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A. Distortion B. Surface roughness and irregularities C. Porosity D. Incomplete/missing detail
1. Due to distortion of the wax pattern- Proper handling of wax pattern 2. Setting and Hygroscopic expansion of investment can produce a nonuniform expansion of walls of the wax pattern 3. Distortion increases as the thickness of the pattern decreases . 4. Less the setting expansion of investment- less distortion.
B. Surface roughness, irregularities & Distortion
1. Surface Roughness - relatively finely spaced surface imperfections 2. Surface Irregularities - isolated imperfections Nodules that are not characteristic of entire surface area
3. Surface Roughness of the casting is always
greater than the wax pattern - Due to particle size of the investment - Its ability to reproduce the wax pattern in microscopic detail. Excessive roughness, irregularities needs additional finishing and polishing Irregularities on the cavity surface prevent Proper Seating of casting
Removal of nodules on the margins and the internal surface alter the fit of the casting.Air bubbles Small Nodules on the casting . Vacuum mixing should be done Surfactant should be used.by air bubbles that becomes attached to the pattern during investing. .
Water films Water film separates investment from wax pattern Such irregularity appears as minute ridge/vein on the surface. Surfactant should be used Too high liquid/powder ratio can also produce these irregularities. .
Rapid heating rates Causes fins/spines on the casting Due to flaking of the investment when water/steam pours into mold Steam can also carry salts used as modifiers into the mold . .these salts are left as deposits on walls after water evaporates Mold should be heated gradually (60min to heat the investment from room temperature to 700°c) Greater the bulk of investment .the more slowly it should be heated.
.due to gases formed when alloy comes in contact with carbon residues Casting can also be covered by carbon coating which cannot be removed by pickling.Underheating Incomplete elimination of the wax residue Voids or porosity occurs in the casting .
Rougher the casting Too thick investment .Cannot be applied properly to the pattern .Liquid/powder Ratio Higher the Liquid/powder ratio .
.Disintegration of gypsum bonded investment .Sulfur compounds released which contaminates the alloy and does not respond to pickling. .Walls of the mold will be roughened.Prolonged heating When high heat casting technique used .
surface roughness results.Temperature of the alloy Temperature of alloy is too high .Investment breaks down . If Gas Air Torch is used the alloy cannot be overheated With other methods alloy can be over heated .
14 MPA in an air pressure casting machine is enough.Casting pressure Too high a pressure produces rough surface on the casting 3-4 turns of spring in centrifugal casting machine and 0. .10-0.
. Coarse silica causes surface roughness.Composition of investment Ratio of binder to quartz influences the surface texture of the casting.
Bright appearing concavities are the result of flux being carried into the mold with the metal.it can also cause incomplete casting and surface voids. .cause surface roughness (investment from rough crucible former or sprue can be carried into the mold) .Foreign bodies When foreign substances enter the mold .
should not strike a weak portion of the mold surface which can cause cracks in the investment .Impact of molten alloy Direction of sprue former .
Expansion of wax is much greater than that of the investment .Pattern position Positioning too many patterns in the same plane must be avoided. .causing breakdown/ cracking of investment if spacing between patterns is less than 3 mm.
Carbon inclusions Carbon from the crucible Improperly adjusted torch Carbon containing investment can be absorbed by the alloy and lead to formation of Carbides. .
Other causes Certain surface discoloration and roughness appear later during service. . Mixtures of casting alloys cannot be used which possess lesser physical properties with low corrosion resistance Gold alloy can be contaminated by mercury which causes loss of ductility and corrosion.
Porosity Can occur both on the interior and external surface of the casting (surface roughness) Internal porosity weakens the casting and if it extends to the surface can cause discoloration. .C.
Trapped gases a. b. c. Solidification defects Localized shrinkage porosity Microporosity II. Pinhole porosity Gas inclusions Subsurface porosity III. Residual air . b. a.I.
Localized shrinkage porosity Caused by premature termination of the flow of molten metal during solidification. .25% so a continual feeding of the molten alloy through the sprue must make up for the shrinkage. Linear contraction of the noble metal alloys from liquid to solid is 1.
localized shrinkage occurs near the sprue casting junction.This hot spot causes the local region to freeze last and results in suck-back porosity. . If a hot spot is created by the hot metal impinging on the sprue channel on a point of the mold wall. If sprue freezes before the casting a localized shrinkage void will occur in the last portion of the casting that solidifies.
.the metal impinges onto the mold surface at this point and creates a higher localized mold temperature known as hot spot. This in turn creates suck back porosity It can be eliminated by flaring the point of sprue attachment and lowering the casting temperature. It usually occurs at occlusoaxial line angle which is not rounded. It retains a localized pool of molten metal after other areas of casting have solidified.
They are irregular in shape. It is not a serious defect and is not detected until the casting is sectioned.Microporosity Occurs from solidification shrinkage but is present in fine grain alloy casting when the solidification is too rapid for the micro voids to segregate into the liquid pool. . Due to premature solidification if the mold or casting temperature is too low.
Pinhole and gas inclusion porosities Due to entrapment of gas during solidification Both are spherical in shape but different in size gas inclusion porosities are larger than Pinhole porosity Many metals dissolve gases (copper and silver dissolve oxygen) .
On solidification .the absorbed gases are expelled leading to pinhole porosity Larger voids are caused due to mechanically entrapment of air in the molten metal from a poorly adjusted torch flame or by the use of oxidizing zone rather than reducing zone. Castings which are severely contaminated by gases are black and do not clean on pickling. .
Subsurface porosity Caused by simultaneous nucleation of solid grains and gas bubbles at the first movement that the alloy freezes at the mold walls. Can be controlled by the rate at which the molten metal enters the mold .
Back pressure porosity entrapped air porosity seen on the inner surface of the casting produce large concave depressions Inability of the air in the mold to escape through the pores in the investment The entrapment is found on the cavity surface of the crown .
It can also be seen on the outer surface of the casting when the casting temperature or mold temperature is so low that solidification occurs before the entrapped air can escape. Dense investments Vacuum investing Mold clogged with residual carbon slows the venting of gases. .
.the pressure should be applied for at least 4 sec. Mold is filled and alloy is solidified in 1 sec yet it is quite soft during early stages.Incomplete casting Molten metal is prevented in completely filling the mold Insufficient venting High viscosity of fused metal Back pressure develops in Insufficient venting and if insufficient casting pressure is used it cannot be overcome.
Margins are rounded and quite shiny rather than dull . Incomplete elimination of the wax residue from the mold Pores in the investment gets filled and air cannot be vented completely. .this is due to the strong reducing atmosphere created by carbon monoxide left by the residual wax.
Temperature should be raised above the liquidus temperature to reduce the viscosity and surface tension of the alloy.less porosity of the investment Increase casting pressure should be used Incomplete casting also results from too great a viscosity due to insufficient heating. Lower liquid/powder ratio . .