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NETW 704






Dr. Eng Amr T. Abdel-Hamid

Winter 2010


d  Table of Contents ë What is Signaling? and why it is relevant? ë The history of signaling ë Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ë Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) ë Common Channel Signaling (CCS) ë The limitations of CAS and CCS x .

d  `  n but already c ered« ë Fl  ` ntr l Silex St  and Wait G ack Selectie Reeat  .

release and other control of calls. It breathes life into the infrastructure. d  What is Signaling? ë The signaling network can be considered the telecommunications network's nervous system.³ ë 2 Minute Test: Write 5 Reasons why Signaling is relevant? J . and network management. in automatic telecommunications operation. ë The ITU-T defines signaling as "The exchange of information (other than by speech) specifically concerned with the establishment.

d  Table of Contents ë What is Signaling? and why it is relevant? ë The history of signaling ë Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ë Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) ë Common Channel Signaling (CCS) ë The limitations of CAS and CCS - .

d  The History of Signaling ë Before 1878: Star c nnecti ns beteen  nes ë 1878: 1st Manual Excange ress Wires usy Oerat rs Priacy and Security Allegati ns ë 1889: 1st Aut atic Excange (Str ger Excange) ë 1896: Pulse Dial ë 1950s-1996s Direct Distance Dialing ten IDDD m .

d  Manual Oerat r Vs Aut atic Equialent  .

d  Table of Contents ë What is Signaling? and why it is relevant? ë The history of signaling ë Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ë Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) ë Common Channel Signaling (CCS) ë The limitations of CAS and CCS D .

d  PSTN Network Topology ë ’e t  l gy a net rk describes te ari us net rk n des and   tey interc nnect. ’ande ` nnects EOs t geter. ’ransit sitces are generally used t aggregate tra ic tat is carried acr ss l ng ge graical distances. ’ransit Pr ides an inter ace t an ter ierarcical net rk leel. ‰ . ë ’yes  des in te PS’ End O ice (EO) Als called a r cal Excange. r iding an aggregati n  int r tra ic beteen te. ’e End O ice r ides net rk access r te subscriber.

d  PSTN Network Topology ë ’ere are t riary et ds c nnecting sitcing n des. in ic all n des are interc nnected. ë ’e irst ar ac is a es t  l gy. ë PS’ net rks use a c binati n tese t et ds. | . ic are largely drien by c st and te tra ic atterns beteen excanges. ë ’e sec nd ar ac is a ierarcical tree in ic n des are aggregated as te ierarcy traerses r  te subscriber access  ints t te t  te tree.

d  PSTN Network Topology || .

d  Network and Subscriber Signaling ë et rk signaling takes lace beteen n des in te c re net rk. ë Subscriber signaling takes lace n te line beteen te subscribers and teir l cal sitc. |x .

and  ssibly a e c ands r suleentary serices. called arty digits. ë et rk signaling as rei usly ileented using `annel Ass ciated Signaling (`AS) tecniques and systes. and cellular r aing. a  dern c re net rk ust er r ery c lex signaling. In c aris n. d  Network and Subscriber Signaling ë ’e subscriber ust nly generate a liited nuber signals n r  k. | . suc as t se t su rt database drien serices like r cal uber P rtability (rP). credit r calling card alidati n. ë It as been relaced it `  n `annel Signaling (``S) systes.

d  orward and Backward signals ë F rard signals re er t signals tat trans er in te directi n call establisent. ë ackard signals re er t signals tat trans er in te reerse directi n. r r  te calling arty t te called arty. |J .

d  Subscriber Signaling ë M st subscribers are c nnected t teir l cal sitc by anal g subscriber lines. ë Subscriber signaling as e led less raidly tan net rk signaling. ë Subscriber signals can be br ken d n int te ll ing ur categ ries Address Signals Sueris ry Signals ’ nes and Ann unceents Ringing |- .

 k ’e tele ne enters te  k c nditi n en te andset is li ted r  its cradle. |m . d  Supervisory Signals ë A tele ne as t  ssible suerisi n states n k On k is te c nditi n in ic te tele ne is n t in use. ë ’e resence r absence direct current in te subscriber's l cal sitc line deterines te tele ne's suerisi n state.

and busyt ne. tat are sent by a sitc t te calling arty t indicate a call's r gress. | . d  Tones and Announcements ë ’ nes and ann unceents are audible backard signals. ring back. suc as dial t ne.

