RECENT ADVANCES IN COMPOSITES

DR PRASHANT

CLASSIFICATON
Monomers for reduced shrinkage/stress Monomers for enhanced cure& properties Hydrophobic monomers Anticariogenic monomers Bioactive materials Surface coatings Direct posterior composites Indirect posterior composites Fiber reinforced composites Nano fillers

MONOMERS FOR REDUCED SHRINKAGE

Spiro-ortho-carbonates.(1970) Polyol with oxirane. Vinylcyclopropanes(VCP)(1997) Polybutadiene rubber polymer(1999) Methacrylated styrene allyl alchol(mssa)1997

Chain transfer agent propanol and diacetyl added to Bis-GMA/UDMA. ormocers . BPA-mixed with TEGDMA-1999 Benzyl methacrylate and laurayl methacrylate added to BisGma/TEGDMA.MONOMERS FOR ENCHANCED CURE & PROPERTIES 30wt%PEG600 DMA.

HYDROPHOBIC MONOMERS Addition of fluorine and phenyl to central carbon 10 methacryl oxidecyl trimethoxysilane Phenoxymethyl groups in UDMA .

mutans and action viscous for 10 wks).ANTIBACTERIAL MATERIALS MDPB 1wt%halo(active against S. .

BIOACTIVE FORMULATIONS ACP -(amorphous calcium phosaphate)2000 SURFACE COATING Copolymer of acrylic acid.decreases plaque retention. resist tooth brush abrasion . alcylmethacrylate and polysiloxane resist demineralization .

compatible with BisGma/TEGMA.ORTHOCABONATES(SOC} expanding monomers Early soc± not compatible with BisGma incomplete polymerization Soc with lower melting point & structural variation.SPIROSPIRO.6% Soc + epoxy resins react at room temp by uv light .less shrinkage Expansion---3.

ratio 50: 50/or40:60 (Eick et al 1990) ADVANTAGES Dec polymerization shrinkage Inc toughness. Dec water penetration Bulk placement Dec post operative sensitivity .addition of polyol to epoxy resin .Prolong curing--.

conventional composite 10mpa Low shrinkage-expansion of oxirane ring. opens during polymerization Higher strength.( b) POLYOL WITH OXIRANE Cyracure(2002) Prototype composite of (polyol)& oxirane monomers (epoxy) with zr silicate fillers Light cured& cationic initiated Shrinkage-1% at 60 min -1.0mpa. .6% at 24 hrs Contraction stress-1.

(c) VINYL CYLOPROPANES(VCP CYLOPROPANES(VCP) 1997 VCP monomers have been formulated Replaces Bis-gma /UDMA resin Shrinkage is 2/3 of Bis-gma /UDMA resin. .slower curing rates which allows stress relaxation.Low stress.

(D) POLYBUTADIENE RUBBER POLYMER 1999 20um polymer is absorbed into fumed silica and added Bis-gma / TEGDMA Reduces shrinkage by 25% .

Reduces shrinkage± by 20% .(f) Methacrylated Styrene Allyl Alcohol (MSSA) 1997 It replaced 20% Bis-gma/ TEGDMA with 62 vol% filler.

g.solitaire .-. Dc-95-100% (better strength& wear resistance) (b) BPA-mixed with TEGDMA² BPATEGDMA² 1999 Poly (isopropyl diphenol) E.MONOMERS FOR ENHANCED CURE AND PROPERTIES (a) 30wt% PEG 600 DMA.copolymer of DMApoly (ethylene glycol 600) dimethacrylate with diethyelene glycol dimethacrylate.

.ADVATAGES Shrinkage reduction± 10-15% Increase compressive strength Low water sorption Decrease wear rate.

(c) Benzyl methacrylate& lauryl methacrylate added to Bis-gma/ BisTEGDMA high degree of cure due to decreased viscosity (D) CHAIN TRANSFER AGENTS PROPANALOL AND DIACETYL ADDED TO BIS-GMA/ TEGDMA BIS(E) ORMOCERS²EX DEFINITE ) ORMOCERS² .

