SHIVAM R. MISHRA 081010240 T.Y B.

TECH CIVIL

Contents 
Introduction  Alterations of ground after formation  Need for Ground Improvement  Ground Improvement potential  Improvement techniques  Modern Techniques

Introduction
‡ Soil improvement is the alteration of any property of a soil to improve its engineering performance which may either be a temporary process or a permanent ‡ This can be done by reducing the pore water pressure, by reducing the volume of voids in the soil, or by adding stronger materials. ‡ The result of an application of a technique may be increased strength, reduced compressibility, reduced permeability, or improved ground water condition

Alterations of Ground after formation
Major causes of alterations are
± ± ± ± ± ± ± Seasonal moisture variation Water seepage and surface erosion Vegetation Temperature variation Vibration Mining subsidence and pumping Construction operation

In order to meet this demand.Need for ground improvement ‡ Rapid urbanisation and industrial growth driving demand for land . it may be economically viable to attempt to improve the engineering properties of the ground before building on it ‡ To improve load bearing capacity and shear strength . land reclamation & utilization of unsuitable or environmentally affected lands have been taken up ‡ Where poor ground conditions make traditional forms of construction expensive.

As far as possible such location must be avoided  Poor: A local condition including regional conditions which may require special design &/or special treatment for development  Favorable: A local condition including regional conditions for which normal design and ground treatments are suitable .Ground Improvement potential All ground conditions may not be the same but different in varieties and generally of three types:  Hazardous: A regional/local field condition is such that a regular design approach or an economical treatment technique may not be feasible and construction in such a location may result in ultimate disaster.

Improvement techniques ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Mechanical compaction Soil stabilization methods Dynamic compaction methods Pre loading Drainage methods Diaphragm Wall Compaction piles ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Grouting & Injection Electrical methods Thermal methods Rock Anchors/Bolt Reinforced Earth technology Geo-products Pre-wetting .

the same is replaced with a layer of good soil ‡ Sheepsfoot roller and vibratory rollers are used for cohesive and cohesionless soils respectively .Mechanical Compaction ‡ This method utilizes mechanical compactors and rollers which reduce voids ‡ This method has very low depth of influence and hence can be used only for shallow soils ‡ In the event of weak soil being present up to certain depth.

water-proofers. aggregants. Lime and/or Flyash and/or bituminous (asphalt) material may be used . dispersants. calcium & sodium chlorides. admixtures like lignin. natural and synthetic polymers ± Cementing: This method employs use of Cement.Soil stabilization techniques ‡ This method can be used only for shallow soils which includes: ± Mechanical: This method employs mixing and reproportioning of soils with sandy/gravely material ± Chemical: This method employs the use of lime.

Dynamic Compaction ‡ This method has a higher depth of influence as compared to mechanical compaction methods and hence can be used for deeper soils ‡ This method includes: ± Vibration methods ± Impact methods ± Micro-Blasting .

Vibration methods These methods are in general called as VIBRO-FLOATATION: o Vibro Pier o Vibro-Compaction o Vibro-Replacement o Vibro Concrete Columns .

Vibro-Pier Back .

Vibro-Compaction Back .

Vibro-Replacement Back .

Vibro Concrete Columns Back .

5 where n is a constant which depends on various factors like: ± ± ± ± Material to be compacted Applied force Contact area Presence of energy absorbing layers . can be compacted The Depth of influence/improvement is given by : D = n(W*H)0. 3.Impact methods 1. The depth up to which soil can be compacted is 10-12 m All types of soil except clay-bearing and soil having high water table. 2.

steel or concrete weight around 500-600kN is dropped from a height of 40-50m with the help of a Animation crane .These methods are: ‡ Rapid Impact compaction: In this method. the soil is compacted under the pounding action of heavy hammer Animation ‡ Dropping of heavy weight: In this method.

Rapid Impact Compaction Back .

Dropping of heavy weight Back .

nuclear power plants. etc. breakwaters.Micro-blasting ‡ The micro-blasting technology is used for the improvement of subsoil under civil and hydro engineering structures. dams. ‡ It employs high-energy explosions to modify the surrounding soil. road embankments and airfield pavements. Underwater explosive compaction explosive compaction with surface charges Loose soil before blasting Densified soil after blasting . ‡ Applications: harbour areas. reclaimed islands. ‡ The energy generated by the explosion of 1 kg of TNT = the energy of 5 tons of tamper falling free from a height of 100m.

explosive compaction with hidden charges .

there is reduction in volume of garbage and more space is available .Pre-loading ‡ It is used to densify sanitary landfills ‡ Pre-load is applied in the form of an imposed earth-fill left for a long period over an area to be compacted ‡ When soil is being laid on the garbage and kept for long period. the leach-ate present in it is squeezed out. as a result.