Instead. ic is layed t te calling arty t alert i tat te called arty  ne is ringing. it generates ne signal tat is alied t iceer lines are t be layed audible ringing. d  Ringing ë Ringing is a rard signal sent by te sitc t te called subscriber t indicate te arrial a call. n a rare ccasi n. ë It is kn n  re seci ically as  er ringing t distinguis it r  audible ringing. ’is r ble ccurs because te caller's sitc d es n t generate an indeendent ringing signal r eac line. ë  te Audible and  er ringing are n t syncr nized. |D . a caller is already n te line en y u li t te andset. ’is is y.

|‰ . address signaling is eiter c neyed by te dial ulse r Dual’ ne Multile Frequency (D’MF) et ds. ë F r anal g lines. d  Address Signals ë Address signals reresent te called arty nuber's dialed digits. ë Address signaling ccurs en te tele ne is   k.

d  Dial Pulse ë ’e nuber breaks in te string reresents te digits ne break r alue 1. ic is signaled using ten breaks). t breaks r alue 2. and s n (excet r te alue 0. x .

x| . ë It is uc aster tan te rei us ulse et d and can be used r signaling a ter call c leti n. eac it a di erent requency. d  DTM ë A D’MF signal is created using a air t nes.

d  Table of Contents ë What is Signaling? and why it is relevant? ë The history of signaling ë Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) ë Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) ë Common Channel Signaling (CCS) ë The limitations of CAS and CCS xx .

Single requency (SF) inband and ut band signaling R bbed bit signaling x . ë `AS can be ileented using te ll ing related systes ell Systes MF. R1. and ` . R2. redeterined ay. d  Channel Associated Signaling ë ’e key eature tat distinguises `annel Ass ciated Signaling (`AS) r  `  n `annel Signaling (``S) tat a dedicated ixed signaling caacity is set aside r eac and eery trunk in a ixed.

ë rimited Signaling Information: `AS is liited by te a unt in rati n tat can be signaled using te  ice cannel. ë Signaling is limited: t call setu and release ases nly. ’is eans tat signaling cann t take lace during te call c nnecti n ase. d  rimitations of CAS ë Susceptibility to raud: `AS el ying inband sueris ry signaling is extreely suscetible t raud because te subscriber can generate tese signals by sily using a t ne generat r d n a andset  utiece. xJ . in te case digital `AS. at regular interals een it ut ne signals. ë Inefficient Use of Resources: `AS systes are ine icient because tey require eiter c ntinu us signaling r. ecause nly a sall  rti n te  ice band is used r signaling.

it te caacity being used as and en necessary. ë ’e signaling cannel can usually carry signaling in rati n r t usands tra ic circuits. as  sed t a e bits all cated t act as indicat rs in digital `AS. d  Common Channel Signaling (CCS) ë ``S re ers t te situati n in ic te signaling caacity is r ided in a c  n  l. trans erring er 200 bytes in a single SS7 acket. x- . ë ``S systes are acketbased. ic is a bl ck in rati n tat is diided int ields tat de ine a certain araeter r urter sub ield. ’e signaling in rati n is trans erred by eans essages.

anage. and release trunks. tyically r te ur se transitting b t te query and res nse t and r  telec unicati n databases. d  Circuit-Related & Non-Circuit-Related ë Circuit-Related Signaling: re ers t te riginal uncti nality signaling. ic is t establis. and clear d n basic tele ne serice calls. Due t te adent suleentary serices and te need r database c unicati n in cellular net rks and Intelligent et rks. and release trunks. suerisi n. xm . ë Non-Circuit-Related Signaling: re ers t signaling tat is n t related t te establisent. ë  ncircuitrelated signaling all s te trans er in rati n tat is n t related t a articular circuit. it is used t set u. In ter  rds. suerise.