HYDROPHOBIC MONOMERS ADDITION OF FLUORINE AND PHENYL TO CENTRAL CARBON Adv± decreases water sorption due to 10% Bis-gma (B) PHENOXYMETHYL GR IN UDMA ) 10.30% reduction in water sorption .

good flow Spread uniformly Intimately adapted to cavity .FLOWABLE COMPOSITES Modification of hybrid & SPF Reduce filler content ADVANTAGES Consistency.

stickiness.DISADVANTAGES Low elastic modulii .access difficult c) Cl-1 gingival areas d) Fissure sealants e) Class v lesions F) Porcelain repairs G) Resurfacing worn composites . amalgam.more polymerization shrinkage-inc filler content More susceptible to wear Difficult to manipulate. INDICATION a To repair old composites. crown margins b) Class 2 .

Uncured resin is stiff and resistant to slumping .yet moldable under forces of amalgam condensing instruments Similar to amalgam . .placement tech.DIRECT POSTERIOR COMPOSITES PACK ABLE COMPOSITES(1990) Elongated fibers. fibrous filler particles Size-100um in length. textured surface interlock and resist flow.

20. .lars Ehrnford .0 um Crossection²15. resistance to flow.0 um Silanization² BisGma/ UDMA Colloidal silica ultrafine particles were in corporated to control handling chracterstics Viscosity.sio2 Diameter->2.0.PRIMM Dr . reduce stickness.sweeden Polymer Rigid Inorganic Matrix Material Consist of resin& ceramic Filler-continuous network of ceramic Fibers-Al2o3. condensibility.

QTH Reduced polymerization shrinkage ² greater ceramic fibers. greater incorporation of ceramic fibers Increased resistance to wear high conc of ceramic fibers. Silanization of ceramic surfaces so the resin does not pull away from surface of fibers Non-sticky .6mm.PROPERTIES increased flexure strength. wear more than enamel(5um) Higher depth of cure.

coffthermal expansion Greater wear resistance. .ADVANTAGES Better marginal adaptation Lower potential for incorporation of micro porosities Lesser polymerization shrinkage (localized within ceramic chamber) Optimum mechanical characteristics. flexure strength. modulus of elasticity.

Eg± Solitare (kulzer) Alert (jeneric/ pentron) Surefil (dentsply) Filtek P60(3m) .

Short lived antibacterial activity Deterioration of physical & mechanial properties of material . DISADVANTAGES Toxic effect on released material. Population shift of microorganism.ANTIBACTERIAL COMPOSITE Chlorhexidene was tried± no uniform release unsuccessful.

IMTIAZO ET AL(1994) Synthesized monomers MDPB (Methacryloxydecyl pyridinium bromide) Quaternary ammonia compound Chemically bound to resin matrix. ADVANTAGES Antibacterial effect was seen after long term immersion in water No adverse effect mechanical properties of BisGma Effect on streptococci. .

SILVER Ag ions organic oxide sio2 Hydro thermally supported into space b/w crystal lattice network of filler particles. Oligodynamic action . Supported in silica gel and thin film were coated over surface composites Direct contact with bacteria.

strength.ADVANTAGES No adverse effect on mechanical properties. Color stability Good depth of cure Do not disturb polymer network DISADVANTAGES When silica gel.as carrieer of ag ions water sorption adverse effect on mechanical properties .

INDIRECT POSTERIOR COMPOSITES Indirect composites inlays & onlays reduce wear & leakage Art glass Bell glass hp Clearfil CR inlay Coltene inlay system Cristobal Sculpture Targis True vitality Visio gem .

7mm) Microglass filler .ART GLASS Polyglass Improved resin & filler technology Higher levels of cross-linking COMPOSITION Multifunctional methacrylates Bifunctional monomers filler--20% silica. Ba glass (mean particle size-0.

veeners Repair introrally-artglass liquid& charisma light cured composite resin . onlays. improve sculpt ability indication Metal & non metal crowns FPD Inlays. xeno stroboscopic light Silica-reduces slumping.Emisssion range-320-500nm.

e/yr 3-4um/1 yr) Good marginal adaptation Esthetics Proximal contact and contour .ADVANTAGES More wear resistance than conventional light cured composites (i.

