22 December 2010

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DEAR PARTICIPANTS
OF

ET ± 2009 BATCH

WELCOME YOU ALL
22 December 2010 2

STEAM TURBINE
PRESENTATION BYMANOJ KUMAR (Dy. Supdt.) Operation ± B

22 December 2010

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Presentation Outline
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Theory of Turbine Turbine casing Rotor & Blades Sealing system & barring gear ESV¶s, IV¶s and CV¶s Coupling and Bearing

22 December 2010

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Steam Turbine
‡ A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work.

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Classification Impulse turbine Reaction turbine Based on Compounding: Pressure compounded Velocity compounded 22 December 2010 6 .

where its pressure drops and its velocity increases. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades. its pressure remains the same. 22 December 2010 7 . but its velocity decreases. As the steam flows through the moving blades. Steam expands as it passes through the nozzles.Impulse Turbines ‡ An impulse turbine uses the impact force of the steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft.

Impulse Turbine 22 December 2010 8 .

Velocity compounded impulse turbine 22 December 2010 9 .

Pressure compounded 22 December 2010 10 .

22 December 2010 11 .Reaction Turbines ‡ In the reaction turbine. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles.

Reaction turbine 22 December 2010 12 .

RANKINE CYCLE 22 December 2010 13 .

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IPSV1IPCV 1 FROM RH TURBINE LAYOUT ESV CV1 1 CRH GENERATOR 1 HPT 1X17 2 3 4 5 LPT 2X6 TO LP HEATERS CONDEN LPBYPASS 6 EXCI TER IPT 2X12 22 December 2010 15 .

TURBINE COMPONENTS ‡ CASING ‡ ROTOR ‡ BLADES ‡ SEALING SYSTEM ‡ STOP & CONTROL VALVES ‡ COUPLINGS & BEARINGS ‡ BARRING GEAR 22 December 2010 16 .

axially split.cylindrical .  The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all directions and axially from a fixed point (HP-inlet side).  Barrel-type casing suitable for quick startup and loading.Turbine Casings HP Turbine Casing  outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange.  The inner casing--. 22 December 2010 17 .

HP Turbine Casing 22 December 2010 18 .

 Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. 22 December 2010 19 . ‡ Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom.IP Turbine Casing  The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell construction.  Both are axially split and A double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades.

LP Turbine Casing The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow unit and has a triple shell welded casing. is supported at four points on longitudinal beams.  Independent of the outer shell. is attached kinematically in the middle shell.  The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction.  The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades. the middle shell. 22 December 2010 20 .  Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides.

LP Turbine Casing 22 December 2010 21 .

P turbine. ‡ The thrust bearing in rear bearing casing of H.Anchor Point of Turbine Purpose: Taking care of thermal expansions and contractions of the machine during thermal cycling.P turbine. The fixed points of the turbine are as follows: ‡ The bearing housing between the IP and LP turbines. ‡ The longitudinal beam of the I. 22 December 2010 22 . ‡ The rear bearing housing of the IP turbine.

which results in reduction of axial thrust.  In all the moving wheels. balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference across them.Rotors HP Rotor:  The HP rotor is machined from a single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs.  First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shroudings. rivetted to the blades are periphery. 22 December 2010 23 .

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22 December 2010 25 .IP Rotor ‡ The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit. ‡ The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit disc are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. ‡ Except the last two wheels. lashing wires have been provided in some stages. all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades. To adjust the frequency of the moving blades.

In the last two rows satellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet steam erosion. ‡ Blades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork root fastening. ‡ In all the stages lashing wires are providing to adjust the frequency of blades. 22 December 2010 26 .LP Rotor ‡ The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs a shaft. ‡ The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings.

BLADES  most costly element of turbine  blades fixed in stationary part are called guide blades/nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades. 22 December 2010 27 .  blades have three main parts Aerofoil: working part Root Shrouds ‡ shroud are used to prevent steam leakage & to guide steam to next set of moving blades.

(2) Fir Tree or serrated roots .  Lacing wires are also used to dampen the vibration and to match frequencies in the longer blades. 22 December 2010 28 .BLADES  Three types of root arrangements are commonly used. They are (1) T-roots: for small blades.  Integral shroud for are used for shorter blades and shrunk fitting for larger blades.  Since in the reaction type machine the pressure drop also occurs across the moving blades it is necessary to provide effective sealing at the blade tips. (3) Fork and Pin root: for longer blades shrunk on disc type rotors.for longer blades.

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SEALING GLANDS ‡ Steam is supplied to the sealing chamber at 1. when rotor goes under contraction during a trip or sharp load reduction. ‡ Air steam mixture from the last sealing chamber is sucked out with the help of a special steam ejector to gland steam cooler.P. and I.C To 150 deg.05 Kg/sq. rotor to control the differential expansion.03 to 1.P. 22 December 2010 32 . ‡ Provision has been made to supply live steam at the front sealing of H.cm abs and at temperature 130 deg.C from the header.