d  Common Channel Signaling Modes ë ’ere are tree tyes ``S signaling  des Ass ciated Quasiass ciated  nass ciated ë SS7 runs in ass ciated r quasiass ciated  de. x . Ass ciated and quasi ass ciated signaling  des ensure sequential deliery. but n t in n nass ciated  de. ile n nass ciated d es n t. SS7 d es n t run in n n ass ciated  de because it d es n t ae r cedures r re rdering ut sequence essages.

xD . d  Associated Signaling ë b t te signaling and te c rres nding user tra ic take te sae r ute tr ug te net rk. ë Ass ciated  de requires eery net rk sitc t ae signaling links t eery ter interc nnected sitc (tis is kn n as a ully esed net rk design).

d  åuasi-Associated Signaling ë In quasiass ciated  de. signaling ll s a di erent r ute tan te sitced tra ic t ic it re ers. x‰ . requiring te signaling t traerse at least ne interediate n de. Quasiass ciated net rks tend t ake better use te signaling links.

ile n nass ciated signaling d es n t. ë SS7 d es n t run in n nass ciated  de because n r cedures exist r re rdering ut sequence essages. te signaling as any  ssible r utes tr ug te net rk r a gien call r transacti n.  . d  Non-Associated Signaling ë ecause te at is n t ixed at a gien  int in tie in n nass ciated  de. Ass ciated and quasiass ciated signaling  des assure sequential deliery. te ackets igt arrie ut sequence because di erent r utes igt ae been traersed. ’ere re.

d  CCS rimitations ë `SS as te ll ing disadantages in c aris n t `AS ``S links can be a single  int ailure²a single link can c ntr l t usands  ice circuits. s i a link ails and n alternatie r utes are und. s elab rate ` ntinuity ’est r cedures are required. t usands calls c uld be l st. | . ’ere is n inerent testing seec at by call setu signaling.

te integrated serices digital net rk (ISD). it r ides te ecaniss t all  te telec unicati n net rk eleents t excange c ntr l in rati n. d  p  p  ë SS7/`7 is te r t c l suite tat is el yed gl bally. ë SS7/`7 is te key enabler te ublic sitced tele ne net rk (PS’). . eing a signaling r t c l. intelligent net rks (Is). and ublic land  bile net rks (PrMs). as ell as a serice lat r. acr ss telec unicati ns net rks. t r ide signaling. ë It is a acketsitced net rk.

SS7/`7based transacti ns identi y.d  p  p  ë Eac tie a cellular  ne is  ered u. autenticate. and register te subscriber. ë SS7/`7 net rk tracks te cellular subscriber t all  call deliery. . as erceied by te subscriber. een en te subscriber is  bile. ë SS7/`7 is  ssibly te  st i rtant eleent r  a quality serice (Q S) ersectie. as ell as t all  a call tat is already in r gress t reain c nnected.

a ecting an estiated 60.000 e le and c sting in excess 60 illi n d llars in l st reenue as estiated by A’ ’. ’e ailure caused a nine  ur utage.d  Impact of SS7 Network ailure ë ’e critical nature te SS7 net rk and te  tential iact ailures as de nstrated in January 1990 en a ailure in te SS7 s tare an A’ ’ sitcing n de riled tr ug er 100 sitcing n des. .

d  Signaling System No. l g . and cellular gae deliery . 7-Based Services ë ’ele nearketing nubers suc as t ll ree and ree ne ë ’ele ting (ass calling) ë Single Direct ry uber ë Suleentary serices ë `alling nae (`AM) ë r cal nuber  rtability (rP) ë `ellular net rk  bility anageent and r aing  S rt Message Serice (SMS)  Enanced Messaging Serice (EMS)² Ringt ne.

d  Signaling System No. 7: The Key to Convergence ë SS7/`7 is inested it Internet and ter datacentric tecn l gies t  Internet `all Waiting Internet `alling ae Serices `lickt Dial Alicati ns Webr serased ’elec unicati n Serices WrA "H ts t" illing r cati nased Gaes .

