PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION

HOW MANY COUNTRIES WITH

FEMAL HEADS OF STATE E

ARE THERE?

A) None B) 1 - 20 C) 21 - 40 D) More than 40
HINT: There are 192 UN member states.

Enduring Understanding 
Socio-economic and political conditions affect prejudice and discrimination in society.

Essential Questions 
What causes prejudice and discrimination?  Can mindsets and practices (eg. sexism) be corrected and if so, how?

The Issue

HAS THE MODERN WOMAN ACHIEVED EQUALITY?

La Libertéguidantle peuple(1830), Eugene Delacroix

Lecture Outline
THESIS PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION MODERN WOMEN AND POLITICAL EQUALITY BODY CULTURAL NORMS AND PRACTICES DISPARITIES IN RIGHTS AND ACCESS INEQUALITIES AT WORK AFFIRMATIVE ACTION CONCLUSION PROTECTION OF WOMEN IS COUNTER-PRODUCTIVE THE NEED FOR EQUITY NOT EQUALITY ,

Thesis Statement
Counter-argument While the modern seems to have achieved equality in terms of political power, Argument this equality is illusory because systems of power remain patriarchal: the modern woman is still being denied equal opportunities in employment, education and politics. Implications As gender equality is an ideal that is unattainable, gender equity would be a more achievable goal.

Differentiating between Sex and Gender 
Sex is a biological concept - male, female, transsexual  Gender is a social concept - man or woman  The curious case of David Reimer - our perception and treatment of people are based on both biological and social qualities

Prejudice and Discrimination 
Prejudice refers to the preconceived attitude one has against a person or group.
Eg. one is prejudiced or biased against women. 

Discrimination refers to the unjust treatment of different people or groups due to prejudice.
Eg. one discriminates against women by excluding their participation in a particular sporting activity.

Prejudice against Women 
Sexism refers to attitudes and behaviours that (i) judge or belittle people on the basis of their gender or (ii) perpetuate stereotypes of women.  Questions on Sexism Is the packaging for Ariel sexist? Is sexism the norm in most societies? Name some stereotypes of women.

Stereotypes of Women 
Stereotypes are widely held but oversimplified ideas about a person or group.  Women are often stereotyped as - Physically weaker than men - Intellectually inferior to men - Emotional and irrational - Domestic creatures (mother, cook, cleaner?)

Mythbusting Prejudice And Discrimination

Is Prejudice µNormal¶? 
Basic human need for categorisation of information
The human mind must think with the aid of categories... Once formed, categories are the basis for normal prejudgment. We cannot possibly avoid this process. Orderly living depends upon it.
Gordon Allport (1954), The Nature of Prejudice

Reasons for Prejudice 
Self-aggrandizement Power, wealth and capital 

Traditional social roles Social norms

Women¶s Suffrage Equals Equality? 
A struggle towards equal rights for women
thoughts to have begun with publication of A Vindication for the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft.  United Kingdom 1928 saw voting rights equalised for men and women.  United States 19th amendment (1920) granted balloting rights to women  Scandinavian countries (1906-1915), France (1944), Singapore (1947), Malaysia (1957), Switzerland (1971).

Suffragette Cities 
With universal suffrage widespread in industrial and post-industrial nations, the modern woman can be said to have achieved political equality.  The µright to vote¶ essentially gives women the power to decide their government; political parties in turn recognise the female voter in their campaigns and policy-making.  Example Rise of the PAP in 1959

IS THE FIRST WITH A MAJORITY FEMALE PARLIAMENT OF MINISTERS
A) Asia B) Africa C) Europe D) South America

FROM WHICH CONTINENT

?

Women in Power 
Notion of gender µequality¶ reinforced by growing presence of women in politics:
Sirimavo Bandaranaike, first woman PM (Sri Lanka 1960-65, 70-77, 94-2000) Indira Gandhi, PM of India (1966-77, 80-84) Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State of the USA (2005-9) 

Milestone 2008 is µThe Year of the Woman¶
(Washington Post)

Cultural Norms and Treatment of Women 
Despite claims of equality in many states, women are largely perceived as dependents.  Prejudiced view of women as µless capable¶
- Cannot fulfil requirements of µmale¶duties - Subsequently undeserving of equal wage - The µlife goal¶ of all women as marriage and maternity; women seen as domestics

Disparities in Education :Income 
UNESCO survey 15 year-old girls outperformed boys in 43 countries surveyed in writing and reading  By 2020 There will be 156 female for every 100 male degree holders in the USA  These ratios do not translate to income 90% of the world¶s billionaires are men.

Inequality At the Workplace 
Statistics suggest that women do not hold equal opportunities in the private sector, even in firstworld economies.
In a 2005 US employment study Only 8 Fortune 500 companies led by a woman CEO Only 16.4% of women hold corporate office positions In a 2005 International Labor Organisation study Japanese women held 10.1% of managerial positions, despite forming nearly half the Japanese workforce.

Unequal Traits Unequal Treatment 
Arguably, women are treated unjustly because they are women, not because they are less capable.
In a 2002 US census A woman makes only 75.5 cents for every $1 a man earns. 

However, biological differences and cultural expectations, not discrimination, may be the cause.
³An even bigger barrier to the advancement of women is Japan¶s notoriously demanding corporate culture, particularly its expectation of morning-to-midnight work hours.´ New York Times

How Can We Redress Gender Inequality? 
Affirmative Action - to shape and enforce policies at historically non-dominant groups to remedy past and present discrimination  Rights and Laws - Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1984) - Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

The Call for Affirmative Action
µTo address the continuing disparities in pay between women and men, we need to.. improve enforcement of Equal Employment Opportunity Laws, help women succeed in higher-paying, traditionally male occupations and create more flexible, family-friendly workplace policies.¶
Dr. Barbara Gault

Affirmative Action In Action 
Provide opportunities in the political process - from voting to policy-making  Greater access to education - Education empowers women  Promote labour participation - Workplace policies and wage equality  Women¶s Rights Organisations - Lobbying for rights and privileges

Is Legal Protection Counter-Productive? 
Recognising women as µin need of assistance¶ affirms women as the µweaker sex¶
In Singapore Women¶s Charter (1997) Enforces µequitable share of matrimonial assets as well as to maintenance¶ upon divorce Employment Act (Part IX) 90-day paid maternity leave High probability of discriminatory hiring

Gender Equality or Gender Equity? 
Given inherent and social differences between men and women, equality is an unrealistic ideal.  Gender equity refers to fairness and impartiality in the treatment of men and women. Eg. Equal Employment Opportunity Act  Increasing recognition of differences will grant the modern woman the equity she deserves in employment, education and society.

Conclusion (Don¶t Pack Your  Equality between µmodern man¶ Things) woman¶ cannot be and µmodern
said to be status quo.  Nevertheless, laws and policies seeking to redress discrimination against women have moved the modern woman several steps closer to gender equity.

The Final Slide Margaret Thatcher

³

If you want anything said,

If you want something done,

ASK A MAN. ´ ASK A WOMAN.
THANK YOU.

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