ESP System Technology Overview

1

ESP Downhole System
The basic ESP downhole system components are ... 

The Pump The Motor 

The Seal Section 
 

The Power Cable The Monitoring System (optional)

2

Product Identification Key 

Equipment for 4.5 inch casing and larger ³300 Series´ Series 338 375 385 Diameter 3.375´ 3.75´ 3.85´ model D D E Type pump\seal motor pump

3

50´ model Type F 400P F pump/seal Centurion Pump motor 4 .5 inch casing and larger ³400 Series´ Series 400 400 450 Diameter 4.00´ 4.00´ 4.Product Identification Key  Equipment for 5.

625´ model Type G 538P G K pump/seal Centurion Pump motor motor 5 .375´ 5.125´ 5.0 inch casing and larger ³500 Series´ Series 513 538 544 562 Diameter 5.438´ 5.Product Identification Key  Equipment for 7.

Product Identification Key  Equipment for 8-5/8 inch casing and larger Series 675 725 Diameter 6.75´ 7.25´ model H H Type pump/seal motor 6 .

38´ model I N J M Minimum Casing 10-3/4´ 10-3/4´ 13-3/8´ 13-3/8´ 7 .25´ 10.75´ 9.00´ 10.Product Identification Key  Pumps only Series 875 900 1025 1038 Diameter 8.

best efficiency point (BEP) flow except I and J pumps are in GPM example 2: 538P17 538 = Series P = Pump 17 = 17 hundred (1700) BPD @ BEP & 60 Hz 8 .00´ pump C = casting. S = synthetic impeller material 4300 BPD.Product Identification Key  Pump Stage Key example 1: FC4300 F = 400 series. 4.

motor 9 . F. RS . S .pump.Product Identification Key Model Designation Key 1st Letter . H.Series D. G. I.seal. K. J 2nd Letter - Product Type P .rotary separator M .

µcompression¶ fixed impeller type (pump) B . H« in 3rd letter motor . C . C . F.rating µgeneration¶ 10 .modular AR style.Product Identification Key 3rd.bag type (seal).Options.abrasion resistant (pump). AR . G .high temperature option B. « Letters . some of the most popular are « LT . E.labyrinth type (seal).corrosion resistant metallurgy. M . MT ±middle tandem. C. 4th. X .lower tandem.

LT = Lower Tandem pump ( with built in intake ) The seal bolts on here 11 .

Shipping Cap Head LT/MT = Lower/Middle Tandem pump 12 .If MT (middle tandem) or LT (Lower Tandem) then a flange face is the head of the pump.

If FP type or Upper Tandem (UT) then a discharge is built into the pump. Built in Discharge head FP Pump 13 .

UT or MT pump Middle Tandem pump Base Shipping Cap 14 .

The Bolt on Head FPHVDIS The Middle Tandem or Lower Tandem Pump Head 15 .

Gas separator intake (cut away).UT or MT pump bolts on here. 16 . May be bolted on to the base of a MT (Middle Tandem) or UT (Upper Tandem) Pump The Seal bolts on here.

ESP Downhole System The system «  Should be set above the perforations of the well for unit cooling Must be sized to the well¶s productivity Should be monitored for changes in well and/or unit performance   17 .

The Pump       Hangs from the production tubing Lifts the fluid through the tubing to the surface Is a multi-stage centrifugal type Is constructed from impellers and diffusers Must be sized to match the well production Has an intake and discharge that either bolts onto or is threaded into the pump housing 18 .

Built in Discharge head Tubing screws in here Pump Housing Stationary Diffuser Rotating Impeller Pump Shaft Built in Intake The Pump Bolts to the Seal 19 .

Cutaway of Pump Stationary diffusers Rotating (right to left) impellers 20 .

Impeller 21 .

gives it energy. 22 . with the shaft It provides the centrifugal force to the fluid .Impeller The impeller rotates about the pump axis.

23 .Impeller Fluid enters the impeller through the µeye¶ near the shaft and exits the impeller on the outside.

Impeller .Cut Away 24 .

Impeller Hub Upper Shroud Vanes Lower Shroud Skirt Eye 25 .

Diffuser 26 .

into head 27 . it turns the fluid up into the next impeller It transforms the fluid velocity.Diffuser The diffuser does not rotate. it¶s energy.

Cut Away 28 .Diffuser .

Impeller & Diffuser Diffuser redirects the fluid up into the next impeller and turns fluid energy into head Impeller spins and gives energy to fluid which exits around the outside Diffuser directs fluid into the eye of the impeller 29 .