6). . d  Pre-SS7 Systems ë ``I’’ R1 (regi nal 1) ë `6 (``I’’ Signaling Syste  . als called SS6. as te irst syste t el y `  n `annel Signaling (``S). and te Internati nal ’elegra and ’ele ne ` nsultatie ` ittee (``I’’) ad ted it in 1980 as a  rldide standard. ë A’ ’ deel ed SS7/`7 in 197 .

d  .

’e internati nal net rk uses a 14bit P`. ’e nati nal net rks als use a 14bit P` excet  rt Aerica and `ina. . ic use an inc atible 24bit P`. ë Eac SP is addressed by an integer called a  int c de (P`). d  SS7 Network Architecture ë ’e  rldide signaling net rk as t uncti nally indeendent leels Internati nal ati nal ë SS7 net rk n des are called signaling  ints (SPs).

u t 16 links beteen t SPs can be used. A gr u links beteen t SP is called a linkset. . ë ’ r ide  re bandidt and/ r r redundancy. ë ’e bandidt a signaling link is n rally 64 kil bits er sec nd (kbs). d  Signaling rinks and rinksets ë SPs are c nnected t eac ter by signaling links er ic signaling takes lace.

ë A . ’ere are n ecaniss r r ute disc ery. d  Routes and Routesets ë SS7 r utes are statically r isi ned at eac SP.

ë All te rer isi ned r utes t a articular SP destinati n are called te .   is de ined as a rer isi ned at beteen s urce and destinati n r a articular relati n.

  . .

d  Node Types ë ’ere are tree di erent tyes SP Signal ’rans er P int Serice Sitcing P int Serice ` ntr l P int .

’ey are b t te s urce and destinati n r M’P user tra ic. Under n ral erati n. I ne te S’Ps ails r is lati n ccurs because signaling link ailure. . ë An S’P can exist in ne t rs Standal ne S’P del yed in "ated" airs r te ur ses redundancy. te ated air sares te l ad. ’ey als can trans er inc ing essages t ter n des. te ter S’P takes te ull l ad until te r ble it its ate as been recti ied. d  Signal Transfer Point ë A Signal ’rans er P int (S’P) is res nsible r te trans er SS7 essages beteen ter SS7 n des. acting s eat like a r uter in an IP net rk. Integrated S’P (SP it S’P) c bine te uncti nality an SSP and an S’P. ë An S’P is neiter te ultiate s urce n r te destinati n r  st signaling essages.

’ele ne c anies and ter telec unicati n serice r iders el y a nuber databases tat can be queried r serice data r te r isi n serices. An SSP can riginate and terinate essages. . te essage is discarded. but it cann t trans er te. I a essage is receied it a  int c de tat d es n t atc te  int c de te receiing SSP. ë Service Control Point A Serice ` ntr l P int (S`P) acts as an inter ace beteen telec unicati ns databases and te SS7 net rk. d  SSP and SCP ë Service Switching Point A Serice Sitcing P int (SSP) is a  ice sitc tat inc r rates SS7 uncti nality.

d  Exale signaling a PO’S call 4. dials callee. caller g es  k. SSP A rulates t S’P X Initial Address Message (IAM). SSP A  decides t r ute call ia SSP . rards t S’P W   1. d d     d. S’P W rards IAM SSP  2. S’P X rards IAM 3.


 deterines it seres callee. d  Exale signaling a PO’S call . sends ringing s und n trunk t A 6. creates address c leti n essage (A`M[A. SSP A receies A`M. A`M r uted t Z t Y t A 7.trunk]). rings callee  ne.   c nnects subscriber line t all cated A trunk (caller ears ringing)   d ..

cecks caller is   c nnected in b t directi ns t trunk. sends anser essage t A (AM[A. d  Exale signaling a PO’S call 8. `allee g es  k. SSP A receies AM.. AM r uted t A   10.trunk]) 9. d     .  creates.

