The Qur·an: God·s Revelation

Word, Interpretation, Recitation

not chapters  Not arranged in the order in which it was revealed  Revealed to an audience with a certain knowledge of many of its characters and events  Traditionally thought to have been collected under ¶Uthman (d. 656).The unmediated word of God revealed over 23 years  Meccan-Madinan phases  114 Suras. third caliph  Today·s text based on the 1925 Egyptian edition  .

The asbab al-nuzul and chronology al624  625  8.9-25 33. 81-3 9.107-110  627 628  629  Battle of Badr Battle of Uhud Expulsion of Ban¾u alNadir Yathrib besieged Expulsion of Ban¾u Qurayza Treaty of al-Hudaybiyah Battle of Hunayn Expedition to Tabuk Mosque of Dissension destroyed . 48. 9.25f.120-175 59.1-17.26f.2-17 33. 41-44 3.18-27 9.42-48.

distasteful though it be to those in guilt. and He answered you: "I will assist you with a thousand of the angels.µ For.Battle of Badr (Q8:1-9)? (Q8:1They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war. if ye do believe. and keep straight the relations between yourselves: obey Allah and His Messenger. and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers. ranks on ranks. Just as thy Lord ordered thee out of thy house in truth. find their faith strengthened. and put (all) their trust in their Lord. Say: "(Such) spoils are at the disposal of Allah and the Messenger: so fear Allah. and when they hear His signs rehearsed. and generous sustenance. That He might justify Truth and prove falsehood false. and forgiveness. Who establish regular prayers and spend (freely) out of the gifts We have given them for sustenance: Such in truth are the Believers: they have grades of dignity with their Lord. when Allah is mentioned." . but Allah willed to justify the Truth according to His words. that it should be yours: ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours. believers are those who. Disputing with thee concerning the truth after it was made manifest as if they were being driven to death and they (actually) saw it. Behold! Allah promised you one of the two (enemy) parties. even though a party among the Believers disliked it. Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord. feel a tremor in their hearts.

Who created Created man. (Surat al-¶Alaq.The Beginning of Revelation Proclaim! (or Read!) In the name Of thy Lord and Cherisher. 1-5) . out of A (mere) clot Of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord Is Most Bountiful He who taught (The use of) the Pen Taught man that Which he knew not.

The One and Only. Surat al-Ikhlas. And there is none Like unto Him. Absolute. 1-4 . He begetteth not. the Eternal. Nor is He begotton. Allah.The main Themes: God·s Unity Say: He is Allah.

even if no fire touched it. the glass as it were a glittering star) kindled from a Blessed Tree. Light upon Light. whose oil well nigh would shine.What is God like? God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. an olive that is neither of the East nor of the West.35) . (24. the likeness of His Light is a niche wherein is a lamp (the lamp in a glass.

to kinsmen. beggars. however cherished. to pay the alms.Belief True piety is this: to believe in God. the needy. and the Prophets. and to ransom the slave. to perform the prayer. and orphans. and the Last Day. the Book. the angels. (Surat al-Baqara. to give of one·s substance. 177) . the traveler.

. they are the foundation of the Book: others are not of well-established meaning. and searching for its hidden meanings. But those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof that is not of well-established meaning. in it are verse basic or fundamental (of established meaning). And those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: We believe in the Book. the whole of it is from our Lord:µ and none will grasp the Message except men of understanding. but no one knows its true meanings except Allah. Seeking discord.The Qur·an on Itself: Q3:7 He it is Who has sent down to thee the Book.

Muhammad)  God often gives them the ability to carry out miracles.The Prophetic Narrative Sent to Warn a People (Abraham Noah. called insane or poets  They are of course in the right. . are mocked. incredulity. in certain cases sends them with a Scripture  They face opposition. and they persist despite oppression  . Moses . .

Tustari)  Qur·anic commentary an ongoing effort  Episode of Satanic Verses (link to the doctrine of abrogation)  .Translation and Tafsir (exegesis) The difficulty if indeed the possibility of translation  The tradition and nature of commentary: what kinds? who writes them? for whom?  What is the aim of the commentator? To explain the correct meaning of the verse?  al-tafsir bi-l-ma·thur vs. ta·wil (Tabari vs. al-tafsir bi-l-ra·y  Almost all schools and inclinations of Muslim thought represented in the diversity of Qur·anic exegesis -> tafsir vs.

µ (2.43) O Ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling. by means of wine and games of chance. and to hinder you from remembering Allah and from prayer. Ye get out wholesome drink and food . . . But the sin in them is greater than the benefit. Say: ´In them is great sin.The doctrine of abrogation: the example of wine (establishing chronology?) And from the fruit of the date palm and the vine.219) Approach not prayers when you are intoxicated until ye can understand all that ye say (4.67) They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. and some benefit.(16. Satan only desires to stir up envy and jealousy among you.90-1) . So will you stop? (5. for men. idols and divining by arrows are an abomination and some of Satan·s work. So avoid it so that you may prosper.

when they commit sexual immorality stone them outright.Abrogation: the example of stoning The woman and the man guilty of adultery or fornication . ¶Umar remembered it being in the Qur·an). (24. . (Not in the Qur·an.flog each of them with a hundred stripes.2) The mature man and the mature woman.

The Manuscript Tradition (Kufic and Hijazi scripts) .

9-10th century .The Qur·an as a work of Art Tunisia.

In order that thou mayest warn a people. On a Straight Way. . Verily We shall give life to the dead.The Qur·an in architecture (Taj Mahal) (Q36:1-6. By the Qur'an. and who therefore remain heedless (of the Signs of Allah) . . It is a Revelation sent down by (Him) the Exalted in Might. . and of all things have We taken account in a clear Book (of evidence). 12) Ya Sin. full of Wisdom Thou art indeed one of the messengers. and We record that which they sent before and that which they leave behind. whose fathers had received no admonition. Most Merciful.

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