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INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT BANGALORE

ADDRESSING
RESISTANCE TO
CHANGE:
ISSUES OF LEADERSHIP
AND GROUP DYNAMICS
Dr. L Prasad
(Ph.D., Northwestern University)

Professor of Organizational Behavior


WHAT MAKES ONE A LEADER?

THE ABILITY TO
REFLECT BEYOND THE
OBVIOUS AND
INCULCATE THE SOFT
SKILLS THAT
TRANSFORM PEOPLE
Ancient Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu wrote
in his book: THE ART OF WAR:

"If you know the enemy and know yourself,


you need not fear the result of a hundred battles.

If you know yourself but not the enemy, for


every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat.

If you know neither the enemy


nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.”

DO YOU KNOW YOURSELF?


Are your people your
partners or enemies
vis-a-vis the
competition?

If they are your enemies,


CLOSE SHOP!
The war has been lost
even before the first
If your people are your partners, and:
You know your people and your organization,
you need not fear the result of a hundred
competitive wars.
If you know your organization but not your
people, for every victory you will also suffer
a defeat, with good people leaving.
If you know neither your people nor
your organization, you will lose
every competitive battle, and
ultimately even the organization.
THE NEED TO UNDERSTAND BEFORE WE CAN
PREDICT & INFLUENCE BEHAVIOUR

UNDERLYING
UNDERLYING
DYNAMICS
DYNAMICS

DOUBLE
DOUBLE
LOOP CAUSE
CAUSE
LOOP
LEARNING
LEARNING
SINGLE
SINGLE
LOOP
LOOP
LEARNING
LEARNING
EFFECT
EFFECT
The Underlying Dynamics
** WHY DO ORGANIZATIONS EXIST AND PROSPER?
** WHY DO PEOPLE WORK IN ORGANIZATIONS?

WHY ORGANIZATIONS? WHY PEOPLE WORK?


** COLLECTIVE GOAL ** SALARY, SECURITY
** SPECIALISTS ** FRIENDSHIP, IDENTITY
** WORKING TOGETHER ** CAREER, STATUS
INTERDEPENDENCE ENERGY/ENTHUSIASM
Are we channeling people’s ENERGY/ENTHUSIASM
(both STUDENTS AND TEACHERS)
constructively towards handling organizational
INTERDEPENDENCE, or is it being dissipated in all
sorts of dysfunctional pursuits?
WHAT OF THE FUTURE?
** One could reasonably expect the Chairman of AT&T to
know what his corporation will be ten years from now.
He doesn’t!
** One could within reason expect him to predict how
technology will transform his business a decade hence. He
can’t!
** He should know who his major competitors will be.
Stumped again!
But here is what he does know: something
startling, intriguing and profound is afoot.
(F. Cairncross, The Death of Distance, HBS Press, 1997)
TO BE EFFECTIVE,
WE MUST UNDERSTAND:
•How & why individuals
behave the way
they do
•Roles in Teams
•Individual’s personality
NURTURE
Cognitive
limits

Stereotyping
NATURE

Excuses
SITUATION
NURTURE
Cognitive
limits

Stereotyping
NATURE

Excuses
SITUATION
Many people, many COUNTRY WELL MESHED
interpersonal roles CLUB TEAM OR CLAN

INTERPERSONAL
ROLES

Few people, few FLOUNDERING PRODUCTIVE


interpersonal roles GROUP GROUP

Few people, Many people,


few task roles many task roles

TASK ROLES
STAGES OF GROUP EVOLUTION

• MATURITY: Well-meshed team

• INTEGRATION: Unity of effort

• DIFFERENTIATION: Division of labor

• FORMATION: Collection of individuals


It takes 3-6 months for a collection of individuals to
become a well-meshed team
WHY DO WE
WANT TO BUILD
A WELL MESHED
TEAM or CLAN?
MOTIVATING TEACHERS AND
ADMINISTRATORS
EXAM PREP –
A Chore?

TEACHING
A Job?

