Thermoplastic Materials Engineering Plastics

Engineering Thermoplastics
‡ Replace metallic parts
± ± ± ± Strength and stiffness Retention of properties over range of temperatures Toughness to withstand incidental damage Dimensional stability
‡ Low creep ‡ Low CTE

± Withstand environmental factors (UV, O2, chemicals) ± Shaped easily

Engineering Thermoplastics
‡ Compared to commodity plastics
± More expensive ± The commodity resins are all lacking some critical property ± Some Engineering Thermoplastics are formed through the condensation polymerization process

Polyamides or Nylons (PA) .

Polyamides or ylons (PA) H H H H H ( [ H ]a [ H ]b )n H .

PA General Family Characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Polarity Crystallinity Sharp meltpoint Strength Comparison of higher & lower nylon numbers .

5%² must be dried for injection molding) ‡ ighly crystalline .PA General Family Characteristics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transparent (barely)²cook in bag (turkey) Anti-friction²not like PTFE but good Toughness²excellent Fatigue resistance²excellent Water absorption²a weakness (.2-2.

6 N N examethylenediamine (6 carbons) .Nylon 6.

Nylon 6.6 Adipic Acid (6 carbons) .

Nylon 6.6 2N C C C C C C N C O C C C C C O Water O O Nylon 6.6 .

Nylon 6 H H H H H H N H H H H H H Amine Group Acid Group .

Nylon 6 O C C C C C C 2N Water O N C C C C C C O O .

Properties of Specific Nylon Types ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Nylon 6.2 ± Strength .6 ± General Nylon 6 ± Copycat Nylon 6.10 ± Less water absorption Nylon 6.12 ± Flexibility and less water Nylon 2.

018 in/in ± Dry it first ‡ Extrusion ± Low melt viscosity ± Be careful of decomposition ‡ Fibers ± Drawing ± Crystallization ± Orientation .Processing Nylon ‡ Injection molding ± Shrinkage²crystallinity².

Nulon. Nilon.6 ‡ Carothers death ± 3 weeks after patents ‡ Tremendous success ± Name ‡ Delawear. Norun. Nylon .Nylon istory ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Nature of polymer bonding not understood Carothers Difunctional monomers Polymers²1000 units long ± Larger units²molecular still to eliminate water ‡ Control of melting point and length ± Many combinations of polyesters ± Trying polyamides ± Settling on 6. Nuron. Wacra.

Aramids .

Aramids O C C C C C C C C N C C C O C C C N .

Acetals or Polyoxymethylenes (POM) .

Acetals or Polyoxymethylenes (POM) ( O )n .

Acetal General Family Characteristics ‡ Mechanical²do not embrittle. resists stains. good impact strength ‡ Moisture²very little (shower heads) ‡ Chemical resistance²very high. sensitive to strong acids and bases ‡ Weathering²fair ‡ Thermal²200o F ‡ Electrical²good ‡ Machining²like cutting brass ‡ Adhesion²epoxy glues .

Processing Acetals ‡ Do not heat above 440o F ‡ Melt viscosity is not too dependant on temperature .

Acetal Copolymer
(
O C O C C
2

2

2

O

C

2

O

(
n

Thermoplastic Polyesters (PET/PBT)

Thermoplastic Polyesters (PET/PBT)
O O

(

O

C

C

O

C C C C C C C C

O

Thermoplastic Polyester General Family Characteristics ‡ PET ± igher mechanical stiffness ± Strength by orienting chains not by -bonding ± Get 50% crystallinity ‡ forced by mechanical stretching ‡ PBT ± crystallizes rapidly ± processes faster ± lower overall properties .

Processing PET ‡ Shape it (film. tape. extrude. etc) ± Amorphous structure ‡ Reheat and stretch in strength direction(s) ‡ Cool to below Tg . fiber.

tapes ‡ PETG²glycol modified.Specific TP Polyester Types ‡ Dacron fiber²mix with cotton or wool-gives permanent creases ‡ Kodel ± photo film ‡ Mylar²transparencies. like PVC . amorphous.

Polycarbonate .

Polycarbonate O C O C C C C C C C C C C C C C C ( O C )n .

