Mahasiswa dapat membuat estimasi disain radio link, dapat menghitung link budget antar BTS serta menghitung

link budget antara BTS dengan user

Field strength vs Distance .

Type of cell .

Macro cells' y Base stations at high-points y Coverage of several kilometers y The average path loss at a distance d (in dB) has normal distribution y Avg path loss is result of many forward scattering over a great many of obstacles .

Macro cells' y Okumura did comprehensive measurements in 1968 and came up with a model. y Valid for frequencies in: 100MHz 1920 MHz for distances: 1km 100km . y Discovered that a good model for path loss was a simple power law where the exponent is a function of frequency and antenna heights.

y a(hm) is the correction factor for effective mobile antenna height .Okumara-Hata Model y fc: the frequency in MHz y hb: effective transmitter antenna height in meters (30-200m) y hm: effective receiver antenna height in meters (1-10m) y d : base station mobile separation in kilometers.

the correction factor a(hm) .

Microcells y Propagation differs significantly y Milder propagation characteristics y Small multipath delay spread and shallow fading imply the feasibility of higher datarate transmission y Mostly used in crowded urban areas .

Macrocells versus Microcells .

y The signals may reach with LOS paths if the receiver is along the same street with the transmitter y The signals may reach via indirect propagation mechanisms if the receiver turns to another street .Street Microcells y Most of the signal power propagates along the street.

Street Microcells .

factory. ..Indoor Propagation y Indoor channels are different from traditional mobile radio channels in two different ways: y The distances covered are much smaller y The variability of the environment is much greater for a much smaller range of T-R separation distances.. residential home. y The propagation inside a building is influenced by: y Layout of the building y Construction materials y Building type: sports arena..

y Indoor channels are classified as y Line-of-sight (LOS) y Obstructed (OBS) with varying degrees of clutter . etc. diffraction. conditions are much more variable y Doors/windows open or not y The mounting place of antenna: desk. ceiling. scattering. y The level of floors Indoor channels are classified as mechanisms as outdoor: reflection.y Indoor propagation is dominated by the same y However.

Indoor Propagation y Building types y Residential homes in suburban areas y Residential homes in urban areas y Traditional office buildings with fixed walls (hard partitions) y Open plan buildings with movable wall panels (soft partitions) y Factory buildings y Grocery stores y Retail stores y Sport arenas .

y Multipath Delay Spread y Buildings with fewer metals and hard-partitions typically have small rms delay spreads: 30-60ns. y Can not support data rates more than a few hundred Kbps without equalization. y Can support data rates exceding of several Mbps without equalization y Larger buildings with great amount of metal and open aisles may have rms delay spreads as large as 300ns. .Indoor propagation events and parameters y Temporal fading for fixed and moving terminals y Motion of people inside building causes Ricean Fading for the stationary receivers y Portable receivers experience in general: y y Rayleigh fading for OBS propagation paths Ricean fading for LOS paths.

Path Loss Models for Picocells and Indoor 100m y Range: 30m y Multi-floor Attenuation Model y n: number of floors through which signals are passing y F: signal attenuation provided by each floor y d: distance between transmitter and receiver (m) .

Path Loss Models Using Building Material y The Partition-dependent Model y mtype: number of partitions of that type y Wtype : the path loss in dB attributed to such a partition .

Femto-cellular Areas .

ditambahkan antena dengan frekuensi yang bekerja pada daerah PCS : overlay . sampai 2 GHz. y Pengembangannya perlu penambahan kapasitas.Model Prediksi Redaman COST231 y EURO_COST (the European Co_operative for Scientific and Technical Research) untuk PCS. y Tower BTS dengan antena yang telah dirancang untuk bekerja pada frekuensi GSM : underlay.