Impeller in Diffuser .A Pump µStage¶ 30 .

Pump Stage .cut away 31 .

Developing the Pump Stage Head ± Capacity Curve Pump Stage Fluid Reservoir 32 .

Developing the Pump Stage Head ± Capacity Curve 1 Head (Lift) Fluid Reservoir 33 .

& ³absorbsion´ aka ³Equalizer´.expansion. isolation. ³Protector´. equalization. or ³Seal Section´ 34  .The Seal Chamber Section        Is located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Isolates (seals) the well fluid from the clean motor oil Equalizes the internal unit and wellbore pressure Provides area for motor oil expansion volume Absorbs the pump shaft thrust load The Four ³Shuns´ .

The Seal Chamber Section    Is located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Isolates (seals) the well fluid from the clean motor oil 35 .

Pump Motor 36 .

Pump Motor 37 .

38 .

39 .

Pump Motor 40 .

Pump Seal Motor 41 .

The Seal Section Located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Centrilift 42 .

Labyrinth Chamber 43 .

Labyrinth Chamber 44 .

45 .

Double Labyrinth Chamber 46 .

47 .

The Seal Section. purpose: 1. Isolation Isolates (seals) the clean motor oil from the well fluid 48 .

Isolation Labyrinth Chamber 49 .

50 .

51 .

52 .

53 .

54 .

Isolation Mechanical Seals Prevents fluid migration down the seal shaft r 55 .

Pump

Labyrinth Chamber

Motor

56

57

58

Pump Bag or Bladder Motor 59 .

Pump Motor 60 .

61 .

Isolation Bag (or Bladder) r 62 .

Labyrinth Chamber 2. Bag (or Bladder) r 63 . Mechanical Seals 3.Isolation Recap 1.

The Seal Chamber Section     Is located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Isolates the well fluid from the clean motor oil Provides area for motor oil expansion volume 64 .

65 .

Labyrinth Chamber Motor Oil .Heated 66 .

Labyrinth Chamber Motor Oil .Cooling 67 .

Double Labyrinth Chamber Motor 68 .

Expansion Provides space for motor oil expansion 69 . purpose: 2.The Seal Section.

Expansion Labyrinth Chamber 70 .

Bag (or Bladder) Motor Oil .Heated Motor 71 .

Bag (or Bladder) Motor Oil .Heated Motor 72 .

Check valve

Bag (or Bladder) Motor Oil - Heated

Motor

73

74

75

Check valve Bag (or Bladder) Motor Oil .Heated Motor 76 .

Heated Motor 77 .Check valve Bag (or Bladder) Motor Oil .

Check valve Bag (or Bladder) Motor Oil .Heated Motor 78 .

Motor Oil .Cooling Motor 79 .

Cooling Motor 80 .Motor Oil .

Heated Motor 81 .Double Bags Motor Oil .

Heated Motor 82 .Double Bags Motor Oil .

Double Bags Motor Oil .Heated Motor 83 .

84 .

85 .

Heated Motor 86 .Parallel Bags Motor Oil .

Heated Motor 87 .Parallel Bags Motor Oil .

Expansion Bag (or Bladder) r 88 .

Expansion Recap 1. Labyrinth Chamber 2. Bag (or Bladder) r 89 .

The Seal Chamber Section      Is located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Isolates the well fluid from the clean motor oil Provides area for motor oil expansion volume Equalizes the internal unit and wellbore pressure 90 .

Motor 91 .

92 µn¶ thousand feet .

93 .

94 .

95 .

purpose: 3.The Seal Section. Equalization Equals pressure between the outside casing and inside the motor housing 96 .

Labyrinth Chamber 2. Bag (or Bladder) r 97 .Equalization 1.

The Seal Chamber Section       Is located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Isolates the well fluid from the clean motor oil Equalizes the internal unit and wellbore pressure Provides area for motor oil expansion volume Absorbs the pump shaft thrust load 98 .

99 .

100

101

Compression, Fixed Impeller, Pumps

102

Pumps 103 . Fixed Impeller.Compression.

Pump Seal Motor 104 .

Seal (Lower Chamber) Motor 105 .

Seal (Lower Chamber) Upthrust Ring Thrust Runner Thrust Bearing Area Thrust Runner Carbon Face Bearing Heat Exchange Area Bearing Retainer Screen Filter Motor 106 .

Seal Unit Base 107 .

Bearing Retainer 108 .

Oil Pump 109 .

Bearing 110 .

Carbon Face 111 .

Thrust Runner 112 .

Thrust Runner Carbon Face Thrust Runner 113 .