History ‡ Solvent resistance (DuPont) ‡ GE-Lexan ‡ Properties ± Polar ± Stiffness of backbone ± Long repeat unit .

bullet proof shields ‡ Dimensional stability²low creep ‡ Electrical resistance²good but not fantastic ‡ Machining²good . drawn. drilled ‡ Tough²helmets. windows. light covers. punched. slight crystallinity ‡ Hard ‡ Ductile²nailed. sheared. roadside signs. sawed.Properties ‡ Solvent sensitivity²poor but nice for joining ‡ Clear²except for UV yellowing.

Acrylics (PAN. PMMA) .

Acrylics (PAN. PMMA) H H H C H (C H C C O )n O ( )n H H C H H .

acetone gives it cracks ‡ Electrical²good .Properties ‡ Color (transparency)²20 years w/ <10% change ‡ Weathering²best ‡ Mechanical properties²average except for impact (brittle) ‡ Chemical²chlorinated solvents attack it.

Uses ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Signs Counter tops²Corian Decorative pieces Floor waxes Paint. fingernail polishes Contact lenses. glasses .

Processing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Casting (sheets)²syrup Injection molding²good Thermoforming²ok but brittle Machining²similar to wood .

FEP.Flouropolymers (PTFE. PFA) .

PFA) F ( F )n ( ) n F F . FEP.Flouropolymers (PTFE.

History of Discovery ‡ Chambers plant ± Making Freon ± Gas cylinder .

13-2.Properties ‡ Most are strengthened by the tight bond between the Fluorine and the Carbon atoms ± Slippery (anti-stick surfaces) ± Chemical inertness ± High temperature melting ± Non-flammable ± High electrical resistance ± Very dense²2.2 (high melt viscosity) .

Uses ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ O-rings Non-stick surfaces Insulation-electrical Lubricant Coatings Gears .

Processing ‡ Not processable by extrusion or injection molding ± Sintering ‡ Put in approx shape and heat±620o F ‡ Similar to processing powdered metals ‡ Fusion ± Ram extrusion ‡ Compaction ‡ Rods and tubes ± Calendaring ‡ Very poor adhesion .

High Performance Thermoplastics .

PPO Properties ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Thermal stability²excellent (650o F) High HDT = 375o F Good cold properties (-275o F) Low water absorption Low heat expansion Good solvent resistance. but can be solvent welded .

PPO uses ‡ Used to replace stainless steel for surgical equipment ‡ Replace thermosets ‡ Pump housings ‡ Valve components ‡ Video terminal housings .

and Others) . PEK.Polyaryletherketones (PEEK.

PEK. and Others) O O Ether Linkage Ketone Linkage .Polyaryletherketones (PEEK.

Polysulfones (PSU and PES) .

Polysulfones (PSU and PES) H C C C H C H H C C H O S O C C H H C C H H C C H C H C C C O C H H C C C C H H C H C C O .

Properties ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Resistant to oils Heat stability (300o F) Creep resistance SO2 group adds stiffness More dimensionally stable than PPO Toughness²good .

but can be injection molded .Uses ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hot water pipes Coffee pots Dishwasher components Automobile applications near engines Compete with thermosets.

Thermoplastic Polyimides (PI and PAI) .

Thermoplastic Polyimides (PI and PAI) H ( H ( ) n ) H n H .

Properties ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Very stiff Highest thermal stability PI cannot be melted or melt processed PAI can be (Torlon) PI is sintered (Vespel) PI film is cast as monomers and heated to polymerize (Kapton) .

sliding parts Gears .Uses ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PI is used in circuit boards High temperature parts Low friction bearings.

Cellulosics .

Cellulosics ‡ Nitrocellulose ± Gun cotton ‡ Cellulose nitrate ± Lacquers and plastics .

Properties ‡ Fire ‡ Hard ± Plasticized with camphor ‡ Water repellent .

Types of Cellulosics ‡ Rayon ± Viscose process ‡ Cellophane ‡ Methyl cellulose ± Filler ± Edible .

Thank You .

Nylon History ‡ Carothers ± Iowa²BS ± Illinois²PhD ± Harvard²Teach ± DuPont²basic research .

and PPS) O PPO . PPO.Polyphenylenes (PPE.

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