Darmono SS

Sources of lipid
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Saturated and unsaturated (mono & poly) Fat, animal fat Oil, coconut oil, corn oil, olive oil, Vegetable oil (n-6) Trans lipid Fish oil (n-3)

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Energy sources Organ protected (burse) Cellular structural development Essential fatty acid sources Vitamin solubility Prostaglandin precursor Steroid hormone synthesis palatability

Fatty Acid
‡ All saturated fats are equally to cholesterolemia ? ‡ Laurie, myristic risk of diseases ‡ Unsaturated vegetable oils : frequently hydrogenated to produce more solid, stable fats process, an assortment of cis & trans isomers tend to raise LDL & lower HDL. ‡ Characteristic of FA : branched chain, conjugated, short chain, long, brominated ‡ Trans FA isomer are a side product of catalytic hydrogenation of vegetable oils and biohydrogenation in the ruminants of animals

Lipid as disease risk factors
‡ Related to cerebro vascular disease (CVD)
± Athero, arterio schlerosis ± Hypertension ± Stroke ± Ischemic heart diseases ± Hypaestesia, paraestesia

FA as diseases risk factor ?
‡ Cholesterol is a critical fat that is a structural component of cell membrane and plasma lipoproteins, and is important in the synthesis of steroid hormones, glucocorticoids, and bile acids. ‡ Hydrogenated veg oil (shortening) ~saturated fat ? Isomer cis (liquid) & trans ‡ Ruminant fats (meat,diary product) ‡ Trans FA are metabolically different from CIS and saturated FA ‡ Trans FA may diseases affect ?

PUFA Function
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Membrane cell Mitochondria Nuclei Fluidicity Aggregation Diffusional movement Affinity of receptor Membrant permeability Transport property

PUFA function
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Abnormally swelling ? Decreases capillary resistance Fragility of erythrocyte Integrity maintenance Epidermal water barrier Immune response T cell dependent antigens.

‡ Spherical particles, made up of hundreds lipid and protein molecules. ‡ Much smaller than red blood cell, visible only with electro microscope. ‡ Triglyceride rich lipoprotein, high protein plasma to be turbid & milky ‡ Insoluble in aqueous environments (hydrophobic)

Lipoprotein, Apoproteins
‡ The surface proteins of the lipoproteins are called apoproteins or apolipoproteins ‡ Groupingthe major lipoprotein clases (9) apoproteins. ‡ Essential for assembly & secretion of chylomicrons is apo B 48 ‡ Constitutes of 48 % of the amino terminal end of apo B 100 major apoproteins of VLDL, IDL, LDL ame gene and messenger RNA as apo B 100 ‡ 8 hours remaining lipoprotein in blood stream, after last meal

‡ Cholesteryl linoleate is formed in plasma by the action of the enzyme lecithin chholesterol actyltransferase (LCAT) ‡ Cholesteryl oleate product of the intracellular enzyme acyl coenzyme A acyltransferase (ACAT)

Lipid, diseases pathogenesis
‡ Influenced by hormonal aspect (Leptin) expressed in adiposa tissues producing lipoprotein lipase ‡ Involving in hydrolyzing the triglycerides and lipoprotein ‡ Adopsin (energy sources) complement ‡ Producing : cytokinine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, angiotensin

Atherosclerotic pathogenesis
Dyslipidemia ‡ Endothelial damage ‡ Induction of endothelial gene expression by mildly oxidized lipoproteins ‡ Increased suspectibility to oxidation of small dense lipoproteins ‡ Lipid accumulation
‡ Intracellular accumulation of modified lipoproteins ‡ Extracellular lipid binding to matrix

‡ Procoangulant effects
‡ Induction of tissue factor and PAI-1 by oxidizied LDL peningkatan activity if factor VII and X and PAI-1 in hypertriglyceridemia

‡ Reduced cholesterol efflux from cells in presence of low HDL

Atherosclerotic pathogenesis
Oxiative factors ‡ Endothelial damage
Endothelial permeability intimal plasma protein retention

‡ Procoagulant effects
platelet aggregation fibrinogen levels thromboxane A2 production

‡ Lipoprotein
HDL LDL, VLDL Lipoprotein oxidation

Atherosclerosis pathogenesis
Vascular vasoconstrictino ‡ Endothelium
monocyte adherence, infiltration

‡ Immune dysfunction
Macrophage proliferation lymphocyte -receptor responsiveness

‡ Angiotensin II-mediated effects
SMC matrix protein synthesis (e.g, -actin) SMC cytokine synthesis (e.g, PDGF A-chin, TGF ) Macrophage cytokine expression (e.g, HB-EGF)

Athero Schlerosis patogenesis processes
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Artherio intima alteration Lipid deposit Complex CHO, blood composite Fibrous mass development Calcification Tunica media artherio impairment

‡ Syndrom x : consensus before NCEP AT, the deadly quartet metabolic. ‡ WHO, 2005 :
± Obesity ± Hyperuricemia ± Hypertension ± CVD (IHD)

‡ National cholesterol education program expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults treatment panel III (NCEP ATP III) on metabolic syndrome (2005), which insulin resistance.

‡ Risk of car vascular disease (lipid and non lipid) ‡ Central obesity > 90 cm > 80 cm ‡ Atherogenic dyslipidemia (triglyceride & LDL) ‡ Hypertension ‡ Abnormal plasma glucose

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