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Labyrinth seal 22 December 2010 34 .

BEARINGS:  General bearing---6no.s  Thrust bearing ---1no. Bearings are usually forced lubricated and have provision for admission of jacking oil 22 December 2010 35 .

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c. e.Front Bearing Pedestal ‡ ‡ ‡ a. d. g. b. It houses the following components Journal bearing Hydraulic turning gear Main oil pump with hydraulic speed transducer Electric speed transducer Over speed trip Shaft vibration pick-up Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up 22 December 2010 37 . Its function is to support the turbine casing and bear the turbine rotor. The Front Bearing Pedestal is located at the turbine side end of the turbine generator unit. f.

‡ The bearing pedestal is aligned to the foundation by means of hexagon head screws that are screwed in to it at several points. ‡ The space beneath the bearing pedestal is filled with non shrinking grout. 22 December 2010 38 .it gives a vibration damping effect. ‡ The bearing pedestal is anchored at to the foundation by means of anchor bolts. ‡ The anchor bolt holes are filled with gravel.

Front Bearing Pedestal 22 December 2010 39 .

Front Bearing Pedestal 22 December 2010 40 .

‡ It houses the following components 1. Shaft vibration pick-up 3. Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up 4. Combine Journal and Thrust bearing 2. ‡ Its function is to support the turbine casing and bear the HP IP rotor.Bearing Pedestal(HP Rear) ‡ The Bearing pedestal(2) is located between the HP and IP turbine. Thrust Bearing trip(electrical) 22 December 2010 41 .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The magnitude and direction of axial thrust of the turbine depends on the load condition The Journal bearing is elliptical sleeve bearing. 22 December 2010 42 .Combined Journal and Thrust Brg. Thrust pads are of tilting type. These collars and thrust pads permit equal loading of thrust bearing. Located at each end of bearing shell. Metal temperature of the journal bearing and thrust pads is monitored by the thermocouples. The bearing liners are provided with a machined babbit face. babbitted thrust bad forms 2 annular surfaces.

JOURNAL BEARING 22 December 2010 43 .

22 December 2010 JOURNAL BEARING 44 .

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IP Rear Bearing Pedestal Arrangement:The bearing pedestal is located between the HP and IP turbines. Its function is to support the turbine casing and bear the HP and IP turbine rotors. The bearing pedestal houses the following turbine components:      Journal bearing Shaft vibration pick-up Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up Hand barring arrangement Differential expansion measurement device 22 December 2010 46 .

Spherical block.Journal Bearing The function of the journal brg. ‡ Brg is pivot mounted on the spherical support to prevent the bending movement on the rotor. ‡ The brg shell are provided with a babbit face. ‡ The brg shells are fixed laterally by key.bearing cap. Consists of the upper & lower shells.is to support the turbine rotor. ‡ Each key is held in position in the brg pedestal by 2 lateral collar. ‡ A cap which fits in to the corresponding groove in the brg shell prevents vertical movement of the brg shell. 22 December 2010 47 . spherical support and key. ‡ The journal brg.

‡ The lower bearing shell can be turned upward to the top position and removed. ‡ Upper and lower shell can be removed without the removal of Rotor. ‡ To do this shaft is lifted slightly by means of jacking device but within the clearance of shaft seal.‡ The Temperature of the brg bodies is monitored by thermocouple. 22 December 2010 48 .

LP TURBINE Rear Bearing Pedestal: The bearing pedestal is situated between the LP turbine and generator. The bearing pedestal contains the following turbine components: Journal bearing Shaft vibration pick-up Bearing pedestal vibration pick-up 22 December 2010 49 . Its function is to bear the LP rotor.

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BARRING GEAR The primary function of barring gear is rotate the turbo generator rotors slowly and continuously During startup and shutdown periods when changes in rotor temperature occurs > Shaft system is rotated by double row blade wheel which is driven by oil provided by AOP A manual barring gear is also provided with hydraulic gear Barring speed 210/240 rpm 22 December 2010 51 .

Turbine is equipped with emergency stop valve to cut of steam supply with control valves regulating steam supply  Emergency stop valve are actuated by servo motor controlled by protection system  Control valves are actuated by governing system through servo motors to regulate steam supply 22 December 2010 52 .ESV & CV 2 main stop valves and 2 control valves located symmetrically The main steam is admitted through the main steam inlet passing first the main stop valves and then the control valves. From the control valves the steam passes to the turbine casing.

so coupling is required between any two rotors Here using rigid coupling Due to high torque flexible coupling can¶t be used Coupling between HP&IP IP&LP LP&generator GEN&exciter MOP&HP 22 December 2010 53 .Couplings Shaft is made in small parts due to forging limitation and other technological and economic reason.

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Three Cylinder conventional steam turbine (HMN series) 22 December 2010 55 .

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THNAK YOU 22 December 2010 57 .

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