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You are on page 1of 30

Epp, setions 1.4 and 1.5

Aaron Bloomfield

1

Review of Boolean algebra

• Just like Boolean logic

• Variables can only be 1 or 0

– Instead of true / false

2

Review of Boolean algebra

• Not_ is a horizontal bar above the number

– 0_ = 1

– 1=0

• Or is a plus

– 0+0 = 0

– 0+1 = 1

– 1+0 = 1

– 1+1 = 1

• And is multiplication

– 0*0 = 0

– 0*1 = 0

– 1*0 = 0

– 1*1 = 1

3

Review of Boolean algebra

_ __

• Example: translate (x+y+z)(xyz) to a Boolean

logic expression

– (x∨y∨z)∧(¬x∧¬y∧¬z)

• We can define a Boolean function:

– F(x,y) = (x∨y)∧(¬x∧¬y)

• And then write a “truth table” for it:

x y F(x,y)

1 1 0

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 0 4

Basic logic gates

x

• Not x

x xy x xyz

y

• And y z

x+y x x+y+z

x y

• Or y z

x xy

• Nand y

x x+y

• Nor y

x x⊕y

• Xor y

5

Converting between circuits and

equations

• Find the output of the following circuit

x x+y

y

(x+y)y

y y

__

• Answer: (x+y)y

– Or (x∨y)∧¬y 6

Converting between circuits and

equations

• Find the output of the following circuit

x x

xy xy

y y

___

__

• Answer: xy

– Or ¬(¬x∧¬y) ≡ x∨y 7

Converting between circuits and

equations

• Write the circuits for the following

Boolean algebraic expressions

__

a) x+y

x x x+y

y

8

Converting between circuits and

equations

• Write the circuits for the following

Boolean

_______

algebraic expressions

b) (x+y)x

x x+y

x+y (x+y)x

y

9

Writing xor using and/or/not

• p ⊕ q ≡ (p ∨q) ∧¬(p ∧q) x y x⊕y

____ 1 1 0

• x ⊕ y ≡ (x + y)(xy) 1 0 1

0 1 1

0 0 0

x x+y (x+y)(xy)

y

xy xy

10

Converting decimal numbers to

binary

• 53 = 32 + 16 + 4 + 1

= 25 + 24 + 22 + 20

= 1*25 + 1*24 + 0*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20

= 110101 in binary

= 00110101 as a full byte in binary

• 211= 128 + 64 + 16 + 2 + 1

= 27 + 26 + 24 + 21 + 20

= 1*27 + 1*26 + 0*25 + 1*24 + 0*23 + 0*22 +

1*21 + 1*20

= 11010011 in binary

11

Converting binary numbers to

decimal

• What is 10011010 in decimal?

10011010 = 1*27 + 0*26 + 0*25 + 1*24 + 1*23 +

0*22 + 1*21 + 0*20

= 27 + 24 + 23 + 21

= 128 + 16 + 8 + 2

= 154

00101001 = 0*27 + 0*26 + 1*25 + 0*24 + 1*23 +

0*22 + 0*21 + 1*20

= 25 + 23 + 20

= 32 + 8 + 1

= 41

12

A note on binary numbers

• In this slide set we are only dealing with

non-negative numbers

• The book (section 1.5) talks about two’s-

complement binary numbers

– Positive (and zero) two’s-complement binary

numbers is what was presented here

– We won’t be getting into negative two’s-

complmeent numbers

13

End of lectur e on 24

Januar y 2007

14

How to add binary numbers

• Consider adding two 1-bit binary numbers x and y

– 0+0 = 0

– 0+1 = 1 x y Carry Sum

– 1+0 = 1

– 1+1 = 10

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 0 1

1 1 1 0

• Carry is x AND y

• Sum is x XOR y

• The circuit to compute this is called a half-adder

15

The half-adder

x y Carry Sum

• Sum = x XOR y 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

• Carry = x AND y

1 0 0 1

1 1 1 0

x x

y y Sum

Sum

Carry

Carry

16

Using half adders

• We can then use a half-adder to compute

the sum of two Boolean numbers

1 0 0

1 1 0 0

+1 1 1 0

? 0 1 0

17

How to fix this

• We need to create an adder that can take a carry

bit as an additional input x y c carry sum

– Inputs: x, y, carry in

– Outputs: sum, carry out

1 1 1 1 1

• This is called a full adder 1 1 0 1 0

– Will add x and y with a half-adder 1 0 1 1 0

– Will add the sum of that to the 1 0 0 0 1

carry in 0 1 1 1 0

• What about the carry out? 0 1 0 0 1

– It’s 1 if either (or both):

0 0 1 0 1

– x+y = 10

– x+y = 01 and carry in = 1 0 0 0 0 0

18

x y c s1 c1 carry sum

1 1 0 0 1 1 0

1 0 1 1 0 1 0

• The “HA” boxes are

1 0 0 1 0 0 1

half-adders

0 1 1 1 0 1 0

0 1 0 1 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

c X HA S

s

Y C

s1

x X HA S

c

y

Y C

c1

19

The full adder

• The full circuitry of the full adder

c

s

x

y

c

20

Adding bigger binary numbers

• Just chain full adders together

x0 X HA S

s0

y0 Y C

x1

C

X

FA S

s1

y1 Y C

x2

C

X

FA S

s2

y2 Y C

x3

C

X

FA S

s3

y3 Y C

c

...

21

Adding bigger binary numbers

• A half adder has 4 logic gates

• A full adder has two half adders plus a OR gate

– Total of 9 logic gates

• To add n bit binary numbers, you need 1 HA and

n-1 FAs

• To add 32 bit binary numbers, you need 1 HA

and 31 FAs

– Total of 4+9*31 = 283 logic gates

• To add 64 bit binary numbers, you need 1 HA

and 63 FAs

– Total of 4+9*63 = 571 logic gates

22

More about logic gates

• To implement a logic gate in hardware,

you use a transistor

• Transistors are all enclosed in an “IC”, or

integrated circuit

• The current Intel Pentium IV processors

have 55 million transistors!

23

Flip-flops

• Consider the following circuit:

24

Memory

• A flip-flop holds a single bit of memory

– The bit “flip-flops” between the two NAND

gates

• In reality, flip-flops are a bit more

complicated

– Have 5 (or so) logic gates (transistors) per flip-

flop

• Consider a 1 Gb memory chip

– 1 Gb = 8,589,934,592 bits of memory

– That’s about 43 million transistors!

• In reality, those transistors are split into 9

ICs of about 5 million transistors each

25

Hexadecimal

• A numerical range

from 0-15

– Where A is 10, B is 11,

… and F is 15

• Often written with a

‘0x’ prefix

• So 0x10 is 10 hex, or

16

– 0x100 is 100 hex, or

256

• Binary numbers easily

translate: 26

From

ThinkGeek

(http://www.thinkgeek.com)

27

Also from

ThinkGeek

(http://www.thinkgeek.com)

28

DEADBEEF

• Many IBM machines would fill allocated

(but uninitialized) memory with the hexa-

decimal pattern 0xDEADBEEF

– Decimal -21524111

– See http://www.jargon.net/jargonfile/d/DEADBEEF.html

29

Also also from ThinkGeek

(http://www.thinkgeek.com)

• 0xDEAD = 57005

• Now add one to that...

30

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