# Models of Love & Happiness

J. C. Sprott
Department of Physics University of Wisconsin Madison Presented to the Kiwanis Club of Downtown Madison in Madison, Wisconsin on June 3, 2002

Disclaimers
It’s Strogatz’ fault This is not serious sociology I won’t get to the happiness part

The Mathematics
R is Romeo’s love for Juliet (or hate if negative) J is Juliet’s love for Romeo dR/dt = aR + bJ
a and b describe Romeo’s “Romantic Style”

Some “Romantic Styles”
dR/dt = aR + bJ
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a=0 (out of touch with own feelings) b=0 (oblivious to other’s feelings) a>0, b>0 (eager beaver) a>0, b<0 (narcissistic nerd) a<0, b>0 (cautious lover) a<0, b<0 (hermit)

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dJ/dt = cR + dJ She has her own style 4 parameters with 3 choices for each gives 81 different romantic pairings

Both out of touch with their own feelings 0
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dR/dt = aR + bJ dJ/dt = cR + dJ

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Four subclasses:
x x x x

b > 0, c > 0 (mutual love fest or war) b > 0, c < 0 (never-ending cycle) b < 0, c > 0 (never-ending cycle) b < 0, c < 0 (unrequited love)

Out of touch with their own feelings (continued) b > 0, c < 0 b > 0, c > 0 b < 0, c < 0

War

Two lovers Love fest (or war)

Two nerds Unrequited love

Nerd + lover Never-ending cycle

With SelfAwareness and bc < 0 (nerd + lover) a + d < -2|bc| a+d<0 a+d>0
1/2

Extremely cautious Rapid apathy

Somewhat cautious Eventual apathy

Overly eager Growing volatility

(The only equilibrium is apathy)

Fire and Water (Do opposites attract?)
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Take c = -b and d = -a Result depends on a, c, and the initial conditions

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Can end up in any quadrant Or with a steady oscillation But never apathy

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Peas in a Pod (Are clones bored or blissful?)
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Take c = b and d = a Result depends on a, b, and the initial conditions

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Can end up in any quadrant Or at the origin (boredom) But no oscillations

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Romeo the Robot (How does Juliet react?) 0 (dR/dt = 0) Take a = b =
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dJ/dt = cR + dJ There is an equilibrium at J = -cR/d Can be either love or hate depending on signs of R, c, and d Stable if d < 0, unstable if d > 0 Her feelings never die No oscillations are possible

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A Love Triangle
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Romeo has a mistress, Guinevere Guinevere and Juliet don’t know about one another Romeo responds to each with the same romantic style (same a and b) Guinevere’s hate has the same effect on his feelings for Juliet as does Juliet’s love, and vice versa

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Love Triangle Examples

Romeo’s Fate
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Averaged over all romantic styles (64 combinations of parameters) and 64 initial conditions:
x x x x x

37% loves Juliet & hates Guinevere 37% loves Guinevere & hates Juliet 6% loves both (2% everyone in love) 6% hates both (2% everyone in hate) 14% apathy (10% everyone apathetic)

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Anything can happen!

Replace ax with ax(1-|x|), etc. (logistic function)
ax(1 - |x|) ax

Effect of Nonlinearities

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One Chaotic Solution of Nonlinear Love Triangle “Strange attractor of love”

Possible Further Studies
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What happens if Guinevere and Juliet know about one another? What happens if only Guinevere knows about Juliet? What happens if Juliet and/or Guinevere has another lover? What are the dynamics of a free-love commune? Is there an optimum pairing of romantic styles that encourages success or portends failure?

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If such problems interest you, let’s collaborate!

Summa ry
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Love and happiness are wonderful So is mathematics

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References
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http://sprott.physics.wisc.edu/ lectures (expanded version of this talk) Steven H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos (AddisonWesley, 1994) sprott@physics.wisc.edu

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