CHIP HEATH

DAN HEATH

Professor of Org Behavior at Stanford Business School ƒ Columnist for Fast Company magazine ƒ Research focuses on why certain ideas thrive, which was the topic of his and his brother Dan s previous book, Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
ƒ

Fellow at Duke Center for Social Entrepreneurship and Harvard MBA ƒ Also a Fast Company columnist ƒ Policy research experience with Harvard and the Aspen Institute ƒ Has consulted with Microsoft, USAID, and American Heart Association, among others
ƒ

Heath Brothers use the Rider/Elephant framework to describe our way of thinking and feeling ƒ The metaphor was first introduced by Jonathan Haidt in The Happiness Hypothesis ƒ The rider is more rational-thinker, whereas the elephant is more emotional-feeler ƒ The Heath Brothers argue that in order for an individual or organization to change, the Rider & Elephant must work together
ƒ

ƒ

Three-part framework: 
Direct the Rider Rider needs clarity  Motivate the Elephant Need to engage people s emotional side  Shape the Path Can make change more likely by tailoring the situation

Find the Bright Spots · Script the Critical Moves · Point to the Destination

Our Rider tends to focus on problems when instead should be focusing on solutions ƒ Jerry Sternin & Vietnam
ƒ  Tasked with fighting malnutrition in Vietnam in six months  All factual analysis TBU: true but useless  Rather, tried to find flashes of success of healthy children

amongst poor families  Found that children tended to be healthier in households where:
They were fed more frequently even if same amount across more meals Their mothers fed them different kinds of foods: shrimp, crabs, and sweetpotato greens, even though latter were considered low-class 

Sternin organized cooking groups amongst local mothers, ƒ

ultimately initiating widescale change and helping improve child nourishment in Vietnam

Find bright spots: Investigate what works and clone it

Our Rider tends to get too caught up in thinking about the big picture; instead, think in terms of specific behaviors ƒ Child Abusers
ƒ 

Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) used on abusive parents  Tries to disrupt escalating cycles of frustration that often characterize abusive

situations  First step: Play with child for 5 minutes a day
Devote 100% attention to them Don t answer phone Don t teach them their ABCs Just enjoy them

ƒ

Initially, exercise exhausting because Rider has to supervise every moment As behavior becomes more instinctive, less self-control is required by Rider Next: Parents are taught how to give commands so kids will listen Parents who completed 12 sessions of anger-management therapy were three times more likely to abuse their children over the next 3 years as compared to parents who completed 12 sessions of PCIT Though not necessarily a cure-all, scripting can have enormous potential for positive change 
  

Although our Riders love poring over data and facts, a destination postcard that appeals to both the Rider and the Elephant can be more compelling for change ƒ Breast cancer treatment
ƒ 

Generally, stressful process for women undergoing breast cancer treatment
Lump noticed -> Doctor -> Radiologist -> Surgeon -> Pathologist -> Surgery -> Radiation therapist -> Medical oncologist 

     

The circuitous cycle appalled UCSF Professor Dr. Laura Esserman, who envisioned a breast cancer clinic where a woman could walk in with a detected lump and walk out knowing whether it was benign Had limited institutional power, but started small: Breast Care Center would operate once weekly She d see patient in morning, go over slides w/ radiologist, after which patient would return knowing results Gradually, Center expanded to twice a week, and surgeons, nurses, and other support staff joined Eventually achieved so much success that UCSF constructed new floor for the Center Became recognized a national leader in breast cancer care & research and a major source of revenue for UCSF Center had a gynecologist, psychologist, and genetic counselor on hand, as well as healing gardens, a café, and a boutique that sells wigs and scarves, achieving Dr. Esserman s under one roof vision

ƒ

Goals with emotional resonance succeed more often than the normative SMART goals goals that are Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Relevant and Timely

Find the Feeling · Shrink the Change · Grow Your People

ƒ ƒ

Just knowing something not enough to cause change make ppl feel something Target s $60b transformation
Was only $3b retailer compared to Kmart ($9b) and Wal-mart ($30b) in 1992 Marketed itself as hip, but merchandise didn t deliver How did it become $63b giant of today? People like Robyn Waters , who wanted to change the knock off this year s best seller in Asia, sell it next year half-off cycle  Built up early adopters, and fresh designers improved sales  Waters needed to get merchants excited about color beyond neutrals, but being numbers-driven, would see that color hadn t sold previously  She got creative: 
  