Upthrust Bearing 114 .

Upthrust Bearing Bearing Runner 115 .

116 .

Bearing Assembly Complete 117 .

118 .

The Seal Section. Absorption Absorbs the thrust of the pump 119 . purpose: 4.

Absorption r Thrust Bearing 120 .

isolation. equalization. & ³absorbsion´ Or ³Equalizer´. ³Protector´.The Seal Chamber Section        Is located between the pump and motor Transfers the motor torque to the pump shaft Isolates the well fluid from the clean motor oil Equalizes the internal unit and wellbore pressure Provides area for motor oil expansion volume Absorbs the pump shaft thrust load The Four ³Shuns´ . expansion. or ³Seal Section´ 121  .

prevents fluid migration down the seal shaft Bag(s) or Bladder(s) .Seal Section Components .provides expansion volume and isolation for clean motor oil Labyrinth Chamber(s) ..  Mechanical Seals .provides expansion and isolation volume in vertical or near vertical wells Thrust Bearing ..carries the thrust load of the pump shaft and stages (fixed impeller type only)    122 .review Major components are .

increased shaft isolation ± Can be designed as a ³Thrust on Lower´ (TOL) which gives added protection to the unit thrust bearing  Use single or multiple bag seals in highly deviated wells ± The isolation capability of a labyrinth chamber is greatly reduced in deviations beyond 30 . when in doubt ± Provides for maximum oil expansion / reservoir volume 123 .45 degrees from vertical  Match the seal and motor series. the more mechanical seals and therefore.Seal Section Application  Use tandem seals in high pulling cost wells ± Seals are relatively low cost items as compared w/the total unit cost ± The more seal sections.

AC.The Motor      Drives the downhole pump and seal section Is rated for a specific horsepower. & current Is a two pole. induction type Rotates at approximately 3500 RPM at 60 Hertz Is constructed of rotors and bearings stacked on the shaft and loaded in a wound stator Contains synthetic oil for lubrication Relies on fluid flow past the housing OD for cooling   124 . three phase. voltage.

Motor Components

Housing Stator Laminations Epoxy Encapsulation

Rotor

Bearing with T-ring

Kapton-Wrapped Magnet Wire

125

Stator Bearing with T-Ring

rotor

126

Stator Laminations on a Mandrel
127

Stator Laminations pressed into the motor housing 128 .

A wound Stator with Leads attached 129 .

Potted End Turns 130 .

Rotor Laminations Rotor Copper End Ring Rotor Spacers Rotor Bearing Rotor T ring 131 .

Rotor Bearing Rotor 132 .

48 133   . current will vary. by varying the pump load or brake horsepower applied to the motor. by varying voltage. current will change At a constant load.Motor Performance   Motors are rated by horsepower. p. & current At a constant voltage. as well By plotting the above parameters we can obtain two different series of graphs called motor composite curves SPH. voltage.

Motor Volts vs. Amps Optimum Voltage 134 .

etc. full nameplate voltage available. Nameplate Rating Fluid Velocity Past Motor (flow rate vs. and when. unit/casing diameter) Cooling Properties of the Well Fluid (% gas. wave form distortion.) Power Quality (3 phase voltage/current imbalance.Motor Application Motor operating temperature is determined by 5 factors     Wellbore Temperature % Load vs.)  All of the above factors determine if. water cut. etc. scaling tendencies. a motor will overheat during operation 135 .

physical size. and operating temperature requirements  136 .The Power Cable    Is made up of the power cable and motor lead Can be made in round or flat profile Is constructed of three insulated & jacketed copper conductors contained by metal armor Proper applications must address electrical.

Armor (Galvanized.Flat Components 1 .Insulation (Polypropylene or EPDM) (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) 3 . Stainless.Jacket (Nitrile or EPDM) & Tape 4 .Conductor (Copper) 2 . or Monel)  2 4 3 1 Benefits: Low profile to fit in tight clearance installations 137 .Cable Types .

Armor (Galvanized.Jacket (Nitrile or EPDM) & Tape 4 .Round Components 1 .Conductor (Copper) 2 . Stainless. or Monel)  3 2 4 1 Benefits: Less current imbalance & runs cooler than equivalent flat cable 138 .Cable Types .Insulation Polypropylene or EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) 3 .

