 0.02 -0.10 -0.01-0.38 = 3 Months .03 + 0.04 +1*0.15 -0.1) 0.11 = $11 Million Startup Time Time = 8(0.02) = 100 * 0.01+ 0.