Brought in jars of brightly-colored M&Ms and created cascades of color in glass bowls Showed off Apple s new iMacs in lime, strawberry, grape which had been a sensation Exhibited photos from boutiques around the world and how they incorporated colors that pop Created mock-up displays with actual clothing samples so merchants could see for themselves

ƒ

In almost all successful change efforts, change sequence is not the commonly perceived ANALYZE-THINK-CHANGE but rather SEE-FEEL-CHANGE 

Instead of creating a usual business case for design, she appealed to the Elephant

The Elephant hates things with no immediate payoff, so break down the change till Elephant doesn t fear it anymore ƒ Debt management
ƒ 

Dave Ramsey and his wife lost their wealth in a 3-year period of financial

hell: lawsuits, foreclosures  With a new baby on the way, were bankrupt  After emerging from the crisis, he provides advice to struggling families, especially with his Debt Snowball technique:
List all debts Arrange them smallest to largest Only make minimum payment on each After minimum payment, put available $ toward first debt on list After paying that one off, direct $ towards next debt, and so on As each debt is conquered, snowball of $ applied to debt grows faster

ƒ

With each step, the Elephant feels less scared b/c things are working 

His technique is controversial because doesn t consider interest rates  Sometimes motivation is more important than math. Ramsey  Small milestones add up, and build the needed motivation to continue

ƒ ƒ

Instill the growth mindset IDEO 
World s preeminent product design firm  CEO Tim Brown says every design process goes thru foggy periods  Sketched a U-shaped project mood chart that depicts how ppl will

feel at different stages in the design process:
Beginning peak: Positive emotion, hope Second peak of positive emotion: confidence In between: negative emotional valley, insight 

Growth mindset buffers against defeatism, accepts failure as a natural

ƒ

Rider needs direction, but Elephant needs motivation, from confidence, which comes from either shrinking the change or growing your people or both!

part of the change process  Differs from business mindset of a) planning, followed by b) execution

Tweak the Environment · Build Habits · Rally the Herd

ƒ ƒ

Situation change Behavior change Rackspace 
Hosts internet sites for other companies  Now prides itself on its Fanatical Support for customers, but wasn t

always customer-friendly  Customers would phone & email, but would get no response  After founder Graham Weston was personally confronted by a disgruntled customer, sought change  New head of customer support David Bryce
New identity: Rackspace Gives Fanatical Support New business model: Cut costs by standardizing service Threw out call-queuing system, so forced to answer customer s call 

Old behavior of ignoring customers became harder, and new

behavior of serving customers became easier

ƒ

What looks like a fundamental character problem is often correctible by changing the environment

ƒ ƒ

When behavior is habitual, the Rider has an easier time Checklists 
As reported by Atul Gawande, patients in intensive care units can

suffer health complications resulting from intravenous line infections  Dr. Peter Provonost of Johns Hopkins compiled a five-part checklist, with advice such as:
Wash hands before inserting a line Patient s skin should be cleaned with antiseptic at insertion

ƒ

Supportive habits like checklists creates an environment more amenable to change 

Nothing new, but results astonishing: Line infections nearly eliminated Hospital saved nearly $175m b/c no longer had to treat complications Saved about 1500 lives  Checklists can help avoid blind spots in complex environments

ƒ ƒ

Elephant constantly looks to herd for cues about how to behave Sugar daddies in Tanzania 
Common problem: older man pursues younger woman, who receives favors for sex  But more problematic in Tanzania:
Women are often underage They often engage in unsafe sex, especially b/c hard to say no to elder benefactor Unsafe sex can lead to AIDS and death No strong social taboo against sugar-daddy behavior, even though 89% individually believe such relationships are wrong 

Campaign devised to fight cross-generational sex  Decided to employ humor to address uncomfortable topic  Planned to tell radio commercial (widest medium) stories about villain Fataki

meaning fireworks in Swahili, something dangerous and unstable  By end of 4-month campaign, Fataki became unexpectedly wide-known  Tanzanian public took ownership of a name and character who symbolized a bad behavior they had resented quietly all along
ƒ

Behavior is contagious; help it spread to aid change