Armor (Low Profile Galv.Insulation (EPDM) 4 .Motor Lead Extension Components 1 . SS.Jacket / Tape & Braid or Lead Sheath (Low Temp or Hi Temp) 5 .Conductor (Copper) 2 . or Monel)  1 2 3 5 4 Benefits: Tape and braid provides added decompression resistance 139 .Insulation Film (Polyimide) 3 .Cable Types .

aids decompression resistance.Jacket (Nitrile or EPDM) 5 .Extruded Fluorobarrier (Low or Hi Temp) 4 . the barrier blocks fluid.Conductor (Copper) 2 . Stainless.Extruded Barrier Components 1 . or Monel)  4 5 2 1 3 Benefits: Unlike tapes. and improves electrical properties 140 .Armor (Galvanized.Cable Types .Insulation (EPDM) 3 .

or Monel)  2 5 4 3 1 Benefits: Lead sheath blocks gasses & protects conductor from H2S attack Available in round profile with EPDM jacket  141 .Cable Types .Conductor (Copper) 2 .Insulation (Polypropylene or EPDM) 3 .Lead Sheath Components 1 .Tape or Braid (on EPDM product only) 5 . Stainless.Armor (Galvanized.Lead Sheath 4 .

Cable Types .Capillary Tube Features & Benefits       Capillary Tube Available with any standard cable A variety of capillary tube sizes are utilized Available in round or flat profile Allows targeted delivery of treatment chemical Single or dual capillary designs Instrument wire can be inserted in some capillary tube sizes An outer layer of armor is applied to protect the capillary tubes Capillary Tubes Standard Power Cable  142 .

. 100-102 143 . e. etc.   SPH. casing ID & conductor size Selecting a cable type based on operating conductor temperature &/or other wellbore factors.g. pp.. high gas..Power Cable Application Proper application of ESP cable requires . presence of H2S.  Limiting voltage drop to no more than 30 volts per 1000¶ and less than 15% of motor volts by choosing a sufficiently large conductor (AWG) size Choosing the proper profile based on tubing thread size vs.

Poly Cable KV Rating 4 KV 3 KV 5 KV 144 .

Fiber optics   145 .The Monitoring System  Various downhole monitoring units can be attached to the bottom of the motor &/or deployed separately in the wellbore Signals are either impressed (DC) on the power cable or sent via separate instrument wire Available monitoring options include « ± Pump Intake Pressure ± Motor Operating Temperature ± Discharge Flow Rate ± Discharge Pressure ± Unit Vibration ± Future -.

The Surface Equipment The surface equipment (beyond the wellhead) consists of «      The Motor Controller The Transformer(s) The Junction or ³Vent´ Box Wellhead Surface Cable 146 .

The Controller System The two types of controllers used with ESP systems are «   Switchboards (fixed speed) Variable Speed Controllers (aka ³drives´) Both types of Controllers can be made to read monitoring system output signals Both types generally require transformers to convert the supply or output voltage to the required unit voltage 147 .

The Switchboard Features  Applies full voltage and current to the downhole system on start up (aka ³across the line´ starting) Utilizes a motor controller unit for system protection and monitoring Is hooked to transformers which convert the incoming voltage and current to the required voltage and current for the ESP system   Disadvantages  Starting across the line results in extremely high mechanical and electrical stresses on the system Does not allow pump-well mismatch or fine tuning which results in unit cycling Flow control can only be accomplished with a surface choke which may result in the pump operating outside of its recommended range   148 .

The Motor Controller The motor controller «     Is the ³brains´ of the switchboard Monitors incoming voltage and current to the downhole system Can be set up to allow automatic restart under certain conditions Protects the motor from voltage and current fluctuations and imbalance Some models have RTU communication & data logging capability Has auxiliary inputs for the various monitoring signals   149 .

The Variable Speed Controller Features & Benefits  Allows fine tuning of unit performance to the well which can increase efficiency & minimize unit cycling Soft starts the unit which reduces system mechanical and electrical stresses Protects the downhole equipment from under & over current as well as voltage unbalance and transients Delays pull and resize of equipment to restore production rate due to wear    150 .

The VSC Graphic Control System Graphic display Interface 151 .

GCS Main Menu The organization of parameters and information is common for the 9 main menu options on all GCS products. 152 .

GCS Status Screen 153 .

The Transformer The transformer «  Converts supply voltage and current to a level at or near the required system voltage and current Has multiple tap settings for flexibility Must be of a special design to work properly with VSCs Should be sized to be greater than or equal to the required total KVA of the downhole system    154 .

The Junction Box The Junction Box «  Provides the main contact point between the downhole unit cable and the surface equipment cable Provides a point of separation to determine downhole or surface electrical faults ³Vents´ gasses that escape through the cable insulation and jacket in certain low pressure wellhead designs   155 .