BELL GLASS HP Belle de.2-1. heat level 140ºc. Physical properties-strength of porcelain Avg wear rate-1. St .bis gma& fillers Dual cure indirect polymer ceramic Low wear.5%. 60lb pressure in nitrogen environment. . high strength .clair 1996 Resin marix.fiber optic light.5 um/yr Cure rate 98.

Elevated temp.dec wear resistance . Reduce translucency 3. Interferes with curing process 2. Entrapment in resin mass.inc translucency Why oxygen is not used 1.inhibit polymerization inhibit max curing potential.inc polymerization rate Inc atmospheric pressure dec monomer vaporization Nitrogen gas oxygen free environmentinc polymerization.

INDICATIONS Inlays Onlays Anterior veneers Implants Full coverage crowns Metal free partial dentures Long term provisional restorations splints .

sets cement. Light irradiation 40s. .CLEARFIL CR INLAY kurary Hybrid composite Processed in CRC-100 curing oven inlay bonded with CR inlay cement.clear field posterior light cured composite resin. chemical cure-beneath restoration ensures save bond Repaired intra orally. stabilize inlay. dual cured luting composite resin inlay.

1min Brilliant dentin( hybrid resin composite) Repaired intra orally.brilliant light cure composite resin. .COLTENE INLAY SYSTEM Direct & indirect application.heat -120°c& light -7min and cooled. Fabricated directly in the tooth& placed in special oven .

CRISTOBAL Patented bioglass polymer material COMPOSITION Metal primer Adhesive liquid Intense color liquid Opaquer liquid(12 shades) Opaquer powder(20 shades) Modeling liquid Oxygen barrier Dentin opaque core(19 shades) ) .

TEGDMA.12 after 24 hr) Low wear rate(>5um/yr) High compressive strengths.7um.Dentin core(17 shades) Incisal core(16 shades) Transparent core(4 shades) Opalescent core(4 shades) Gingival core(1 shade) Barium glass-74.matrix is bis Gma.UDMA Very low polymerization shrinkage(0.2% Particle size-0. .

user friendly handling.SCULPTURE Polymeric ceramic Very low water sorption High wear resistance High fracture toughness Low polymerization shrinkage Truly challenge esthetics of porcelain. excellent marginal integrity. polishability .

Polymerization-cure-lite plus /hands free spectralite Surface glazed-light curing in pressure vessel under nitrogen atmosphere Final curing ±heat curing under vacuumraise mechanical prop. . virtually eliminate residual monomers.

AG Ceromer (ceramic ±optimized polymer) Provided ±base.TARGIS Ivoclar. dentin and incisal shades Processed-heat& light oven for ideal polymerization (targis powder) .

INDICATION Inlays On lays Veneers Single & multiple units of metal free restorations .

self. tensile. laminate veneers . low water sorption Radiopaque. light curing Wear rate less than that of amalgam High compressive strength.FPD. flexural strength 3mm depth of cure.TRUE VITALITY Den Mat inc Hybrid composite resin Three curing modes.vita lumin shades Simple direct restoration to inlays.heat cure. onlays.

direct visible light source (visio alpha units) Final cure-light & vacuum chamber (visio beta unit) Vacuum completes curing of oxygen ± inhibited layer & results in greater color stability. .GEM ESPE Dental AG Light vacuum cured micro filled composite designed for laboratory fabrication over the metal substructures for crown & FPD Initial curing.VISIOVISIO. enhanced physical properties.

geometrical arrangement of fibers and overlying resin used. Gr is hetrogeneous. depending on nature of fibers. . acting as crack stopper. Fibers are bonded to resin via adhesive interface Fibers improved structural properties.FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES Resin based restorations containing fibers. enhancing their physical properties.

Immediate replacement trasitional-long term provisional bridges. Individual restorations (inlay. full veneer crown). onlay. Periodontal splinting/ post trauma splint. Fixed bridges-ant & posterior. Simple cantilever 2. Fixed orthodontic retainers.CLINICAL APPLICATIONS Reinforced resin based composites. 1. Implant supported Reinforcing or repairing dentures. .