EDUCATING –
A Calling!
THIS IS THE
MOST
ESSENTIAL
INGREDIENT
OF YOUR
SCHOOL’S
STUDENT
IN ORDER TO
BUILD A WELL
MESHED TEAM,
WE MUST KNOW
ITS MEMBERS’
PERSONALITIES.
QUESTIONNAIRE
UNDERSTANDING PEOPLE
• Frames of Reference
• Intolerance of Ambiguity
• Adaptors & Innovators
• Internal Locus of Control
Frames of Reference
p. 3 Items 1-29
• Bureaucratic Mindset
AVERAGE of (1 to 5)
Range:
1.00-2.66 Low
2.67-4.33 Medium
4.34-6.00 High
Frames of Reference
p. 3 Items 1-29
• Group Orientation
AVERAGE of (6 to 11)
2.67-4.33 Medium
• Hierarchical Orientation
AVERAGE of (12 to 17)
1.00-2.66 Low
Frames of Reference
•Compartmentalization
RCOMP= AVGE (18 to 24)
COMP= 7 – RCOMP
1.00-2.66 Low
Good schools and great Principals
view teachers and students as
human beings, not just cogs in a
machine!
Frames of Reference
• Obscurantism vis-à-vis
Men, Women and Society
AVERAGE of (25 to 29)
1.00-2.66 Low
Need for ANDROGYNOUS
individuals who take on
both masculine and
feminine Gender Roles!
Intolerance of Ambiguity
p. 1 Items A to N
Item G is reverse scored,
i.e., (7-x), where x is the
number you have circled;
For items A to F & H to N,
please use the original
scores.
Intolerance of Ambiguity
Divide the total by 14
Range:
1.00-2.66 Low
2.67-4.33 Medium
4.34-6.00 High
Desirable score < 2.66, i.e.,
Low Intolerance of Ambiguity
Intolerance of Ambiguity
How does one learn to deal
with Ambiguity?
First
DISAGGREGATE
then
SYNTHESIZE
FOSTER
LOCAL PROVIDE
INFRASTRUCTURE
GOVERNER- (Schools, etc.)

ANCE
INSTITUTIONS FACILITATE
REGULATE INDUSTRIAL
MONEY LENDERS, DEVELOPMENT
EXPLOITATIO
, ABSENCE OF
HOOCH OUTLETS, ETC.
N DEVELOPMEN
ENCOURAGE
ACCESS ACCESS
T
ENTREPREN-
TO EURSHIP
TO
MARKETS FORESTS
GOVERNMENT
CORRUPTION
Adaptors & Innovators
p. 2 (a to i)/9: Adaptors
(j to r)/9: Innovators
Range:
1.00-2.66 Low
2.67-4.33 Medium
4.34-6.00 High
ADAPTORS
If your approach to bringing about change is ADAPTIVE you will be more
likely than Innovators:
•to prefer improvement of existing structures over mould-breaking change
•to start work only on projects or schemes that you can complete
•to calculate decisions finely, taking care about the consequences of your
actions
•to accept change so far as it improves or strengthens the status quo
•to be methodical and prudent
•to ensure widespread support for proposed changes before offering them
•to put a high value on being efficient within a system
•to resist 'sticking your neck out' against prevailing opinion
•to reject, or be very skeptical of changes that challenge the cohesion of the
group
•to be interested in solving problems rather than looking for them
•to appear tolerant of boredom
•to respond to criticism from close colleagues with greater conformity
•to see innovative ideas for change as threatening or unsafe
INNOVATORS
If your approach to bringing about change is INNOVATIVE you will be more
likely than Adaptors:
•to prefer mould-breaking change over Improvement of existing structures
•to be reckless or neglectful of the consequences of your actions
•to see the 'status quo' as needing complete transformation
•to be seen as undisciplined and reckless
•to assume that ideas for radical change are self-evidently valuable
•to put greater value on thinking up new schemes than on implementing them
•to question basic assumptions about any problem that is being worked on
•to feel free to criticize proposals for change from any source without regard
for the subsequent cohesion of the group
•to enjoy seeking out problems
•to become bored with routine
•to prefer to delegate routine tasks
•to live with rejection and hostility
•to see criticism from close colleagues as a challenge
•to tend to see adaptive ideas for change as no change at all
Adaptors & Innovators
Kirton conceptualized
Adaptors and Innovators
along one dimension, i.e.,
High Adaptors are Low
Innovators and vise versa
Hi Adaptors Lo Adaptors

