RIG PROCESSES

 Drilling, Coring, Directional Drilling & Survey.  Tripping, Wash & Ream, Fishing.  E- Logging.  Casing & Cementing.  Perforating &Testing.  Acidizing & Fracturing.

Drilling & Coring
Normal Drilling. Coring; Convetional Coring: Core head core barrel

Tripping
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ((Pulling out or running the string in hole )) Normal tripping. Tight Hole. Wash and Ream. Normal Drag. Overpull. Twist off. Stuck Fishing

II. Stuck pipe

Drilling string cannot be raised, lowered or rotate.

Mechanisms of stuck pipe 
Differential Stuck.  Wellbore Geometry.  Hole packing off.

A. Differential Stuck
Sticking of pipe against a permeable formation as the result of the pressure of the mud in the hole exceeding the bore fluid pressure.

Differential sticking 
    Stuck breadth = 4´ Stuck length = 25¶ Fm pressure = 4000 psi H pressure = 5000 psi D. F=4*25*12*(5000-4000) F=4*25*12*(5000- 

1,200,000lbs

Key Seat
Causes:  Abrupt change in angle or direction in soft formations.  High string tension and pipe rotation wears a slot into the formation.  While POOH the drill collars jam into the slot.

C. Packing Off & Bridging
Formation cuttings cavings or medium to large pieces of hard formation, cement or junk settle around the drill string and pack off/bridging the annulus. Settled cuttings Shale instability + Unconsolidated formations Fractured formations Cement related. Junk. 

    

Settled Cutting Straight Hole
Causes: ‡ Low annular velocity and/or poor mud properties. ‡ When circulation is stopped, the cuttings fall back down the hole and pack off the drill string.

Settled Cutting Deviated Hole
Causes: ‡ Drill cuttings settle on the low side forming a cutting bed. ‡ The cutting bed builds and slide down hole. ‡ While POOH the cuttings is dragged upward by the BHA

ELECTRIC LOGGING
Logging While Drilling (MWD). Post Drilling E- Logging. EGamma Resistivity Neutron Density. Sonic.

Resistivity
1000 1000 1500 1500

Sonic
r e s pons e in cas ing

2000

2000

TVD (m

Cycle Sk ipping

2500 Top Ove rpre s s ure 3000

TVD (m

2500

Top of Ove r pr e s s ur e

3000

NCT 3500 NCT 3500

0.1

1

10 100

RILD (ohm.m)

Sonic (usec/m)

1000

CASING
Casing is steel pipe placed in an oil or gas well at the end of every drilled phase, and then cemented in place prior to striating drilling the lower smaller hole section.

Function Of Casing 
Printing hole from caving or collapsing  Privinting loss of drilling fluids into weak formations.  Isolate troublesome formations.  Prevent communication between formations.  Provides means of extracting hydrocarbons  Provides a means of support for the wellhead equipment.

Casing Accessories
Centralizers: attached to the casing and since they have a bowed spring arrangement keep the casing centred in the hole after it is lowered in. Centralised casing can make for a better cement job later.

Scratchers

Float collars

Cementing

Well Completion
± Completing the well & Setting Production Casing. ± Perforating production casing. ± Drill Stem Test (DST). ± Acidizing. ± Fracturing. ± Installing the Christmas Tree.

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