1800`ArrA’’ translates t 162962 1943 3. `aller dials 800 nuber.g.. S’P W rards  request t M 1. M er rs l ku. sends rely t A  2. rulates translati n d d query. e. A rec gnizes  800 nuber. send t S’P W . d  Exale signaling a 800 ca11 800 nuber l gical  ne nuber ë translati n t ysical  ne nuber needed.

A begins signaling t set u call t  nuber ass ciated it d d 800 nuber . d  Exale signaling a 800 ca11 800 nuber l gical  ne nuber ë translati n t ysical  ne nuber needed    1.

d  SS7 Protocol Overview ë ’e nuber  ssible r t c l stack c binati ns is gr ing. 2. ’e ain r t c ls are Message ’rans er Parts (M’P 1. and 3) Signaling ` nnecti n ` ntr l Part (S``P) ’ransacti n `aabilities Alicati n Part (’`AP) ’ele ny User Part (’UP) ISD User Part (ISUP) .

   . ë ’e net rk layer is called M’P leel 3 (M’P3). d  SS7 Protocol Overview ë ’e SS7 ysical layer is called M’P leel 1 (M’P1) ë ’e data link layer is called M’P leel 2 (M’P2).




ë ’e M’P r ides reliable trans er and deliery signaling essages. it ut l ss r dulicati n.   ë ’e M’P trans ers te signaling essage. in te c rrect sequence. .

and l  c ntr l. err r c rrecti n by retransissi n. ë ’e M’P2 r t c l is seci ic t narr band links ( 6 r 64 kbs). ë M’P2 r ides delineati n SUs. d  M’P2 ë M’P2 ensures reliable trans er signaling essages. ë SS7 ackets are called signal units (SUs). signaling link err r  nit ring. alignent SUs. . ë It encasulates signaling essages int ariablelengt SS7 ackets.

Eac essage as b t an Originati n P int ` de (OP`) and a DP`. R uting tables itin an SS7 n de are used t r ute essages. . Signaling Network Management (SNM): M nit rs linksets and r utesets. M’P3 uses te P` t identi y te c rrect n de r essage deliery. ’e OP` is inserted int essages at te M’P3 leel t identi y te SP tat riginated te essage. ’e DP` is inserted t identi y te address te destinati n SP. r iding a sel  ealing ecanis r te SS7 net rk. r iding status t net rk n des s tat tra ic can be rer uted en necessary. SM als r ides r cedures t take c rrectie acti n en ailures ccur. d  MTP3 ë M’P3 er rs t uncti ns Signaling Message Handling (SMH) Deliers inc ing essages t teir intended User Part and r utes utg ing essages t ard teir destinati n.

ë ISUP als as inerent su rt r suleentary serices. suc as aut atic callback. calling line identi icati n. . d  TUP and ISUP ë ’UP and ISUP sit n t  M’P t r ide circuit related signaling t set u. and tear d n calls. ë  t ’UP and ISUP are used t er r intersitc call signaling. aintain.

S``P trans ers queries and res nses beteen te Visit r r cati n Register (VrR) and H e r cati n Register (HrR) databases. It is als used t c nnect te radi related c  nents in cellular net rks and r interSSP c unicati n su rting `rASS serices. ë Suc additi nal eatures are used t su rt n ncircuit related signaling. . in cellular net rks. d  SCCP ë S``P r ides a  re lexible eans r uting and r ides ecaniss t trans er data er te SS7 net rk. ë F r exale. ic is  stly used t interact it databases (S`Ps).

ë ’`AP als r ides transacti n anageent. ë `  nents can be ieed as instructi ns sent beteen alicati ns. . all ing ultile essages t be ass ciated it a articular c unicati ns excange. kn n as a transacti n.d  TCAP ë ’`AP all s alicati ns (called subsystes) t c unicate it eac ter ( er te SS7 net rk) using agreedu n data eleents. ë ’ese data eleents are called c  nents.