Lo Innovators Hi Innovators
RECONCEPTUALIZING ADAPTORS AND INNOVATORS

HI

A
D
A
P
T MED
O
R
S

LO
LO MED HI
INNOVATORS
RECONCEPTUALIZING ADAPTORS AND INNOVATORS

HI BUREAUCRAT ARCHITECT VISIONARY

A
D
A
P MED CLERK ADMINISTRATOR GENERNAL
T MANAGER
O
R

LO SHIRKER PROFESSOR DREAMER


LO MED HI
INNOVATOR
LOCUS OF CONTROL
For INTERNAL LOC score,
give yourself one point for
each of the following:
1B, 2A, 3A, 4B, 5B,
6A, 7A, 8A, 9B, 10A
Internal LOC
Range:
0-3 Low
4-7 Medium
8-10 High
Desirable Score > 8
However, watch out if
you are a perfect 10?
A WORD OF CAUTION!
WHEN ADDRESSING
RESISTANCE TO
CHANGE,
please remember
the organization is a
POLITICAL MINEFIELD
THE SMART TALK TRAP!
TO COUNTER THIS
POLITICAL MINEFIELD
we must build a
well meshed
team or clan
How can we
work together
as a
well meshed
When you see the geese migrating,
going to a warmer place,
before the start of the winter...

PAY ATTENTION
They fly in a “V” formation.
Maybe you will be interested in knowing
why they do it this way...
By flying in a “V” formation....
The whole flock increases
the flight efficiency by 71%...

Compared to just one bird flying alone.


Team Lesson 1:
Sharing the same direction
and working as a team, get
us to the destination
quicker and easier.
By helping ourselves, the
accomplishments are
greater!
When a goose leaves the
formation …
It feels the resistance of the air and the
difficulties of flying alone...
Then, it quickly comes back to the formation
to take advantage of the the flock’s power
in front of it...
Team Lesson 2:

By staying in tune and united


beside those who
are going in the same direction,
the effort will be less.

It will be easier and pleasing to


reach the goals,

Everyone will be inclined to


accept and give help.
When the lead goose gets tired of flying...
It goes to the end of the “V” formation,
while another goose takes the lead.
Team Lesson 3:

To share the leadership,

There must be mutual respect between


us
all the time...

Sharing the hardest problems


and tasks...

Gathering our abilities and


combining our faculties,
talents and resources…
The geese flying on a “V” formation, they quack
to encourage to the ones in the front.

In that way, they keep the same speed.


Team Lesson 4:

When there is courage and encouragement,


the progress is greater...

A timely word of encouragement,


always motivates, helps and strengthens..
It produces the best of benefits...
When a goose gets sick, is injured
or gets tired...
And it must leave
the formation...
Other geese leave the formation too,
and they fly with it to help out
and protect it.
They remain with it
until it dies
or is able to fly again.
They reach their bevy
or they just make another “V” formation.
Team Lesson 5:

Let’s stay
beside each other
no matter what the differences.

Specially in times of difficulty


and great challenges...
If we bond together and support
each other...
If we make true the spirit of
teamwork...
Regardless of our differences, we
can rise to meet our challenge.

If we understand the real value of


working together...

If we are aware of the feeling of


sharing and growting together…

WORK LIFE WILL BE EASIER


AND THE PASSING OF YEARS
MORE FULFILLING...
FRIENDS…
LET’S BE LIKE THE GEESE AND
TOGETHER ENSURE WE
MAKE EVERYONE A
PRODUCTIVE
MEMBER OF OUR TEAM!!!

Thank You!
THANK
YOU