ADVATAGES
Single visit immediate treatment Suitable for transitional& long term replacement. Suitable for young pt Metal free restoration Improved esthetics Easy to make Can be frequently used with minimal or no tooth preparation Less wear of opposing tooth as compared to traditional composites

Suitable for transitional and long term provisional restorations. Readily repaired. DISADVANTAGES Potential wear of overlying veneering composite²pt with parafunctional habits Excellent moisture control required± for adhesive technique Space requirement greater in comparison to metal occlusal surfaces to allow sufficient room for fibers & adequate bulk for veenerin composite onlay

May lack sufficient rigidity for long span bridges.

Uncertain longevity in comparison to traditional technique.

.2um) Do not produce scattering or significant absorption. 2. Nanosilicate bonded composite can be used for 1. Do not tend to agglomerate in chains like silica.01um Below wavelength of visible light(0.005-0.020.based fillers. Effectively invisible.NANOFILLERS Size-0.

nanocluster filler particles. strength of hybrid and polish of micro fill. Nanomer ± discrete.loosely bound agglomerates of particle size 20-75 um. non-agglomerated nanosized particles. .filtek supreme(3M ESPE) New RBC-nanomer.Nanofillers fit between several polymer chains high filler loading. Eg. Nanoclusters.

wurzburg.ORMOCERS Organically modified ceramic. in co-operation with partners from dental industry Introduced in 1998 Classification Inorganic polymer Organic polymer Three structural segments chracterze the monomeric molecular perstages . Developed by fraunhofer institute for silicate research.

which form an additional cross linked network matrix after induction of a radical based polymerization.1. 2. . The organically polymerizing molecular segment has (meth) acryl ate gr. The inorganic condensing molecule segment is used to build inorganic network . An inorganic si-o-si network is derived through targeted hydrolysis and in organic polycondensation in a sol-gel process.

SMART COMPOSITES 1998 releases f.3. The inorganic polycondensation with organic polymerization result in formation of as inorganic. Ca ions as ph drops in area immediately adjacent to the restorative material due to plaque increase in release functional ions. OH. Smart composites²alkaline glass fibers decreases in secondary caries at margins of restoration .organic co polymer.

Dentin should be sealed to decreases the sensitivity. calcium silicate glass(1. .60% vol. 80% wt.6 um) in dimetharylate monomers. Al and silicate glass fillers(1um) with yttrium fluoride. Use of adhesive is not recommended. but more than composites.Paste consist of Ba. fluoride release from this material is lower than conventional GIC.

Pre reacted glass ionomer particles. fluorosilicate glass react with polyacrylic acid prior incorporation in resin. require use of bonding agent eg. visible light cured. flouride recharge) resin based materials (esthetics.beautifil(shofu). strength and biocompatibility). Similar to compomer and resin ±based materials.GIOMERS Hybrid of GIC& composites. Prop of GIC (fluoride release. .

INDICATION Class v Cervical erosion Root caries .

INITIATING SYSTEM-3 components SYSTEMCamphroquinoneCamphroquinone. An iodonium saltsaltAn electron donordonor- .match emission spectra.dec polymerization stress.SILORANES(DMSILORANES(DM-2005) Combination of siloxane+ oxirane Hydrophobic in nature Network ± generated by cationic ring opening. polymerization of cyloaliphatic oxirane low shrinkage.

5 um Silane layer± prevent attack of acidic si-oH gr of quartz.94% at 60 s Low stress buildup .Filler-quartz²0.prevents undesired initiation of cationic polymerization. ADVANTAGES Optimal balance b/w high polymerization rn& best light intensity Volumetric shrinkage²0..

High reactivity Higest ambient light stability .

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Vimal .20.O.k .68-74 Dental materials(2002).634.1990 J am dent asso 134(12).D).177 J am dent asso 106.Sikri Dental materials(2005).2001 Text book of operative dentistry.21.177.18. Dr CAROL SEQUEIRA Jada-1997& 98 J am dent asso 132(5). 639-645.REFERENCES Recent advances in restorative dental materials± Dr .216-226 J Am dent asso(1990).413-421 Journal of esthetic dentistry (2000)12. 1983 J am dent asso 20.NAGESWAR RAO(PROF& H.1581-9 2003 .