Settlement .Pre-loading Graph: Time vs.

horizontal and vertical drains .Drainage Methods ‡ This is includes several methods like: ± Dewatering systems: these include methods like construction of sumps/ditches/trenches and well-point system ± Drains: these include open. closed.

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Diaphragm wall ‡ It s the generalized term used for stone columns. vertical sand drains ‡ In which a vertical wall is constructed to prevent collapse of sides by resisting the lateral pressure and add to stability of structure of soil ‡ Thus Diaphragm wall include : a) Sand Drains b) Stone columns .

Sand Drains ‡ Sand and sandy soils are known to be the one of the most cohesionless soils and therefore drainage through sand layers is very easy and convenient ‡ Horizontal or vertical layer of sand are placed to facilitate easy drainage and also to compact the cohesive soil around Back .

Stone Columns ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The method of installation is similar to that of compaction piles The size of stones used is 6-40 mm The spacing of stone columns is kept between 1-3m It is particularly applied to soft soils It is not suitable for highly organic soils .

the pipe is slightly lifted ‡ Due to the load the bottom plate opens out and sand backfills the void created during driving of pipe ‡ The refilled sand prevents the surrounding soils from collapsing Settlement piles .Compaction Piles ‡ Compaction piles are used to compact loose granular soils. thus increasing their bearing capacity ‡ The compaction piles themselves do not carry any load. ‡ They may of weaker material like sand Sand compaction piles : ‡ It consists of driving a hollow steel pipe with closed bottom & fitted with collapsible doors ‡ Sand is filled in the hollow steel pile ‡ Similar to Tremie method .

Grouting & Injection ‡ Grouting is normally done to fill the cracks present in soil or rock strata ‡ It proves effective in following situations ± ± ± ± When foundation is to be below ground water table When site is located in an area where direct access is restricted When design of foundation is restricted by no. of boundaries & contact zones Excavation is not possible besides the proposed structure ‡ The grout used may be a combination of cement slurry with different admixture ‡ Bentonite slurry may be commonly used grout. it is basically a highly plastic clay which has 2 advantages ± Due to its highly plastic nature it can enter into even its smallest present crevice ± It compacts quickly & forms a monolithic structure ± It is costly and hence used in special situations like to protect the sides of tunnels from collapsing .

Grouting .

Grouting .

Jet Grouting .

Grouting Grout Plan & Section .

Electrical methods ‡ Electro-osmosis ± This method is employed for cohesive soils (clays) ± Metal strips are inserted and a well point system is also employed ± The current is passed through metal strips thus becoming the anode and well point system as cathode ± Water being charged with anions flows to well point system and is pumped out .

Thermal Stabilisation by Heating Temperature Formation of Thermal Gradient in soil Flow of pore water Dielectric Constant Particle Electric Repulsion Strength of soil .

Thermal Stabilisation by Cooling Temperature Pore water in soil freezes Ice is formed Soil is reinforced Non-vibration sensitive barriers/walls are formed Soil Strength .

Rock Anchors ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Rock bolts are tensile units employed to keep rock mass in compression It is installed as nearly perpendicular to joints as practicable The ordinary types consist of rods installed in drill holes by driving and wedging. or by grouting with mortar or resins Bolt heads are then attached to rod and twisted against a metal plate to impose the compressive force on mass Fully grouted rock bolts. mines. provide more permanent bolts than ordinary types Rock bolts are used in slope stabilization. in tunnels. caverns. by driving and expanding. open excavations. concrete dam foundations to provide resistance to uplift and sliding .

the sides to be retained are fixed with sheet piles The soil on the backside of the sheet piles are removed A layer of thin metal is laid on ground Soil is spread on this layer of metal strip and strip is bracketed around the layer of soil ‡ The same process of laying metal strips and soil alternatively is continued till required height is achieved .Reinforced Earth Technology ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ In this technology.

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Geo-membranes. 3. Geo-grids. 6. 2. 5. Separation Fluid transmission Reinforcement Filtration Containment Barrier .Geo-products ‡ These include use of Geo-textiles. 4. nylon or PVC and their variations ‡ The main functions of these are : 1. geo-webs. geo-composites. etc ‡ These in general are porous of polypropylene polyester. Geo-spacers.

5 m after ponding ‡ This treatment provides a working platform for construction and an impermeable moisture barrier to retard subsequent desiccation of prewetted soil . ponding process is easily facilitated ‡ Because of pre-wetting.Pre-wetting ‡ The technique is to flood the area prior to construction ‡ As in natural expansive soils. extensive network of fissures and cracks present initially.3-0. the water content will be closer to be attained after construction. hence volume changes will be small subsequently ‡ It is usual to treat the surface with a layer of lime to a depth of 0.

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